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State of New Yokk 

one hundred ano thirty-sixth session 


Vol. XIX.— No. 29 — Part 5 

: • *> 




New York State College of Agriculture 




Agricultural Experiment Station 

Established under the Direction of Cornell University 








NOV 81 1911 


Rvxrstl School Leaflet 


'iMobed noDtUy br fh» Hew Turk Stala CaDsf* of AftioiltBr* at Cotnill DniranltT, fcom 
Scnembu ta llnTf ■i>4 mtusd >■ Mcood-ctiH maltar Scomber 30, 1007, at the Pott OfliM 
It lih«^ Haw Yoik, tnder iha Act of Coagraaa ol JdIt ifi, iSm- ^ H- Bailer. Diractor 


llTEint D. DBAII, C. EDWARD JOKBS, G. F. WARSSlf, and C. H. TUCK, ' Advlaan 


The Editor 

It is night. Wild, deep winds are out and rain falls on the great white 
road beyond my door. The leafless vines strike against my window. 
The old house is filled with strange sounds, but to me they are not lonely 
sounds. I have loved these outdoor voices through all the years, and in 
truth I find them goodly company. When they speak to me by roaring 
down my chimney or by splashing on my great white road or by shaking 
the slender vines against my window, I answer them in a deep, glad way, 
so full of freedom do I feel and so full of joy. 

To-night I am letting the sweeping winds take me to the homes of boys 
and girls in country places. The young folk cannot see me, not one, but 


722 Rural Siiiool Leaflet 

I can see them even by very dim light. Some are rosy and round; som 
are pale and thin; some are tall; some are short; some are cheerful; som 
sad ; some very good-natured — and how we like to have them about 
some very " grouchy," and, indeed, we do not want them about. Tha 
there are the boys and girls who are busy and happy, useful to every one - 
boys and girls who do something for the family each day, maldng them 
selves necessary in the home. And still others? Oh, they will wake uj 
soon, for this is no world for selfish, idle folk. 

Now all who are not among the idle ones will read this Leaflet and foUm 
at least one of the suggestions made for boys and girls living in the counto' 

Thejunco, a winter bird 

Are you interested in poultry? Begin this year to make plans to raise 
some of your own. Father and mother will be glad to help, and you can 
take your problems to Professor Rice here at the State College and get 
many helpful suggestions from him. 

Do you like bird study ? Ask your teacher to let you see the September 
Leaflet for teachers, and read what is said on this subject. AU boys and 
girls in New York State will this year study the following birds: The 
hen, downy woodpecker, robin, bobolink, redstart, red-eyed vireo, black- 
bird, marsh wren, turkey, and owl. The older boys and girls should get 
into the habit of keeping a record of the birds they see. I wish every one 

Rural School Leaflet 723 

[rf you would try to find some book on birds, eitber in the school library 
or in your homes, and read the descriptions of the birds you are to study 
this year. It will help you in identi- 
f>nng some that are unfamiliar to you. 
Build a bird house. In the illustra- 
tion you will see one kind. The birds 
will like it as well as a very handsome 
one. Theydonotapproveof freshpaint, 
and the birds that will build their nests 
in houses will not care for one in which 
the doors are too lai^. 

Things to remember in constructing 
bird houses. — The houses should be 
built on poles or buildings in somewhat 
secluded places, and the majority of 
birds prefer a house not more than 
twelve feet from the ground. The size 
of the doorway is important. For the 
WTen and the chickadee the opening 
should be an inch auger hole, and 
for the other birds that build in houses 

it should be one and one-half inches. Thtd<nmiyv,oodp«:kir 

Some birds, such as the martins, tree 

swallows, and pigeons, like to live near one another. For these birds a 

little apartment housemay be made, allowing floor space six by six inches 

lor each pair. There should be but one door to each compartment. Be 

sure to build a bird house and have it in place by next February, 

Are you interested in the weather? In the sky by day or night? In 

sunlight and in wondering about your shadow as it stays with you while 

the world is light ? In the teachers' Leaflet for September there is a lesson 

on storms. Ask your teacher to help you to understand what is happening 

in cloudland when the storms come. I think the 

study of weather is best of all. I hope that 

while you are out studying the weather you will 

begin to wonder about the sky and the hills, the 

rivers and the far-away mountains, the mystery 

of the far-away starlight. As soon as you begin 

to wonder, you will begin to ask questions and to 

find out something about the outdoor things that 

.... luif^g have a never-ending interest for thoughtful boys 

and girls. 

We want you to learn to be in tune with the weather. The strong 

people of the world have loved the rain as well as the sunshine; they have 

724 RiRAL School Lel\flet 

loved the plains as well as the hills; they have been at home in the great 
outdoors in company with sweeping winds. You, too, must find these real 
things that, I think, have helped to make men and women great and deep. 
You will find in this Leaflet a letter that I hope you will answer. Thou- 
sands of boys and girls in New York State write to us very often, and 
since you are not idle you will take advantage of the opportunity to cor- 
respond with some one in your State College. This year your letters 
will be written to the young man who sends a letter to you in this Leaflet. 
If you should come to know him, as you may some day, you will find that 
he cares very much for the outdoor world and for all that country life 
gives. He also cares very much for boys and girls and is looking forward 
to your letters. He may not be able to answer all letters personally, but 
whenever a Leaflet for boys and girls is sent out you wiU find in it his 
letter to you. Address all letters to Mr. Edward M. Tuttle, College of 
Agriculture, Ithaca, N. Y. Ask yovir teacher to let you write a letter 
each month to Mr. Tuttle dxmng your English period. To all who write 
three letters, we shall send a picture. 

WiLFORD M. Wilson 

** A splash of blue, a sweep of gray, 

Some scarlet patches on the way 
Compose the evening sky." 

** Sunset that screens, reveals. 
Enhancing what we see 
By menaces of amethyst 
And moats of mystery." 

What makes the sunset red, the sky blue, the grass green, or the scarlet spot 
on the blackbird's wing ? And why is our shadow with us all day long when 
the sun shines ? These are hard questions ; but we live under the blue sky, 
we see the sunset colors almost every evening, and we never can get away 
from our shadow while the sun is shining, no matter how fast we nm. Wotdd' 
you like to know something about light, shadows, and colors? Some 
persons think that children cannot understand such things; but let us try. 

Sunlight has in it every color you can think of except black, which is 
not a color at all but the absence of all colors; and the strange thing about 
sunlight is that when all the colors you can think of are mixed together 
in the right proportion as they are in sunlight, they make white. White 
is all colors mixed together and black is no color at all. 

Rural School Leaflet 725 

Sunlight comes to us from the sun in little waves or ripples called rays. 
The finest waves or ripples that we can see are blue, and the coarsest are 
red. Some of the waves are so fine and some are so coarse that they do 
not affect the sight nerves in our eyes. The coarse ones are called 
dark rays, or heat rays. 

If you drop a stone into a pool of quiet water, you will see the little 

waves or ripples run out in all directions, forming circles, the center of 

each being the place where the stone fell; but if you look closer, you will 

see that each little wave moves away from the center in a straight line. 

Light waves n:iove away from the stm in all directions in straight lines 

in just the same way; but when they strike an object, asatreeorabuilding, 

they are stopx)ed, and thus on the opposite side of the tree or building we 

see its shadow. Many harbors along the ocean are closed in by great 

walls of stone or concrete except for a small gateway through which the ships 

enter. These walls are called breakwaters, and they stop the waves of 

water as they roll in from the ocean in much the same way that a building 

stops the waves of light and casts a shadow. We might call the quiet 

water behind a breakwater a water shadow. 

There are some things that do not stop these little Ught waves, and 
that therefore do not have any shadow. Can you think of anjrthing that 
will not cast a shadow when the sunlight falls on it? What about glass? 
Although glass is hard and rather strong, the little light waves pass right 
through it. Anything that stops the light waves is called opaque, and 
anything through which the light waves will pass is called transparent. 
How n&ny transparent things can you think of? How many that are 

If you drop a stone into a pool of quiet water the little waves will run 

out in circles quite fast; but how fast do you suppose the Uttle light waves 

run out from the sun? What is the swiftest moving thing you can think 

of in the world? An express train, perhaps. How far will it go while 

you count ten ? If you count right along it may take you about si seconds. 

Try to count ten in 5 J seconds. In that time an express train would travel 

500 feet. Do you know of an object about 500 feet from your schoolroom? 

In the 5I seconds while you coimt ten and an express train is going 500 

feet, the little light waves running out from the sun travel a million miles. 

How can I help you to think of a million miles? Suppose you were to 

get on an express train going 60 miles an hour, and you traveled on and 

on, night and day, month after month, never stopping for coal or water 

all through this year and nearly elevenmonths of next year, you wotdd have 

traveled just a million miles. But the distance you would travel on an 

express train going 60 miles an hour in one year and eleven months, these 

little waves of light travel in 5} seconds, just while you count ten. 

7^ Rural School Leaflet 


" Passengers on the Cosmic sea. 
We know not whence nor whither; 
'Tis happiness enough to be 
In tune with wind and weather." — L. H. B. 

" Great is the sun, and wide he goes 
Through empty heaven without repose; 
And in the blue and glowing days 
More thick than rain he showers bis rays. 

" Above the hills, along the blue. 
Round the bright air, with footing true. 
To please the child, to paint the rose, 
The gardener of the World, he goes." 

Robert Louis Stevenson 

" One morning, very early, before the sun was up, 
I rose and found the shining dew on every buttercup; 
But my lazy little shadow, like an arrant sleepy-head, 
Had stayed at home behind me and was fast asleep in bed." 

Robert Louts Stevenson 

" Late lies the wintry sun a-bed, 
A frosty, fiery sleepy-head; 
Blinks but an hour or two; and then, 
A blood-red orange, sets again." 

Robert Louis Stevenson 

Rural School Leaflet ^^2^ 


Dear Boys and Girls of the Open Country: 

Sometimes the longing to be a boy again and to be out in the country 
comes to me very strongly. Of course that is not possible, so the next 
best thing is to write to country boys and country girls. That is why I 
am writing to you to-night. You look upon me as a stranger now, but 
during this year I hope we shall become great friends. You in your farm 
homes and I in this busy office where I am in touch with himdreds of boys 
and girls, shoitld have much to tell each other that will be interesting and 

When you read this letter Old Winter will be here. If you are the yoimg 
folk I think you are, you do not mind it. You love the snow and the cold. 
What fun to slide and skate and build forts and have battles! Then, 
when twilight comes, how good it is to go into yotu: homes leaving behind 
the great white world, and entering a room in which fathers and mothers 
and sisters and brothers and friends are sitting aroimd a great open fire. 
Have you ever heard the message of the fire? What boy or girl has not 
lain in a half-doze, watching through dreamy eyes the flames as they leap 
and dance, and building — oh, such wonderful plans? Let us, you and I, 
imagine ourselves watching the flames and planning things for you to do 
during these winter days. How many have a good start because they did 
something this svunmer? You remember the many suggestions made in 
the April-May Children's Leaflet last spring? Are you keeping a note- 
book for out-of-door records as suggested? Have you some one finished 
piece of work to your credit? If you have, write and tell me about it. 

I hope you are studying about the out-of-door world in yotir school this 
year. Let each one try to make a special study of at least one thing. 
One may choose birds, another poultry, another trees, another fruit, still 
another grains. Speaking of grain, is your school planning to have a Com 
Day this year? January 27 is the day, and, though there were a large 
number of schools in which Com Day was celebrated last year, we want 
twice as many this year. Your school will be one, I know. 

Let me tell you just a bit of the history of com, or maize as it is some- 
times called. It was first grown by the Indians. When the white men 
came to America from England, the Indians taught them how to raise 
com. Fishes were used for manure. Sometimes pimipkins and melons 
were planted with the com. The Indians used to store their com in " corn- 
bams," made by digging a basin-like hole in the ground and lining it with 
day. The sides were a foot or so higher than the surface of the ground, 
so that the water could not get in, and the roof was made of logs, limbs, 
brush, and sod. So you see com was grown a long time ago, and by a 
people whom we seldom think of as doing much farming. 

728 Rural School Leaflet 

Now, on Com Day each one of you should have ready to take to school 
the finest ten ears of com that he can find. They should all be the same 
kind of com, and all as nearly alike as possible. A good sample is uniform 
in size, shape, color, and variety. Make your Com Day a big day in the 
school. Decorate the room. Ask your parents and neighbors to come. 
Have some selections about com read and recited. Have the girls cook 
and serve some of the com foods suggested in this Leaflet. Above all, 
have a good com show. Get a farmer in the neighborhood to judge the 
com and find out who has the best sample of each kind. Learn all you 
can about com, and take away with you the feeling that on this same dav 
many other children all over the great State of New York have had a 
Com Day, too. 

After the exercises are all over, save the prize samples of each kind of 
com and send them to us for our Children's Com Show during Farmers' 
Week, February 19-24. If possible, have the school pay the express, for 
we have very little money for our work with boys and girls. Address the 
com to Edward M. Tuttle, College of Agriculture, Ithaca, N. Y., and send 
it before February 15. 

Suppose that all by yotu-self you had raised the sample of com you take 
to school on Com Day. Then suppose your sample took first prize. 
Wouldn't you be pleased! Begin now to get ready to grow your com 
sample for next year. Save some good seed. Test it to see whether it 
sprouts well. Choose a piece of grotmd, and when spring comes go to 
work and raise a prize sample for next year. Girls like to grow things as 
well as boys. There is no reason why that first prize should not be won 
by a girl. 

This is a long letter and it is time for me to stop. Read everything in 
this Leaflet carefully. I know you will be interested in all that is said 
about poultry. Perhaps some of you would rather raise chickens than 
com. All right. It doesn't make so much difference what you do, but 
it matters how you do it. When you make up your mind to do a thing, 
stick to it until it is done in the best way possible. 

Write to me soon, for I am eager to hear all about your work and your 
play — what you are most interested in, some new thing you have learned, 
whether you truly love the great, free, open coimtry of which you are a 
part. You are indeed fortunate to live there, so close to Nature with all 
its mysteries that are revealed to the patient, reverent seeker. In the 
next Leaflet I shall write again. By that time I hope you will feel that 
I am, 

Truly your friend, 

Rural School Leaflet 729 


Arthur W. Gilbert 

When selecting ears of com for breeding or exhibition purposes, one 
should have in noind a well-defined ideal type of ear. In general, this 
type of ear should be one that will give the greatest yield of mature com. 
The following suggestions apply primarily to dent com, but they may 
be made to apply to flint or sweet com as well : 

1. Shape of ears. — A perfect ear of com should be full and strong in 
the middle part, indicating a strong constitution. It should retain this 
size to near the tip and butt, thus fomiing as nearly as possible a 
cylindrical ear. 

2. Butts of ears, — The rows of kernels should extend well down over 
the butts of the ears, thus giving an ear of better appearance and con- 
taining a higher yield of grain. The shank, or the part of the stalk that 
IS attached to the ear, should not be too large and coarse. Swelled, open, 
or badly compressed butts, as well as those having kernels of irregular 
size, are objectionable. 

3. Tips of ears. — The tips of the ears should be well filled out, indi- 
cating a type of com that will easily mature. The rows of kernels should 
extend in a regular line to the extreme tip of the ear. 

4. Shape of kernels. — The shape of the kernels is very important. 
They should broaden gradually from tip to crown, with edges straight, 
so that they will touch the full length, and should be wedge-shaped with- 
out coming to a point. Kernels of this shape will fit close together and 
thus insure the highest possible yield of grain that can grow on the cob. 
If the kernels have this wedge shape, no wide spaces will be foimd between 
the rows. Such spaces are always objectionable. 

5. Proportion between corn and cob. — There should be a large propor- 
tion of grain as compared with the amoimt of cob. This will be the case 
with ears having deep kernels. A large ear does not necessarily indicate 
a heavy yield of grain, and it is objectionable in that the cob, being large, 
contains a considerable amount of moisture which, drying out slowly, 
injures the grain for seed purposes. 

6. Color of grain and cob. — Good com should be free from admixture. 
White com shotdd have white cobs and yellow com should have red cobs. 

7. Trueness to type or race characteristics. — ^The ears selected for an ex- 
hibit or for breeding purposes should be uniform in size, shape, color, 
indentation, and size of kernel. They should also be true to the name 
of the variety. 

730 Rural School Leaflet 

Flora Rose 

Corn Meal Mush 
I cup com meal J teaspoon salt 

si cups water 

Mix the com meal with i cup cold water. Add 4^ cups boiling water. 

Add salt. Cook over direct heat for 5 minutes. Set over hot water 

and cook for i hour or longer. Com meal mush is better if cooked 

for several hours. 

Corn Meal Gems 

I cup thick sour milk i level teaspoon butter or lard 

\ level teaspoon soda or drippings, melted 

I beaten egg 1 cnip white flour mixed with 

J to I cup com meal i level teaspoon baking 


Mix soda and sour milk. Add egg, melted butter, flour, and com 
meal, and stir thoroughly. Pour into well-buttered gem pans and bake 
in mediimi hot oven for about 25 minutes. 

Com Pudding 
I can com 2 eggs 

or 2 level teaspoons butter, 

I pint grated fresh com melted 

I cup milk salt, pepper 

Mix all ingredients. Pour into a buttered baking dish. Set the dish 
in a pan of water and bake until the custard is firm. A knife blade run 
into the custard shows the firmness. 

Indian Pudding 

I quart milk J cup finely chopped suet 
i cup yellow com meal or 

3 eggs J cup butter 

J teaspoon salt J cup brown sugar "^ 

I teaspoon cinnamon J cup molasses / 

1 teaspoon allspice or 

2 teaspoons ginger all sugar or all molasses 
I cup seeded raisins 

Scald half the milk. Mix com meal with i cup of remaining milk and 
add gradually to the scalded milk. Cook for 5 minutes or imtil it thick- 
ens, stirring constantly to prevent limiping. Add the remainder of the 
milk and beaten eggs — ^the suet, sugar, molasses, salt, and spices. Pour 

Rural School Leaflet 731 

into buttered baking dish and bake slowly for 3 hours. If butter is used 
baking may be completed in 2 or 2} hours. An hour after the baking 
begins a cupful of seeded raisins sprinkled with flotir may be stirred in. 


1 cup sour milk i\ cups white flour 

\ level teaspoon soda 3 level teaspoons baking 

2 eggs powder 

\ cup shortening, melted \ cup Indian meal 

\ cup sugar \ teaspoon salt 

Mix soda and sour milk. Add beaten eggs, shortening, sugar, white 
flour mixed with baking powder, Indian meal, and salt. Pour into shallow 
buttered pan and bake 20 to 30 minutes. 


How many boys and girls have ever heard of Henry D. Thoreau? Ask 
your teacher to read what is said of this great nattualist in the Teachers' 
Leaflet for September. Have some one in yoiu* class read the following 
extract from Thoreau's Journal : 

" Jan. 3. Monday, It is pleasant when one can relieve the grossness of 
the kitchen and the table by the simple beauty of his repast, so that there 
may be anything in it to attract the eye of the artist even. I have been 
popping com to-night, which is only a more rapid blossoming of the seed 
under a greater than July heat. The popped com is a perfect winter 
flower, hinting of anemones. For this little grace man has, mixed in with 
the vulgamess of his repast, he may well thank his stars. The law by 
which flowers luif old their petals seems only to have operated more sud- 
denly under the intense heat. It looks like a sjmipathy in this seed of 
the com with its sisters of the vegetable kingdom, as if by preference it 
assumed the flower form rather than the crystalline. Here has bloomed 
for my repast such a delicate blossom as will soon spring by the wall- 
sides. And this is as it should be. Why should not Nature revel some- 
times, and genially relax and make herself familiar at my board? I would 
have my house a bower fit to entertain her. It is a feast of such innocence 
as might have snowed down. By my warm hearth sprang these cerealious 
blossoms; here was the bank where they grew. 

" Methinks some such visible token of approval would always accom- 
pany the simple and healthy repast. There would be such a smiling and 
blessing upon it. Ova appetite should always be so related to o\ir taste, 
and the board we spread for its gratification be an epitome of the universal 
table which Nattare sets by hill and stream for her dumb pensioners." 


i, luproving the quality of poultry 

James E. Rice 

We should aim to retain purity of breed and vigor of our stock, and to 

have high-grade market quality in our poultry and eggs. By so doing. 

the profits may be 

greatly increased and 

the losses reduced 

because the selling 

value of the product 

will be increased. 

We shall also get 

more pleasure and 

satisfaction out of 

our occupation be- 

A fiock of misceUaneotuaJori and lybes such as is often found cause we shall take 

on the (aeraitfarm. Cockerel! of this sort are of no value prfdein the improve- 

as breeders and are poor omamenu "^ , '^ 

ment made. The 
difference in price between poultry and eggs that are attractive and 
those that are unattractive is enough to warrant great care in breeding for 
improved quality. 

Some of the reasons why pure-bred poultry is more desirable than 
common stock are: i. Pure-bred fowls lay eggs that are more uniform in 
size, shape, color, and texture of shell. Uniform e^:s sell for a higher 
price. 2. They are more likely to breed true, that is, the chickens will 
grow up to be like their parents. 3. They are more uniform in shape and 
size of body and in color of skin and shanks, therefore more attractive 
and more profitable when placed on sale. 4. They are more attractive as 
a flock, because they are similar in appearance. It is worth while to 
keep poultry that 
looks well, s- They 
furnish a larger in- 

fer hatching and 
stock for breeding 
can be sold at prices 
considerably higher 
than for market pur- 

ss. 6. They are 

■e satisfactory, be- 
cause, other things being equal, they may be expected to give better 
results in feeding, hatching, and rearing, due to the fact that 

Rural School Leaflet 733 

they are more nearly alike as to rate of growth, size, temperament, 
activity, and the like. 

WhaicantvedotoimproveourpouUryt — ^Any boy orgirlwho isoldenough to 
take care of cliickens can improve the quality of potdtry in two ways : First, 
by keeping only pure-bredstockand by selecting, mating, and taking proper 
care of them; second, by selecting and using only the right kind of eggs for 
hatching. Both of these things should be done, but either one alone will be 
Hkelytorestiltin sufficient improvementto warrant the effort of doingit. We 
should keep a pure breed instead of common mongrel fowls. This is within 
the reach of all. Itis neitherdifficultnorexpensive tosecureinanyneighbor- 
hood a few pure-bred fowls or their eggs. With these a small start can be 
made. Each year more and more pure-bred chickens can be reared to 
take the place of the common fowls until all the flock are pure-bred. 

Find out for yotirself , by trying, whether it will pay better to have a 
pure br^ed of poultry. Remember, however, that not all pure-bred fowls 
are good fow^ls. Whether we have ptire-bred or mongrel stock they must 
be strong, vigorous, and healthy. 

ii. selecting and keeping eggs for hatching 

James E. Rice 

One of the easiest ways to increase the money-earning value of poultry 
is to improve the quality of their eggs. The best customers usually are 
willing to pay a higher price for eggs of superior quality. Frequently this 
difference in price is as high as five to ten cents a dozen. Each hen in a 
good flock should lay on the average ten to eleven dozen eggs a year. If 
the eggs are of such quality that they will sell for even two cents more a 
dozen than ordinary eggs, this would mean a net difference of about twenty- 
five cents a hen in a year. This extra price is nearly all clear profit, due 
to the uniformity in size, shape, and color of the eggs. 

The eggs that bring the highest price will depend somewhat on the 
market (see Lesson XI). We must first find out what kind of eggs will 
bring the highest price and pay the largest profit in our market, and then 
produce that kind only. 

There are several things that we can do which will help to improve the 
selling quaUty of the eggs: 

1 . We should keep a pure breed of poultry that will lay eggs as nearly 
as possible the right size, shape, and color to meet the requirements of 
otir market. Such fowls cost little, if any, more to keep than fowls that 
lay an inferior quality of eggs. 

2. Only those eggs should be used for hatching that are of best market 
type as to size, color, and texture. Pure-bred fowls will be likely to lay 
eggs similar to the eggs from which they were hatched. In other words, 

734 RiRAi. SciioiH. Leaflet 

the kind of eg^ we select for hatdiing will determine the kind of eggs 
that will be laid by the chickens that are hatched from the e^s. 

When eggs from the same variety of fowls are compared, the size of an 
egg apparently determines to a considerable extent the size of the chicken 
that will hatch from it. Therefore, if we wish to have chickens of good 
size we must set good-sized eggs. Hence, we see that there are at least 
two good reasons why all the eggs that are selected for hatching should 
be full size, perfect in shape, and of the right color and texture. 

Eggs for hatching should weigh at least two ounces and should not 
exceed two and one-half ounces each. They should be perfect in shape 
so that they will pack well in the shipping case, that is. so that they will 

Groups of etts ihowing the various sixes and shapes thai are obtained from almost any 
fiock. Au the eggs in the same row were laid by one hen. Note that the eggs laid 
by one hen have a characteristic shape. Only uniformly shaped eggs should be 
marked as first class 

fill the compartments without dai^er of breakage from top or side pressure. 
They should be uniform in color, that is, each egg should be of one color 
and the right color over its entire surface, and all the eggs should be of 
the same color. The two colors that are mostin demand are pure white and 
pure brown. There are many degrees of white and of brown in eggs, which 
will be seen only when the eggs are carefully examined in a good light. 

The texture of the egg shell should be smooth, hard, and free from trans- 
parent spots when examined with a tester. Eggs having defective shells 
are not so likely to hatch well or to produce strong chickens. 

Eggs for hatching should be kept in a moist, coo! place not over 50° to 
60°, and for not more than a week or ten days if it can be avoided. They 
should be turned every day or two, and should be kept covered so as to 
prevent too rapid evaporation. 

Rural School Leaflet 735 

Selecting eggs for hatching is interesting and useful work for any boy 
or girl to do. It will also prove profitable work. How many will do it 
and do it vrell? 

iil hatchimg the eggs 

Clara M. Nixon 

Every one ^7lio has tried to set and care for a hen so that a good brood 

of healthy chickens will hatch, knows that it is no slight task. We need 

education for this as weU as for other lines of work. Let us see what we 

can learn in the following lesson: 

The ken. — You will probably have the hen all ready to receive the eggs 
when they arrive. She should be of moderate size. If too heavy, she 
may break the eggs; if too small, she can cover a few only. She should 
be quiet and peaceable, a hen that may be handled without being fright- 
ened, and one that is likely to pay strict attention to business. 

Do not trust the hen with valuable eggs until you are sure she intends 
to sit. It will be better to give her two or three other eggs (china eggs 
will do) and !et her sit on these for two or three days. She will probably 
i>e more contented on the nest she has chosen for herself, if it be a suitable 

In case you must change the hen to another place, go quietly after dark, 
lift her gently, and put her on the nest that has been prepared. Give her 
two or three eggs, one at a time, and let her place them under her breast 
as best pleases her. If she clucks contentedly, and snuggles the eggs 
cozily under her feathers, she will usually sit on this nest. It is best, 
however, to put a crate or well ventilated box over the nest. The top 
should be high enough not to disturb her while atting, but not high enough 
to allow her to stand comfortably. If she sits quietly for two or three 
days, she will probably stay, and 
j-oumay give her the eggs. Keep 
the crate over her for a few days 
longer, allowing her to get off the 
nest every day for exercise, food, 
and water, but have her go back 
in a reasonable time. 

The nest. — Have the nest 
comfortable, clean, and free 
from lice. It should be large 
enough for the hen to change 
her position on the nest and 
to turn her eggs, but not so 

large that the eggs will move out of the warm hollow under her breast. 
First, place some earth in the bottom of the box, then enough bright 

736 Rural School Leaflet 

dean hay to make a good nest; the hen will fix the curve of the nest 
to suit herself. She feds safer in a somewhat dark, seduded place, and 
it is best to humor her. 

Care of the hen, — The hen has undertaken a very confining task, which 
will last three weeks. This is a long time. For twenty-one days and 
nights the patient hen must stay in almost the same position. If you 
do not think this is tiresome, watch her when she first comes oflE the nest. 
She can scarcely stand. The least we can do is to have things as wdl 
prepared for her comfort as we can. Plenty of whole grain (com and 
wheat are best), clean, fresh water, grit, and a dust bath should be placed 
where she can reach them, and she should be allowed to exercise every day 
if she wishes. Be sure to dust a little insect powder into her feathers 
occasionally. This is a wise precaution, even if you do not find any lice. 
In case she should break an egg, clean up the nest as well as you can, and 
wash off the badly smeared eggs in lukewarm water. They will not be 
likely to hatch if not deaned. 

If the hen seems irritable when the eggs begin to hatch, the oldest 
chickens may be taken from the nest as soon as they try to get from under 
the hen, wrapped in a piece of flannel, and kept in a warm place tmtil the 
others are out. This will keep the hen more quiet, and she will not be likely 
to kill the younger chickens in the nest, or to leave the nest before the re- 
maining eggs are hatched. If the hen is quiet, it is best not to disturb her 
while the eggs are hatching. The nest box must be deep enough to pre- 
vent the chickens from jumping out. 

With careful attention to the instruction given, you should have good 
success with the eggs. 

iv. brooding and care of the chickens 

Clara M. Nixon 

When the eggs are hatched, as they should be by the end of the twenty- 
first day, take the hen and chickens from the nest and put them in the 
coop you have prepared for them. 

I The coop, — The coop should be large enough so that the hen can move 
about, and high enough so that she will not strike her head. If it has no 
floor, set the coop on a platform of boards. This will help to keep out 
the rats and weasels, as well as to keep the coop dry. The separate fi^oor 
is more easily cleaned and dried. The coop should be slatted in front, 
but dosed on the other sides; it should have a roof that will keep out the 
rain. It should face the south and be placed on clean land on which no 
chickens have recently been reared. This is a precaution against disease. 
Everything should be clean, thoroughly disinfected with a coat of white- 
wash, and kept dry. Dampness is fatal to young chickens. 

Rural School Leaflet 737 

During hot -weather a shelter against the beat should be arranged on 
the south ^de, unless the coop is located in the shade. The coop should 
be turned over often and the floor set up on edge, so that the sunshine may 
dry. and cieanse every part. 

Care of the hen and chickens. — It is better to keep the hen in the coop 
for a few days, for she will then be likely to return to it. Let the chictens 

The first meat. ^ff^. '^•'** **"* S**" haUktd /or 24 lo 36 hours they wiU begin to 
hunt for food. Feed little and often. Provide fine ^ and pure looter at all times and 
a clean grass sod for pasturage 

run if the weather is fine; they will not go far from the hen. In case the 
winds are cold, a little yard covered on the sides with coarse muslin in- 
stead of chicken wire will give protection. As soon as the chickens can 
run well, the hen may be allowed her freedom in fine weather, but she 
should be fed near the coop. In rainy weather it seems best to keep the 
hen and chickens out of the wet. 

Enemies and disease. — Be sure that the hen and chickens are free from 
lice. A wise precaution against these pests is to apply a little fresh lard 
to the hen's body imder the wings. An equal quantity of scotch snuff 
mixed with the lard makes it more effective. A liberal application of kero- 
sene and whitewash to the inside of the coop several days before the hen 
and chickens are placed in it will be a wise precaution E^ainst red mites. 

y^^ Rural School Leaflet 

In case of the mysterious disappearance of the chiclmis, look for cats, 
rats, crows, hawks, weasels, and other thieves. Crows and hawks catdi 
the chickens in the daytime, when they are roaming about. Rats and 
weasels often get into the coop at night, and may destroy an entire brpod 
in one visit. Cats are often enemies. Your pet cat may be the one to 
eat your chickens. Watch her imtil you know she is to be trusted. The 
loss from disease will be greatly decreased if the chickens are always wdl 
cared for and well fed and if their coops are kept clean. 

v. fall preparations for winter eggs 
Jambs E. Rice 
The early fall months should be one of the busiest seasons of the year 
for the boy or girl who is taking care of poultry. It is a most delightful 
time to work out of doors. In 
the North when fall comes 
we feel the hibernating in- 
stinct of squirrels. We enjoy 
" snugging up " as the days 
get shorter and the frosts 
remind us that winter is com- 
ing. We know from ex- 
perience how good it feels 
at this time to be comfort- 
able. The hens feel the same 
way. Notice how they seek 
the shelter of bushes, fences, 
A chtap and very satisfactory type of hen house. It and buildings. They know 
w neat andiMrm and gives opporlunily Jor fresh fuj] •^gU th^t this is no time 
aiT for the birds ^ , ^ , , 

to lay eggs or to rear a brood 

of chickens. Therefore, what they do is perfectly natural and excusable, 
from a hen's viewpoint: they stop laying. Hens everywhere do the 
same; 'that is why eggs are always high-priced at this season of the year 
and later. In New York State the season of low egg production is October, 
November, and December. 

Did it ever occur to you that hens commence to lay less about the last 
of June each year, when the days begin to get shorter, and that they 
naturally begin to lay more about the first of January, when the days 
lengthen? They apparently know by the amount of daylight and of sun- 
shine when a more favorable or less favorable season is approaching. 

Hens lay well only when they are comfortable and happy. The happy, 
singing hen is the laying hen. That is why great care is necessary in the 
fall to get fowls into congenial winter quarters early. There are many ways 

Rural School LEAtLET 739 

of doing this. One is to provide them with a cheerful, cozy, dean bouse 
in which they can be sheltered from the wind, have plenty of sunshine and 
fresh air, and at the same time have an opportunity to run out of doors. 
On the sno'w ? Yes ! Yes ! A hen does not mind cold feet if she can have 
her own ^ay. In some respects, hens are like human beings. It is not 
so important for a hen to go out of doors each day the year round, as it is 
for her to know that she can if she wants to. Hens will not lay well unless 
they are contented, and freedom helps to make them contented. 

There are many things to be considered in making a home for hens. The 
word home instead of house is used because many expensive houses are not 
hen homes ; they may look all right but they are too high or too dark or 
too damp or too dirty. The home of a hen should be low, dry, bright, and 
clean, and have neat nests in which the birds can hide their eggs. In 
fact, there are so many things to say on the subject of hen homes that it 
would take a whole book to describe them. You would betteraskthe College 
of Agriculture at Cornell University to send you Bulletin 274, which de- 
scribes several ways for building hen homes. Read it thoroughly, and 
if your hen house is not a hen home see whether you can make it over into- 
orie. Do it now. 


C. A. Rogers 
As the fall advances and the leaves on the trees fall to the ground, it 
is time to get the season's flock of pullets into cozy, warm quarters where 
they can spend the winter in 
comfort. This is a time when 
the chickens should be given 
careful attention, for when 
exposed, the cold nights and 
occasional snow flurries soon 
put a stop to their growth and 
development. It is also a 
critical time, for under favor- 
able care they should soon 
begin to lay. 

The pen. — Choose, then, a 
comer of the bam or shed that 
can be partitioned off into a Befor>: P»tii"i'''' Pf'i^ *T '"r'"J'^TP '^' 

i,tui uc pcM I.'" ^ ^ houses should be thoroughly cleaned and dtun- 

pen of the desired size; or, fecled. New liller shoM be pul in and all sitns 
better stiU, build a small house of disease destroy^ 

purposely for the pullets. If you have fifteen fowls, build the house 
eight feet wide and ten feet long. If there are twenty-five fowls, make the 

740 Rural School Leaflet 

house twelve feet wide and twelve feet long. Be sure to build it on a dry 
place that is protected from the cold winds as much as possible. Have the 
front face the south in order to get all the warmth of the stm's rays. 

Fresh air and sunlight. — These are two very important factors. Both 
should be provided through windows on the front (south) side. A 
small window may be made near the top, into which is fitted a cloth curtain 
frame. During the daytime in pleasant weather this curtain should be 
removed or swung on hinges or fastened up out of the way, thus letting 
in the sunshine and fresh air. At night when closed, the muslin cloth 
keeps the house warmer and still allows abundant circulation of air. In 
addition to the cloth curtain there should be a glass window with six- by 
nine-inch panes for the houses mentioned. For best results this window 
should be placed one and one-half feet above the floor, with the longer 
dimension up and down. 

Warmth. — Next in importance is the warmth of the pen, on which de- 
pends largely the coziness of the quarters. One of the easiest ways to 
secure this is to line the walls with paper and board up roughly. In addi- 
tion to this, if the roof is high build a loose ceiling at a height that allows 
plenty of headroom. Fill the space above with straw. 

Dryness. — ^The straw not only makes the pen warmer, but also keeps it 
drier. Dryness is equally as important as warmth. With the three walls 
made tight with paper, the ceiling filled with straw, and a nice deep litter 
of straw or hay chaff on the floor, the fowls will be comfortable and con- 
tented. Such conditions always add to the nttmberof eggs in the egg basket. 

Roosts. — Make the inside arrangements neat and convenient. Small 
poles or two-by-four sticks of Itmiber make the best perches. All perches 
should be on the same level, because fowls seek to roost on the highest 
if some are higher than others. The scrambling for the higher places 
often results in injury to some fowls and always causes disturbance. The 
best height for the perch is about two and one-half feet above the floor. 

Nests. — By natural instinct hens seek a secluded place in which to lay 
eggs and this should be provided. They will be likely to lay more eggs 
when satisfied with their surroundings. An easy way to make such a 
nest is to fasten a box on the side wall at about the same height as the 
perches, leaving a small opening at the side of the box toward the back 
wall through which the hen enters and from which the eggs can be gathered. 
The nest is very inviting when kept dean and filled with fresh straw or 

Freedom. — Fowls should be given their freedom in winter as well as in 
summer. This is particularly desirable when the house opens into a dry 
barnyard in which the fowls can roam about and pick up bits of food left 
by the other animals. 

Rural School Leaflet 741 

Cleanlittess . — The pen must be kept clean. The health and comfort of 
the fowls depends very largely on this. Do not wait iintil the litter be- 
comes wet and filthy, but change it as soon as it begins to pack. Provide 
1 sm al l box of screened coaJ ashes or road dust in which the hens can dust. 
This will help to keep the lice off their bodies. Whitewashing the house 
will help to keep the lice in check ; if necessary, put kerosene on the perches 
and over the nest boxes, refilling the nests with clean bedding. The white- 
washing is very desirable, since it makes the pen lighter and cheerier, and 
idUs most of the vermin. 

In the above ways the pullets at a very small cost can be made comfort- 
able for the Mwinter. The one thing above all others which young poultry 
raisers should remember is: Provide your fowls ufitk wholesome surround- 
ings and they unit make it worth your while to keep them. 

vll. eliminating ukpbofitable chickens 
Jambs E. Rice 
In nearly every flock of chickens or fowls there are good ones and poor 
ones; in son:ie flocks there are very good ones and very poor ones, and 
occasionally there are flocks in which 
there may be found greater extremes 
than these. Very likely the good 
ones are profitable and the poor ones 
are kept at a loss. If we are to make 
money from our fowls or chickens we 
must not keep any that are not profit- 

Every chicken should be looked 
upon as a living machine for trans- 
forming food into chicken meat or 

^gs. Unless we have a good machine we cannot get good results from 
the food- In the case of many flocks of chickens a division may be made 
into three groups: (i) Chickens that are growing or laying; (3) chickens 
that are not growing nor laying; {3) chickens that are losing weight and 
not laying. All three of these groups are eating valuable food, and if we 
keep all of them together they will probably eat more than they earn. 
If we dispose of the third group the others may pay expenses. If we 
remove the second and third groups, the first group alone should pay 
a good profit. We shall have one-third as much work to doincaringfor 
those that remain, and the chickens will have two-thirds more room. 
Moreover, the flock of good chickens by themselves will look far more 
attractive, will grow better, lay better, and will be less hkely to suffer 
from disease than they would be if kept with the others. 

742 Rural School Leaflet 

There are several types of unprofitable chickens that should not be 

1. A chicken of any breed or age that shows signs of sickness or weak- 
ness. All such should be removed at once and doctored, or killed and 
burned. Prompt action may prevent further trouble. Delay is almost 
certain, in the end, to have serious results for the rest of the flock. 

2. Old hens that may still be well and strong. Generally it does not 
pay to keep hens after they are two or three years old unless they are strong 
and especially valuable for breeding piuposes. Fowls should be marked 
so as to indicate their age. 

3. Siuphis cockerels are improfitable boarders. It is a common mis- 
take to keep too many males. This is frequently due to a natural desire 
to avoid killing desirable breeders, and with a hope that if they are retained 
they may be sold alive for high prices. After they become large enough 
for market most cockerels do not make enough growth to pay for the food 
they eat. They also injure themselves or others by fighting. The room 
they occupy, the food they eat, and the labor they require might better 
be bestowed on early hatched pullets. They should seldom be allowed 
to go into winter quarters. They usually fail to grow well in cold weather, 
and occupy Valuable space that should be used by better stock. They 
are unable to wrestle with larger individuals and generally remain imder- 

Careful grading of all stock as to size, age, breed, vigor, and purpose 
for which it is kept is one of the most important factors in the successful 
handling of poultry. This is second in importance only to the elimination 
of the undesirable members of the flock. This policy should be practiced 
persistently and continuously from shell to maturity. 

viii. feeding the chickens 

Clara M. Nixon 

The food. — The egg yolk is enclosed within the body of the chicken just 
before hatching, and may supply nourishment to the chicken after it 
leaves the shell. For this reason chickens should not be fed until they 
are thirty-six hours old. The first meal may be of equal parts of bread 
crumbs and rolled oats, moistened with some milk or water to make the 
food crumbly but not wet. Sprinkle over this food a little fine sand or 
grit, fine charcoal, and some finely shredded clover, lettuce, or chickweed 
leaves. Mix with the food a little well-burned bone or some bone meal. 
After the first few days, hard-boiled egg may be added in the proportion 
of one part of egg to eight or nine parts of the bread and rolled oats. 
In addition to the mdst food, a grain food should be given. A mixture 

Rural School Leaflet 


of three pounds cracked wheat, two pounds com (finely cracked), and 
one pound pin-head oatmeal, rolled oats, or hulled oats is good. A dry 
mash may be left before the chickens at all times, but only as much 

should be given at one time as will be 
eaten in a day. If any of the mash 
becomes dirty it should be taken away 
from the chickens. The mash may con- 
sist of four pounds wheat bran, three 
Troughs for feeding large chickens pounds wheat middlings, three pounds 

com meal, three pounds sifted beef scrap, and one-half pound bone meal, 
well mixed together. Beef scrap that is not perfectly good and fresh 
should never be used. 

For chickens four weeks old or over, the bran may be reduced to three 
pounds. Cottage cheese may be given in addition to the other foods, but 
not in large quantities. It may cause bowel trouble if the chickens get 
too much at first. All foods should be sweet and clean, never mouldy or sour. 
Make all changes in ration gradually. 

The feeding. — Care should be taken to have the hen well supplied with 
whole grain and large grit. The chickens should be fed often at first, 
usually five times a day. The moist food may be given in a shallow dish 
or on a bit of clean board, and should be taken away as soon as all the 
chickens have had enough. The first few days, they will probably eat 
but a small amount of grain, and it may be scattered in a shallow dish con- 
taining a little dry mash made 
according to the directions given 
above. After two or three days, 
the dry mash by itself may be fed 
in the dish, and the grain scat- 
tered on the ground or floor. 
Two other meals of the moist 
food may then be given, the 
other feedings being of grain. 
The dry mash may be left where 
the chickens can get it at any 
time. After the first week, the 
bread and rolled oats need not. 
be given, but a little of the mash 
mixture may be moistened and 
given instead. 

As the chickens grow older the number of meals may be less, and the 
grain of larger size. At fotu* or five weeks of age they will be able to eat 
whole wheat, hulled oats, and larger cracked com. Then if they have a 

Chick feed'trays of different sizes 

744 Rlral School Leaflet 

large range and the weather is favorable so that they may run about, 

they need only two meals of grain and one of moist mash a day. They 
can always come back to "the 
dry mash if they get hungry. 
Beginning with the first meal 
green food should be supplied, 
but the hen will soon teach 
the chickens to peck tender 
pieces of clover and the like 
if she is allowed to range with 
the brood. 

Whenthechickens are about 
eight weeks old, the grain and 
ground food may be fed from 
a large feed hopper from which 
they may help themselves at 
any time. The grain mixture 
may consist of equal parts of 

v.heat and cracked com. The chickens should also have free access to 

cracked bone, fine grit, screened oyster shell, and charcoal. 

Give plenty of fresh, clean water in a vessel into which the chickens 

cannot jump. Ordinarily a water fountain is used for the purpose, 
A serviceable water fountain can be made from a pint basin and a tomato 

can that does not leak. Cut half -inch notches in the edge of the can on 

opposite sides. Fill the can with water, cover with the inverted basin. 

then turn the whole thing over, holding basin and can tightly together. 

The water will run into the basin, but not overflow. If the basin does 

not become full enough cut the notches higher. 


C. A. Rogers 
Does it ever occur to boys and girls that fowls are fond of a variety of 
food? This is especially so when the weather becomes cold and they are 
shut up in their pens. Then they are away from the fieldswherein summer 
they can nearly gain a living on the bugs, scattered grain and seed, and 
grass. It is true that they will subsist, even in the winter, on com and 
water given them at irregular intervals, but under such care they cannot 
lay eggs. Notice how much better you feel after eating a meal of whole- 
some, well-cooked food that you like. Fowls are just as partial, and 
respond when well fed. There is no one method of feeding that can be 
applied equally well under all conditions. The method described in the 
following paragraphs, however, may be followed to advant^e under many 

Rural School Leaflet 745 

conditions and may also serve to suggest ways of improving your present 

Morning feed. — In the morning the fowls are hungry and ready to work 
for their breakfast. It is well to let them keep as busy as possible. Work 
keeps them warm, healthy, and contented. With this in mind, scatter 
mixed grains in the litter. Be rather sparing of the feed in the morning, 
so that the fowls will not quickly obtain their fill, but will continue to 
work and hunt for the grain for the greater part of the forenoon. This 
grain should be a mixture of all the kinds grown on the farm. They may 
be mixed in the proportion of three pounds com, two pounds wheat, and 
one pound oats, to which may be added, if available, one poimd buck- 
wheat and one pound barley. Fresh water should be given to the chickens 
every day. 

Noon feeding. — At the midday meal is the best time to provide those 
appetizing mixtures so greatly relished by the fowls and so successful in 
helping to produce eggs. Take the scraps of meat, bread, and vegetables, 
or oatmeal, from the table, mix them with com meal, wheat bran, and wheat 
middlings. Moisten the mass with skimmed milk until it is cnmibly. 
When skimmed milk and table scraps are not to be had, take a pail of 
cut alfalfa or clover hay and pour boiling water on it, allowing it to steam. 
Feed when it is still warm. A portion of this steamed alfalfa added to 
the noon ma^h gives it a pleasant, appetizing odor. A little salt and pepper 
can also be added to the mash, in about the same proportion as would be 
used in your own food. When it is not convenient to make a moist mash, 
the same ground feeds may be fed dry in a hopper that should be left 
open dtiring the afternoon. A good mixture for this purpose is: six parts 
com meal, six parts wheat middlings, three parts wheat bran, five parts 
meat scraps, one part oil meal. The best restdts will be obtained if the 
hens eat about one-third of the ground feed mixture to two-thirds whole 
or cracked grain. At noontime as much green food (beets, cabbage, 
or lettuce) as the fowls will clean up before the following noon should be 
given. At this time see that the oyster-shell and grit hoppers are filled. 
When it is impossible to follow the practice of feeding three times a day, 
the scraps and green food should be given with the morning feed. 

Night feeding. — Fowls go to roost very early, making it necessary for 
them to eat before sundown. This requires feeding in the latter part of 
the afternoon, while they can still see to pick up the grain. When given 
the opporttmity, a fowl will go to roost with its crop rounding full of grain, 
which it gradually digests during the night. This process of digestion 
warms the body and keeps it more comfortable. An empty crop is a poor 
bedfellow for the fowl. The same grains can be fed at night as in the morn- 
ing, but in large quantities so that some will be left over after the fowl's 
appetite has been entirely satisfied. 

746 Rural School Leaflet 

x. fattening poultry 
W. G. Krum 
By fattening we do not mean filling a fowl's body with a large deposit 
of (»ly fat such as is often found in old hens, but producing large, soft 
muscles with sufficient fat so that when cooked, they will be tender, juicy, 
and of fine flavor. Not only does this improve their quality for home use, 
but they will sell in good markets for a much higher price a poimd. 
The best way to fatten poultry is to restrict exercise by placing them 
in slatted coops about two feet 
I square, having the bottom 

slatted or covered with one- 
half inch mesh wire cloth. 
This will hold four to six 
fowls or eight to ten young 

The fattening coop should be 
located in a cool, shady place 
in hot weather and in a com- 
fortable place in cold weather. 
„ . The fowls should be thor- 

r smaU pens ii very 

■"■ 7ps oughly dusted with bee pow- 
1^1 der, as fowls infected with 
lice do not fatten well. 
Neither do fowls or chickens of low vitality fatten readily. 

Poultry should not be fed for twenty-tour to thirty-six hours before 
feeding the fattening ration. The ration should then be fed sparingly at 
first. Afterward they should be kept eating well by feeding only as much 
as they will clean up in ten to twenty minutes. If they have more than 
they can digest for a meal or two they lose their appetite, fail to grow well, 
and may lose weight. 

Feed fowls or mature young stock three times daily for about two weeks, 
this being as long as they will do well under this heavy feeding. 

A good ration consists of three pounds com meal, three pounds buck- 
wheat middlings, three pounds oat flour, one pound beef scrap, and a 
little charcoal. These are mixed with sour skimmed milk or buttermilk 
(the latter preferred) to the consistency of batter, which is then allowed 
to stand and sour twelve hours before feeding. 

Ten pounds of feed usually require seven to nine quarts of milk. The 
oat flour may be obtained of manufacturers of oat flakes or oatmeal. Flour 
middlings may be used in the place of oat flour, although it is not quite 
so satisfactory a food. 

Rl-r.\l School I.i:ae.-i.!:t 747 

It is usually best in fattening broilers to give this ration morning and 
night only, giving at noon a light feed of cracked com and wheat. 

When stock fattened in this way is shipped to market the packages 
should always be marked, " Milk Fed." This will secure the best prices. 


E, W, Benjamin 

In order to sell eggs most profitably, you should know how to grade and 
pack them for market. 

As soon as the eggs are gathered, sort out all the soiled ones and clean 
them. If they are only slightly stained, use a cloth moistened in vinegar; 
if they are badly soiled, use scouring soap or similar substance. Do not 
soak the eggs in water, as the liquid will pass into the interior of the egg, 
carrying undesirable flavors. 
Washed eggs will not keep so 
well as clean, unwashed eggs, 
therefore it is better to keep 
the washed ones for home con- 
sumption and use them while 
they are fresh. 

The market eggs should bo 
kept in a cool place and sold 
at intervals of not more than 
one week. These eggs should 
be carefully sorted and packed. 
To grade the eggs, make two 

groups according to size. The Firsl-da!s ^ggi may be enclosed in neat cartons 
first CTOUP should contain eggs "'"' delivered to private cuHomers. Prices well 
, , , , . abmie market quolations are often obtained jor 

each weighing two ounces or ,*,, grade 0} eggs 
more, that is, one and one-half 

pounds or more per dozen. The second group should contain eggs 
weighing less than two ounces each. The grading will be easier if you 
weigh a few eggs of two ounces each and use them as samples. Practice 
will enable you to select the eggs of various grades wdthout weighing them. 

From each group of eggs take out those having approximately the same 
color (either uniform white or uniform brown), and a uniform shape and 
size. After all the eggs of small size, poor color, and abnormal shape have 
bien taken out, you will have two grades of first-class market eggs for 
which you should be able to secure higher prices than the ordinary 
market will pay. Egg dealers in New York City have been known to pay 
ten cents more a dozen for the lai^e eggs than for medium size eggs of the 

748 Rural School Leaflet 

same color. They have also paid five to fifteen cents more a dozen for 
the uniformly white e^:s than for mixed colors of the same size. The eggs 
that go into the cull grade may be sold for nearly market prices. 

The best grade of eggs that you are producing for the wholesale trade 
should be packed in an ordinary thirtynJozen case if express shipments 
are to be made. You may be able to have some private customers in 
the city who look to you for their regular egg supply. This class of trade 
is not difficult to secure if your eggs are of superior quality. The same 
grade should be sold each time to the same customer, so that he will 
become educated to appreciate superior grades in eggs. Consumers are 
usually glad to pay a premium for eggs of reliable quality, A little care 
and interest on your part will give you a profitable business all your own, 
which will afford some of the best profits and pleasures of farm life. 

Remember the following: (i) Breed and grade your fowls so that they 
will lay eggs that are uniform in size, shape, and color, and of the 
quality that will best suit your customer; (2) gather the eggs daily; 
{3) carefully clean all soiled eggs; (4) sort the eggs into at least two 
grades; (5) neatly pack the firsts in cartons, or other attractive packages, 
which will command a considerable increase in price; (6) furnish your 
customer each time with a uniform grade of eggs. 

Cleaning the eggs is a good occupation for the chiUren. 
Soiled eggs shotild never be o^ered to a customer 


R\iral School Leaflet 


PsbBthed tomOity by tfaa Haw Toik Stite CoOaia of AcilciJtara mt Conitfl DnfrttsilT, bom 
SntanlMi to >Kar< and emarwl u iMond-clu* DOltar ScptemlMr 30. I9vr,at iha Poet Olflcs 
■llthua, flew York, nndn Iti« Act of Concreu of Jvtf 16, i8m- L. B. Bailsy, DiroctM 



Vol. 5 ITHACA, N. Y., JANUARY-FEBRUARY, 1912 No. 3 


" With windy haste and wild halloo 
the sheeting snow comes down 
And drives itself through bush and swale 

and leagues of stubble brown. 
Blessings on the waiting fields when 

the sheeting snow comes down." — L. H. B. 

From Thoreau's "Walden" 
" Meanwhile also came the chicadees in flocks, which, picking up the 
crumbs the squirrels had dropped, flew to the nearest twig, and placing 
them under their claws, hammered away at them with their little bills, 
as if it were an insect in the bark, till they were sufficiently reduced for 
thdr slender throats. A little flock of these tit-mice came daily to pick 
a dinner out of my wood-pile, or the crumbs at my door, with faint flitting 
Hsping notes, like the tinkling of icicles in the grass, or else with sprightly 
day day day, or more rarely, in springlike days, a wiry summery pke-be 
from the woodside. They were so f amili ar that at length one alighted 
on an armful of wood which I was carrying in, and pecked at the sticks 
without fear." 


Rl:bal School Leaflet 

The Editor 

Midwinter is a good time to sit around the fire, the while we pop cora 
and crack nuts and think about the very active days that are ahead. 
No matter how hard the wind blows, wc do not care. The snow and the 
sleet make music against our window panes. The creaking of ice-laden 
limbs on the trees beyond the door sounds good to us, for we are not 
grumblers about the weather. I wish that the 75.000 boys and girls 
who will probably read this leaflet would decide at once to separate them- 
selves from the ranks of the weather grumblers. There are some persons, 
you know, who find winter too cold and summer too warm, spring too 
rainy and autumn too gloomy; and indeed these persons are nearly 
always joyfully anticipating the next season and finding fault when it The thing to do is to like the season that is with us, and when 
we tune our spirits to the weather we are very sure to like it. 

As soon as every one decides that midwinter weather is good, every 
face about the fireside will become cheerful; for to stop grumbling about 
one thing will help us to stop finding fault with many things. Cheerful 
persons can accomplish a great deal more than those who are surrounded 
by gloom, and they do much good. Let us cultivate cheerfulness. 

Now we are ready for work. If we do not begin at once, spring will 
be upon us and we shall not be ready for it. First we shall look over 
the seed catalogs. I always like to plan my garden long before it is time 
to plant. Every young person on the farm ought to have a garden 
of his own this year, either for pleasure or for profit. Suppose you locit 

Rural School Leaflet 751 

through an the catalogs you have at home and see what it will be possible 
for you to groiv- Then make your decision as to what you would like 
best to g^roiv, if you have limited space and have to do all the work 
yourself. In this leaflet you wiU find many suggestions for your gardening. 
It may be that you will not find any seed catalogs in your home. If 
not, plan to ask your teacher to let you write a letter during your English 
period to some seed house, for catalogs to be sent to the school. Then 
the boys and girls can take them home and look them over on winter 

Talk over plans for a school garden. On every school ground there 
should be a garden. If there is no space for it belonging to the school, 
perhaps a fanner living near will let you have a small piece of grotmd. 
A number of boys and girls working a piece of groimd imder the direction 
of the teacher will leam many things that will be of value in the home 

Read what a little girl tells, on page 215, of a nual school garden. I 
think the success of the garden that Florence Ware describes was due to 
the fact that the trustee, the teacher, and the patrons of the school all 
took an interest in it. Don*t you believe that fathers and mothers are 
interested in any new kind of school work when they imderstand that it 
"will help to educate the boys and girls? I do. 

Another thing that I want you to consider this winter night, as you 
sit around the fire, is that one of the first essentials to a successful life is 
to have orderly habits. A neat room at home, a neat desk at school, a 
neat appearance, all mark a self-respecting yoxmg mind. These things 
depend on one person, but an orderly home and grounds and an orderly 
school and grounds depend on a number of persons working together. 
Boys and girls can help a great deal. Let us know what you do this 
springtime to make the home grounds and the school grounds look better. 
Make some plans while you watch the firelight. 

A subject of which boys and girls never tire is bird study. Since we 
have learned that nearly all birds are of value to farmers, we ought to 
know how to attract them to our neighborhood and how to protect them. 
Have you built a bird house as suggested in the last leaflet? When will 
the birds return? Which will be with us first? 

Let us take a new interest in the spring migration this year. Long 
ago bo3rs and girls would see one or two birds, a robin and a bluebird, 
perhaps, and then would rarely notice any of the others as they came 
ffllently into the fields and the woods near their homes. Now, however, 
many young persons have a real interest in all the birds that come back. 
We hope that this year you will know when to look for certain birds. 
On page 205 is a table that will help you in getting ready to watch the 

7^2 Rural School Leaflet 

spring migration intelligently. Who will be the first one to see a gradde, 
a cowbird, a red-winged blackbird, a bobolink? Ask yonr teacher to 
keep on the blackboard a record of all the pupils who see the first birds. 
Perhaps some night before you go to sleep, you will hear the wild geese 
honking. This is a very wonderful sound and I would not have you miss 
it. Commit to memory what Burroughs has said of wild geese on page 
205, and the stanzas of poetry about the bobolink on page 206. Ask your 
father or your mother to read aloud to you " The Birds of Killingworth," 
by Longfellow, and learn why 

"A new heaven bent over a new earth 
Amid the stmny farms of Killingworth." 
And we must not forget the great plant world that announces the 
coming of spring. The hills begin to change color; the twigs take on 
richer tints and shades; the pussy willows find their way to the teacher's 
desk; skunk cabbage blossoms; and such is the way of the wood, that 
perhaps hepaticas will greet us before the snow has gone. 


In the study of birds let us remember the following: 

We need the birds and the birds need us. Students of the subject 
tell us that birds have prevented invasions of aphids, caterpillars, potato 
beetles, cutworms, white grubs, and many other pests. We need more 
birds on the farm, for locusts destroy our wheat, wireworms destroy our 
com, caterpillars destroy our trees and fruit, and other insects do much 

Do all that you can to attract the birds to your farms and gardens. 
Build bird houses, hang a meat bone or some suet on a tree, and scatter 
seeds on the snow; protect the birds from cats, particularly at nesting 

Find out all you can about some bird that has a special interest for 
you — the bobolink, perhaps. Then when you see it again this year, 
you will be ready to make some observations of it that you never made 
before. In order to be a real naturalist one must study the out-of-door 
things, not books; but every naturalist will be helped in his study by 
reading what other naturalists have learned. 

Look over the list of the birds that will come back in the spring, and 
decide which one you want most to see. When will it come? How 
much can you learn about it before it comes? 

The bobolink will be late, arriving in May. You must try to see him 
this year. Ask your teacher to read you the poem ** Robert O'lincoln," 
by William Cullen Bryant. • 

Rural School Leaflet 

■' / htar the wild teese honking 

From out the misty night,-^ 

A sound ofmopinf armies 

On-sweeping in their might"— John Burroughs 

Arrival of Birds 

Feb. IS -Mar. lo Purple grackle 

Rusty grackle 

Red-winged blackbird 


Mar I0-20 Woodcock 


Meadow lark 

Fox sparrow 


Mar. 20-31 ^'^'^'^^"P^ 


Mourning dove 

Swamp sparrow 

Field sparrow 

April i-io Great blue heron 

Purple finch 

Vesper sparrow 

Savanna sparrow 

Chipping sparrow 

Tree swallow 

Myrtle warbler 

American pipit 

Hermit thrush 

Yellow-bellied woodpecker 

Bam swallow 

Yellow palm warbler 

Pine warbler 

Louisiana water thrush 

Ruby-crowned kinglet 

April 10-20 


Rural School Leaflet 


Size: • Smaller than a robin, larger than a sparrow. 

General color: Above black, marked with patches of white and buff; 
below black, unmarked. The female is sparrow-like — yellowish brown 

streaked with darker. 

Distinctive features: The general color, black with white markings on 

the upper parts, wiU distinguish the male. 


" Bobolink! that in the meadow, 
Or beneath the orchard's shadow, 
Keepest up a constant rattle 
Joyous as my children's prattle. 
Welcome to the north again! 
Welcome to mine ear he strain, 
Welcome to mine eye the sight 
Of thy buff, thy black, and white. 
Brighter plumes may greet the stm 
By the banks of Amazon; 
Sweeter tones may weave the spell 
Of enchanting Philomel; 
But the tropic bird would fail, 
And the English nightingale. 
If we should compare their worth 
With thine endless, gushing mirth." — Thomas Hill 

" A flock of merry singing-birds were sporting in the grove; 
Some were warbling cheerily, and some were making love; 
There were Bobolincon, Wadolincon, Winterseeble, Conquedle, — 
A livelier set was never led by tabor, pipe, or fiddle, — 
Crying, " Phew, shew, Wadolincon, see, see, Bobolincon, 
Down among the tickletops, hiding in the buttercups! 
I know the saucy chap, I see his shining cap 
Bobbing in the clover there — see, see, see! " 

" The O'Lincoln Family'^ by Wilson Flagg 

Rural School Leaflet 


A- U' 'A 

756 Rural School Leaflet 

Dear Boys and Girls: 

OW many of you, as the days are growing longer 
and longer, are beginning to watch for those signs 
of spring that tell us Nature is waking from 
the long winter's sleep? A warm day now and 
then, a gentle spring rain, pussy willows, 
the snowdrops, grass turning green, the first 
robin, that sweet, clean smell of new-turned 
earth. In yourselves, too, something is swelling 
and growing, a happiness to be alive and a 
desire to be up and doing. It is the time of 
preparation, the planning time. Everything 
depends on a right start and so it is good to 
make plans. 

I wonder what each one is planning. Won't 
you write and tell, me? Many boys and girls have already written. 
The postman has been bringing big mails lately. He asked me the 
other day how I came to have so many letters. 

" They come from boys and girls all over New York State," I said, 
" I wish you might read some of them. They tell of interestii^ things." 
" What things? " he asked. 

Then I told him how some of you had celebrated Com Day in yoiu- 
schools, with exercises and a com show; and how the best com was coming 
here for our Farmer's Week exhibition, February 19-34, where he might 
see it if he had time to stop. 

" Did the children raise the com they brought to school? " said the 

" Not very many of them this year," I answered, " but I know that 
next year much of the com will be raised by the children themselves. A 
large number have already selected their seed and are planning to test 
it to see whether it sprouts well. Then they will get a small piece of 
ground and prepare it carefully, so that the soil will be smooth, mellow, 
and free from stones, weeds, or rubbish. They will next plant the com 
and will take care of it faithfully all summer long. When harvest time 
comes they will cut and husk the com and, selecting the finest ears, will 
keep them in a safe place until Com Day next January." 

" But not every child will Uke to grow com," remarked the postman, 
as he prepared to leave, 

" Of course not," said I, " there are lots of other things for them to do. 
For instance, a great many boys and girls are interested in poultry. I 

Rural School Leaflet 757 

know of several already who have started keeping a few hens. We have 
tx)ld them in tlie leaflets all about selecting eggs for hatching, taking 
care of the little chickens, feeding, watering, and housing them as they 
grow older, and grading the eggs for market. We have told them why 
it pays to keep a i>ure breed of poultry. In the next few weeks I expect 
to hear from many boys and girls who are going to make poultry-keeping 
their occupation for this year." 
The postman was very much interested. 

" Tell the children that if they write to you I'll see that every letter is 
delivered safely," he called as he went on his way. 

Besides raising com, or keeping poultry, or planting a tree, or studying 
birds or flowers or fruit, there is another thing that, it seems to me, will 
appeal to many of the boys and girls who read this letter. A garden is 
one of the most interesting places in the world, be it a vegetable garden 
or a flower garden. Why wouldn't it be a fine jriece of work for a boy 
or a girl to take care of a home garden this summer? Besides the joy 
of being out of doors and of raising things, there will be the pleasure of 
contributing to the family something that they will be glad to have. 
Many fathers are too busy with the field crops and the stock, and mothers 
with the house and dairy, to have time for the garden. I am sure, however, 
that they like fresh fruit and vegetables, and that they will let you have 
a piece of ground for a garden all your own. Ask them about it. Perhaps 
your father will find time to plow it for you. Whether he does or not, 
if you make up your mind to do this piece of work this summer, and to 
see how well you can keep the table supplied, read what I have written 
in this leaflet about a home garden, and then go to work and make a 
success of it. Don't give up, even if there do come times of discourage- 
ment. You will be doing something worth while, and therefore worth 
fighting for. At hard times just grit your teeth and make it go. I hope 
I shall hear from a great many boys and girls who are going to take care 
of a home garden this summer. Write me about it. 

Another thing that I know will interest you boys and girls is that 
each time a leaflet comes out, it will contain the best letter I have received 
from a boy or a girl. The first one is in this leaflet. Let us see who will 
have the best one next time. 

I hope you will all read this leaflet carefully. There are many inter- 
esting things in it that I have not been able to tell you about in my letter. 
Write to me soon. Every boy and girl who reads this letter is going 
to take some one piece of work for the stimmer and do it well. I feel 
sure of this, and I know you will not disappoint me. Learn all you can 
about the out-of-doors, about wind and rain and sunshine and starlight 
and flowers and fruit and trees and birds and animals. When you find 

75<^ Ri'RAL School Leaflet 

something that interests you, write and tell me about it. Above all, 
be sure and don't forget what I said about a home garden. 

Your friend, 


NoRTHviLLE, N. Y., November 15, 191 1 
Dear Mr. Tuttle: 

I am going to write a few lines and thank you for the leaflets I received 
a while ago. And maybe you would be glad to hear what we have been 
doing in our school yard. We have made drains, and trimmed the trees, 
and raked up the leaves, took out stones, piled up the wood that was 
lying in the yard. We have several trees in our school yard. 

They are different kinds. One is apple. Most every one likes that 
tree. There are ash and pine too. There are thirty trees in all. 

We have a very large school yard. We planted flowers last year, and 
vegetables. Some vegetables were lettuce, carrots, radishes. They grew 
up big enough for the children that brought their dinners to eat them. 
The color of our school house is red. It is very pleasant and our teacher 
is very neat. I am going to write you three letters and see if I receive 
a picture from you. Good by. 

Truly yours, 

^oyiAyLT^ &J^ 

" In the elder days of Art, 

Builders wrought with greatest care 
Each minute and unseen part; 
For the gods see everywhere. 

*' Let us do our work as well. 
Both the unseen and the seen; 
Make the house, where gods may dwell, 
Beautiful, entire, and clean." 

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 

Rural School Leaflet 759 


The Editor 

The boys and girls in every school district should decide to have a 
deaning-up day both inside and outside the building. The teacher will 
help as soon as you are willing to do your part, and your parents will 
also be interested. 

Perhaps for your lesson in English your teacher will allow you to make 
a list of things that would improve the inside of the building, with sug- 
gestions for such improvements. Decide which of these you can make 
yourselves, and which would need to be made by the trustees. Do your 
part first and then write to the trustees asking them to consider at the 
next school meeting whether the other improvements can be made. 

Next, list all the needed repairs on the outside of the building. Can 
you make any of the repairs? 

Your teacher may be willing to go out some day with the older pupils 
to discuss what might be done to make the grounds more attractive. 
Make a list of the things you would like to have done. Discuss such 
improvements at home. Your parents will probably have some sugges- 
tions. They will help if you do your part. 

The following should be considered in the list of improvements to be 
made inside and outside the school: 

1. Cleanliness, (a) Floor; (b) walls; (c) desks, chairs, seats, and the 
like; (d) windows; (e) blackboards, erasers; (f) entry or doak room; 
(g) stove and wood box. 

2. Order. Brooms, mop, dustpan, and the like hung in the most 
inconspicuous place instead of lying about on the floor. Who will bring 
a hammer and a few nails and make this change? Are the desks in order 
and the ink bottles in good condition? 

3. Health, (a) Dust. The germs of many diseases are carried by dust. 
Keep all the dust that you can out of the schoolhouse. If you have been 
using a feather duster it should be burned. A damp cloth is the best thing 
to use and this should be washed frequently, (b) Drinking water. Will 
the boys make a place for the water pail so that it will not stand on the 
floor? Will some one provide a cover for the paH? Does each child 
keep his own drinking cup in his desk? Do all the boys and the girls 
know that many diseases are carried from one child to another by the use 
of a drinking cup in common? (c) Outhouses. Both health and decency 
demand that all outhouses be kept in good condition. Should some one 
from the State College visit your school, would he find that the boys 
and the girls in your district are self-respecting? (d) Remove all rub- 
bish heaps as soon as it thaws. 

760 Rural School Leaflet 

4. The school building. Make observations on the outside of the school- 
house. Consider paint, blinds, steps, eaves troughs, roof. 

5. The school grounds. Note fences, paths, and condition of trees. 

It may be that this leaflet will go into many rural districts in which all 
of the foregoing suggestions have been carried out long ago. If your 
schoolhouse is neat and attractive inside and out; if the groimds have been 
planted; if the fences axe in good condition; if the outhouses are cared 
for; if you work with your teachers to keep things in shape — we shall 
be glad to have you write and tell us. If you are just beginning to con- 
sider having better surroundings at school, write to us as soon as you 
make any improvements. 

6. At home. Last year Professor Warren made the following sugges- 
tions for improving the home surroundings: (a) Cleanup old machinery, 
boards, and the like. . (b) Pile all the lumber that is worth saving in one 
place, (c) Pile all the lumber and rubbish that is good for firewood only 
in one place, (d) Cut out the dead limbs in the trees in the yard, but do 
not prune the trees too severely, (e) Repair all the leaky eaves troughs, 
(f) See that all the door latches in the hotise work easily. If the doors 
stick so that they will not open, fiix them, (g) Repair the door steps, 
(h) Arrange the garden so that all work can be done with horses, 
(i) Plant a few flowers or shrubs from the woods in the yard. Put them 
in groups but not in the center of the lawn, which should be kept dear 
so that it will be easy to mow and will look better. 


The three subjects following have a special message for boys and girls. 
" The Spirit of the Garden " is for older pupils. Read it many times, 
then in a garden of your own try to find the spirit. 

The next subject, "A Rural School Garden, " is for the younger boys 
and girls. Try to have a garden at your school this year. 

Both the older and the yoimger pupils should read **A Home Garden." 
Have the best home garden this year that you have ever had. Write 
to Mr. Tuttle about it. 

** The garden is a lovesome thing, God wot; 
Rose plot, 

Fringed pool, 

Pemed grot, 
The veriest school of Peace; 
And yet the fool 

Contends that God is not. 
God not! In gardens! When the eve is cool! 

Nay, but I have a sign, 
*Ti8 very sure God walks in mine." 

RiRAL School Leai-li;t 

"IMt n'tr tip wn t*ii* of litV. 
Kft brnwag Brta2ia at iutMjaiax^ imp."— Robert Looeman 


L. H- Bailey 
I step from the house, and at once I am released. I am in a new realm. 
This realm has just been created, and created for me. I give myself 
over to the blue vault of the sky; or if it rain, to first-hand relationship 
with the elements, — for can I not touch the drops that fall from some 
mysterious height? I am conscious of a quick smell of the soil, something 
like the smell of the sea. I hear the call of a bird or a faint rush of wind, 
or catch a shadow that passes and is gone. There is a sudden sensation 
of green things tumbled over the ground. I feel that they are hving, 
growing, aspiring, sensitive. 

Then the details begin to grow up out of the area, every detail perfect 
in its way, every one individual, yet all harmonious. The late rain 
compacted the earth; but here are little grooves and cuts made by tiny 
rills that ran down the furrows and around the stems of the plants, coales- 
cing and growing as they ran, digging gorges between mountainous 
dods, spreading into islanded lakelets, depositing deltas, and then plung- 
ing headlong toward some far-off sea, — a panorama that needs only to 
be magnified to make those systems of rivers and plains and moimtains 
the names of which I sought so much in my old geography days. 

Soft green things push up out of the earth, growing by some sweet 
alchemy that I cannot understand but that I can feel. Green leaves 
expand to the sun; buds burst into flowers; flowers change to fruits; the 
pods burst, and berries wither and fall; the seeds drop and are lost, — yet 
I know that nature the gardener will recover them in due season. 

Strange plants that I did not want are growing here and there, and now 
I find that they are as good as the rest, for they spring from the same 

762 Rural School Leaflet 

earth yet are unlike all others, and they too wiU have their day and will 
die away and in some mysterious process will come again. Insects crawl 
here and there, coming from strange crevices and all of them intent. 
Earthworms heave their btirrows. All these, too, pass on and die and 
will come again. A bird darts in and captures a flying insect; a dog 
trots across the farther end of the plot; a cat is hidden xmder the vines by 
the wall. A toad dozes under a bench; he will come out to-night. 

It is all a drama, intense, complex, ever moving, always dying, always 
re-bom. I see a thousand actors moving in and out, always going, always 
coming. I am part of the drama; I break the earth; I destroy this plant 
and that, as if I were the arbiter of life and death. I sow the seed, I see 
the tender things come up and I feel as if I had created something new and 
fine, that had not been seen on the earth before; and I have a new joy as 
deep and as intangible as the joy of religion.* 


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Itlanta nrarrtif rlraa, anh natnrr i« aattafirft ntttlf tlfrnt. X» art a|it to rovrt tlft tliingo nlfirlf 
n» nuntot Iprar ; bnt nif arr IpqiitUr nlirn mr loot tlrt ttfinga mi|trl| grom bfranat tfyrn 
ninat. Ji iiatr^ of Ina^ {rt^oiyrliM, snnotn0 aidi tt i'iif Mh p in komrtona a Ha w^wt, nati 
ht a lifttrr anil ntorr ntort^ nbfrrt of aifrrtion Ht^vi a brii of roUnaf a In ndfit^ nttrg 
Btiark of li& anil B)iirtt anil inMviilnali^ ^ littn alft ar»2i ont anil aniqtrtaaril."— L. H. B. 

**Wift man mlfo atorrira «ontin0 anil ni^lyt altont ftft ftaniifiiona in tift ham mill finii 
grrat rrlirf in lotting tift iianiif liona. €ar4 bloaaom ia ntortlf mort tif an a 90U1 roin, aa 
it Bl|imai»ra in tift rxnbrraitt annlirtt of ti^t sroming aiiring. anil attrarta tl^r It>f a Ui ita 
boaon. SittU rifiUirrn four tift ilanbrfiona: wHfn atag not ntr? iloor tlfr tlfinsa nramt at 
Iputb: anil loot intntatlg. If 9 tatrt ta anritr a nuitto ovtr tift 0att of a garilffn, 1 alfonlii 
rlf ooat tiff remark miftrlf #orratta maiit aa if r aam tlft InxnriM in t^ market ' Ifuni mnrif 
tifrrt ia in tift morlii tifat 1 iio not mant'*— L. H. B, 

♦ Note. — We gratefully acknowledge the pennission to use " The Spirit of the 
Garden " from ** The Outlook to Nature," published and copyrighted in 1905 by The 
Macmillan Company. 

Rural School Leaflet 763 

a rural school garden 
Florbncb Ware 
(A Young Gardener) 

On January 29, 1909. we celebrated Com Day here at our school, with 
appropriate exercises. During the exercises our trustee spoke to us. We 
enjoyed all he said, but the part that interested us the most and for which 
we felt the most thankful was his plan to rent a piece of ground near the 
school, for us to use as a school garden. He said he would divide it into 
plots four feet by twenty feet and give each of us a plot to work, as our 
ownhttle garden, and would give us twenty-five cents each with which to 
buy our seeds. He asked each of us to raise one hill of com on our plot, and 
he offered a prize of one dollar to the pupil who raised the best com. We 
bought our seeds early in the spring of James Vick's Sons, of Rochester. 

In April the ground was plowed and divided into plots. The plots 
were numbered and each child drew a number, and then the children 
went out and each claimed the plot that had the number corresponding 
with the number he drew. 

764 Rural School Leaflet 

On the afternoon of May 6, Arbor Day, we planted our gardens. We 
planted vegetable and flower seeds, and set out little plants called fire- 
bush around the whole garden. Mrs. Sarah White gave us these plants, 
and many thanks we extend to her for them as they were very beautiful 
Just before v^e started to work our gardens, Miss Rhodey said she would 
give a prize of fifty cents to the pupil over eight years of age, and fifty 
cents to the pupil imder eight years, who had the best-arranged garden 
and the best-growing garden by the last day of school. 

We watched very eagerly for the seeds to come up. The first to appear 
were the radishes on May 13 ; then on May 16 lettuce began to come up, 
and then beets, flowers, and other plants. 

On May 17 we planted our com and it came up on May 24. The com 
we used for seed was obtained by our trustee in the eastern part of our 
State. It was a very fine-looking ear of com. But in oiu" experience 
we did not produce as good com as the seed. I think the reason is this: 
In the com plant the blossom is on the top and contains stamens which 
produce the pollen. The ear of com bears the pistils (silk). The pollen 
drops down to the ear on the silk and nourishes the kernel. If the pollen 
does not drop on the silk, kernels will be lacking. Pollen floats in the 
air and drops on the silk. It will float from one field to another. As 
each of us had but one hill of comand thefieldadjoining was nota cornfield, 
there was not enough pollen floating in the air to drop on the silk and 
nourish the kernels, and I think that is the reason we did not all have 
well-developed ears of com. 

On Jtme 11, the last day of school, we had a picnic and exerdses. We 
invited the people of the neighborhood. There were about one hundred 
and twenty-five present. Dr. H. J. Webber, of the College of Agriculture, 
Cornell University, spoke to us on *' School Gardening and Agriculture.** 
Doctor Webber and School Commissioner Stickle judged our gardens, 
and they thought they were so nice that they each gave twenty-five cents 
for a second prize. 

Robert Fargo won the first prize and Adelbert Simmons the second 
of those over eight. John Jenner won the first prize and Samuel and 
Nathan Hancock won the second of those under eight. 

At this time Mr. W. F. Pratt offered prizes of sixty cents and forty cents 
on second and third best com, and thirty cents and twenty cents on second 
and third best gardens, to scholars over eight years of age, and thirty cents 
and twenty cents on second and third best gardens to scholars under eight 
years of age, to be given the second week of school in the fall. We felt 
very grateful to him for this offer. 

During vacation we went to our gardens about every two weeks. We 
would take home some vegetables and flowers. Sometimes Miss Rhodey 

Rural School Leaflet 


went with us. Once when she went we took a lunch, and after we had 
hoed our gardens and watered our flowers we went over on the school 
yard and played games and ate our lunch. When school opened in the 
fall we found our gardens growing nicely. The second week of school, 
Mr. C. E. Shepherd and Mr. W. H. Young judged our gardens. The 
prizes of sixty cents and forty cents for the second and third best com were 
won by Susie Dart and Florence Jenner. The prizes of thirty cents and 
twenty cents to those having the second and gardens were won by 
Stella and Agnes Mekowska and Marguerite Bonney. Thirty cents and 
twenty cents to those under eight years of age were won by Edwin Hagen 
and Raymond Green. 

We next took up our best vegetables and flowers and shrubbery, and made 
an exhibit at the Genesee County Fair. We received many compliments 
on our exhibit, and received first premium of five dollars. 

As the Edtxcation Department at Albany wished a picture of our garden, 
pictures -were taken of it and one was sent to the department. 

Now as ** Jack Frost " was putting in his appearance we took up what 
was left in our gardens; some things we took home, others we gave to a 
couple of pooT families in town. We saved some of our cornstalks and 
com to use for decorating to-day. 

We certainly enjoyed our first year's experience in school gardening. 
We made many mistakes, we will admit, but we did the best we knew how, 
and shall try another year to profit by the mistakes we made in the past 










































— 1 





















6 3 3 33333633333 

A' Plots B-fhVrs C' Hedges D-Corn E-^e^eTo/fMs^ f7o¥^r^ E-F/owerBed 


Otir school garden is located on EUicott Street Road, two miles from 
the village of Batavia. The garden is one hundred twelve feet long and 
twenty feet wide. This is divided into plots fotir feet by twenty, with 
a path one foot wide between them. Each child imder ten years of age 
has one plot, and each child over ten years of age has two plots to work. 
This year we have grown vegetables and flowers on them. 

766 Rural School Leaflet 


Edward M. Tuma 

To the boy or girl who has decided 
to keep & home garden this year, the 
following suggestions will be helpful : 

1. Make up your mind to do the best 
you can with the piece of ground avail- 
able, no matter what its size may be. 
If you may have all you want, it is 
better not to take more than you can 
easily handle. 

2. If possible, plan the garden so that 
the rows may be long even if more 
than one thing is planted in a single 
row. If you can drive, plan the garden 
so that horse tools may be used. At any 
rate, plan for wheel hand tools. 

3. Begin early in the spring to put 
the soil in shape. 

4. Clear off all weeds, stones, brush, 
and other rubbish. 

5. Spread a good coating of manure 
on the surface before stirring. 

6. Plow or spade the manure in thor- 

7. Work the soil imtil it is level and 
smooth and mellow. It is easier to 
cultivate before than after planting the 

8. Read the article on soils in this 
leaflet, so that you will understand when and why to cultivate. 

' 9. Plant whatever you like to plant in your garden. Have a good 
variety. Plan for a succession of such things as peas, radishes, lettuce, 
and the like. A table showing time and depth of planting is given in this 

10, Talk about the garden with your father and your mother. They 
will be glad to tell you and to show you about it; but you must do the 
real work yourself. 

11. Tend your garden faithfully. Never let the weeds get a start. 
Thin the plants in order to give them room. Study your garden. You 

Rural School Leaflet 767 

will learn more by careful observation in one week than by reading for 
a year. 

12. Do not be afraid to have some flowers in your vegetable garden. 
Pill in empty places with them. Make every foot of ground produce 
something useful or ornamental. 

13. When you gather your vegetables, put them up in attractive pack- 
ages for the house. It helps you and it helps the others to do this. We 
like things better when they are good to look at. 

14. If a disease or an insect is injuring your plants, find out what it is 
and how to get rid of it. Do not stop until you have conquered. 

15. Live in your garden. Love it. Know everything in it so well 
that you cotild tell it somewhere else in any stage of growth. 

16. Remember that i)erseverance brings success; that study brings 
mastery; and that while you are learning many new things yourself, you 
are also doing a definite piece of work that contributes to the welfare 
of others. 

17. It is much better that you use your own originality on your garden. 
However, if you meet problems that you cannot solve, write to the State 
College and ^ve shall be glad to help you aU we can. 

18. If you have time to read and want to know more about gardening, 
a good book to own is " The Manual of Gardening," by L. H. Bailey, 
published by The Macmillan Company. 



Edward M. Tuttle 

The soil serves as a support for plants and also furnishes them with 
food and water. Plants take in food through the tiny hairs on their 
roots. The food must be in solution in water, that is, it is dissolved or 
melted, we might say. Therefore, water is important to the plant because 
it carries food, as well as making up a large part of the plant structure. 
One of the main reasons why we cultivate crops is to keep the right amount 
of water in the soil. Too much water drowns the plant ; too little starves it. 

When a soil is in a state of good cultivation, fine and firm, yet mellow, 
the grains of soil lying dose together form tiny tubes between them. 
Water rises in these tubes just as it does in a small glass tube when you 
place one end in water. When the soil water reaches the surface of the 
ground, the heat of the sun causes it to evaporate, in the same way that 
a little water left in a pan in the sun will disappear. If we want to keep 
the water in the soil we break the little tubes. This is done by stirring, 
or cultivating, the surface to a depth of two or three inches. Then the 

768 Rural School Leaflet 

ground looks dry on top, but beneath it is moist and will stay that 
way a long time if we keep the surface stirred. Should it rain, the surface 
is porous and soft and the rain sinks into it Uke water into a sponge. But 
as soon as it stops raining the water begins to go out again unless we stir 
the surface and keep the little tubes from forming. So it is easy to see 
that if the soil is not too wet we should cultivate whenever the surface 
gets packed so that the tubes are formed, no matter whether there are 
weeds to kill or not. If you want to test this, leave a little strip of your 
garden imcultivated. Pull the weeds and leave the earth unstirred. At 
the end of the season you will find that this strip is hard and dry, and the 
plants on it have not grown so well as those on the rest of your garden. 

If the soil in your garden is too wet, some of the water must be taken 
out. A certain amount will evaporate from the surface if it is left packed; 
but the best way is to drain the soil from below by digging ditches here 
and there, or by laying tile drains, which are short sections of clay pipe 
placed end to end in the bottom of the trenches and covered over with 
soil. The lower end of the drain should be left free for the water to 
run out. 

Study your own soil and you will be able to tell when it has too much 
or too Uttle water; and you can regulate the amount a good deal by cul- 
tivating at the right time. 

There must be available plant food in the soil. Usually there is food 
enough present, but often it is in such a form that it will not dissolve in 
the water and therefore the plants cannot get it. Sometimes maniu'e is 
mixed with soil. When the manure decays, it forms a gas that helps the 
soil water to dissolve the plant food more readily. The manure itself 
furnishes some plant food; it also makes a heavy soil more open or a light 
soil more compact, in either case regulating the amount of water. Try 
leaving a small part of your garden without manure and see whether you 
notice any difference. 

Fertilizers are plant foods all ready to dissolve in the soil water. Some- 
times it helps the plants to have an increased supply of food at a critical 
time. You may test and see what your soil needs most by putting a 
little of each kind, or mixtures of one or more kinds, of fertilizers on sep- 
arate plots of ground growing the same crop, and watching to see whether 
the plants grow better on some plots than on others. 

While you are growing the plants in your garden you can also be learn- 
ing how they grow and what part the soil plajrs in their growth. Study 
and observe, and you will find out many things for yotu"selves that it 
would be hard for you to understand if you read about them. The ability 
to accurately observe the things around you and to profit by your 
observations will prove of value all through life. 

Rural School Leaflet 



I. Preparation of the land, — If the land for 

the garden can be secured in the fall, much of 

the preliminary work can be done before 

freezing weather, having all leveling done, rough 

material removed, and the ground ploughed 

or spaded. Fall plowing is recommended 

since the winter freezing has a beneficial 

effect on the soil, causing it to crumble 

and separate into fine particles. It is 

also possible to work fall-plowed land 

earlier in the spring than flat-ljring land. 

If spring plowing must be done, it is 

best to start as early as the grotind is fit 

to work. A good coating of barnyard 

manure spread e/enly over the grotmd before plowing 

is always beneficial. Plow to the depth of four to six 

inches and harrow the soil fine with a spring-tooth 

harrow. The small stones and the rubbish should then 

be raked off with the hand rake, and the groimd 

leveled for sowing seeds. 

2. Sowing the seeds. — It is much better to sow the seed 

in rows than to sow it broadcast. The seedling can 

thus be more easily identified, thinning and weeding can 

be quickly done, and the soil between the rows can be hoed 

without injury to the seedling plants. 

In planting a garden it is best, if possible, to have the rows extend 

north and south. Each row will thus get its share of sunlight. If the 

rows are east and west, and one or more rows contain tall plants, there 

is danger of shading the rows in the rear. 

3. Watering the garden. — If it is necessary to water the growing plants, 
it should be done, if possible, late in the afternoon. If the plants are 
watered in the morning, the sun causes very rapid evaporation, leaving 
the soil dry, and in heavy soils causing it to bake. Thorough cultivation 
of the soil or a mulch of either grass or straw will hold the moisttire in the 
soil and lessen the need of water. 

4. Soils. — It is not often that a heavy clay soil will be found. If no 
other soil is obtainable, drainage, sand, muck, grass, or coal ashes wiU 
be beneficial. Clay soil should never be worked when wet. Gravelly 


Rural School Leaflet 

loam, sandy loam, and even clay loam are easily worked, and are the 
soils generally found to give good results. See the lesson on soils, 
page 219. 

5. Starting plants. — The seeds of all but the more ranMy growing 
plants may be started in the house in March or April, using shallow boxes 
filled with light soil. A little care is needed to avoid sowing the seeds 
too early, for if the window conditions are such that the plants grow 
spindling, they transplant with difficulty. Six weeks before the time 
to plant out of doors is early enough to sow the seeds in boxes, and even 
then it is often necessary to transplant into other boxes before the groimd 
is fit to receive the seedlings. For the first year it would be well to have 
the children grow some one thing indoors, in order to give them a lesson 
in transplanting. Tomato plants would be good for the first lesson. If 
flowers are desired, pansies might be started in boxes. 

WHAT TO plant 

A list of garden vegetables, the seed of which may be sown as soon as 
the groimd is fit to work in the spring: 

Variety Time of Sowing 

Asparagus April 2 







Kohl-rabi "] 











Sea kale 










h of Sowing Soil Best 

inch Light Loam 


X ^ 









Rural School Leaflet 771 

A fist of garden vegetables, the seed of which should not be sown until 
the ground is waxxn and all danger of frost is over: 

Variet7 Tixne of Sowing Depth of Sowing Soil Best 

Beans May 10 2 inch Light Loam 

Com « 10 a " 

Okra "20 I « 

Pumpkin "10 2 " "^ 

Squash "10 2 " " 

Annual flowers. The seed to be sown after the danger of frost is over. 
The best results are obtained if the plants are started in the house in 
April, and set out after the tenth of May: 

V^ety Time of Sowing Depth of Sowing Soil Best 

Antirrhinum (Snapdragon) May 5 or after i inch Light Loam 

.\ster ^* " I " 

Celosia (Cockscomb) " " i " " 

Cosmos I 

Dahlia u u ^ u 

Lantana i 

M/ocotis (Forget-me-not) " " i " " 

Ricinus (Castor oil bean) « « 2 « « 

Salvia (Scarlet sage) u a ^ u a 

Schizanthus (Butterfly flower) . " " i " " 

Mathiola (Stocks) a « j « « 

Annual flowers. Seeds to be sown early: 

Variety Tvaa of Sowing Depth of Sowing Soil Best 

Adonis (Pheasant's eye) April or early May i inch Light Loam 

Ageratxim t 

Aly ssum t 

Amaranth i 

Brachycome (Swan river 

daisy^ t 

BrowaUia (Amethyst) " " i " " 

Calendula (Pot marigold).. " " ij " 

Calliopsis (Coreopsis) " " i " 

Aethionema (Candytuft) ..." « i " " 

U U ii ^^ 

Carnation i 

Centaurea (Bachelor's button) " " i " 

Chrysanthemum (annual) ... i 

u u u a 

Clarkia i 

Dianthiis (China pink) " " i " 


Rural School Leaflet 


Variety Time e£ Sowing 

Euphorbia (Snow-on-a- 

mountain) April or early May 

Gaillardia (Blanket flower) . 


Gypsophila (Baby's breath) 
Helichrysum (Everlasting).. 
Lobelia (Cardinal flower) . . . 

Tagetes (Marigold) 




Nigella (Love-in-a-mist) 

Petunia " 

Phlox D " 

Eschscholtzia (California 


Poppy, Shirley 

Portulaca , . . . . 



Scabiosa (Mourning bride) . 

Lathyrus (Sweet pea) 






Depth of Sowing 

I inch 







Soil Best 

Light Loam 




A list of popular perennials. Plants to be grown the previous summer: 

Variety Time of Planting 

Abutilon (Flowering maple) May 

Aquilegia (Columbine) April 

Bellis perennis (English daisy) . . " 
Campanula (Canterbury bells) . . ** 

Canna May 

Delphinium (Larkspur) April 

Digitalis (Foxglove) " 

Gaillardia (hardy) May 

Althaea (Hollyhock) April 

Poppy (hardy) " 

Rudbeckia (Cone flower) May 

Helianthus (Sunflower [hardyj) . . ^ 

Sweet William ** 

All hardy pinks ** 

Depth of Planting 

3 inches 





Soil Best 

Any well- 
enriched, well- 
drained soil. 
Light loam 

Rural School Leaflet 773 

A Ust of shrubs for garden borders: Almond (flowering), oomtis in 
variety, elder, forsythia, hydrangea, honeysuckle (bush), japan quince, 
kerria, lilac in variety, mahonia, privet, roses in variety, snowball in 
variety, spirea in variety, sumac, weigelia, witch-hazel, evergreens, dwarf 
thuja, retinispora, junipers, norway spruce, dwarf pine. 

A Ust of early vegetables that should be started inside in April, and 
the plants set out as soon as the ground is fit: Brussels sprouts, cabbage, 
cauliflower, celery, celeriac. 

A list of late vegetables, the seed of which should be started in April 
and the plants set out after the tenth of May: Cucumber, eggplant, melon, 
pepper, tomato. 


In order to have a good garden, each plant should have room for its 
fullest development, and since mast of the seeds of garden flowers and 
vegetables are small it is almost impossible to sow the seeds sparsely enough 
so that each plant will grow to perfection. Since this is the case, the 
plants must be " thinned," and either thrown away or transplanted to 
some other part of the garden. If the thinning is done in cool, cloudy 
weather, the seedlings may be transplanted "with great ease; but if it is 
done in dry, sunny weather, the seedlings must be shaded after being 
set out. It is best to thin the plants when they are small, before they 
have become crowded, but if one wishes to save them for transplanting 
they may be left until large enough to handle. The following statement 
will be found helpful to young gardeners in thinning and transplanting: 

1. Flowering plants that should be four inches apart: Alyssum, ageratum, 
balsam, candytuft, lobelia, pansy, poppy, portulaca. 

2. Floivering plants that should be six to eight inches apart: Amaranthus, 
browallia, carnation, centiurea, dianthus, eschscholtzia, gaillardia, mignon- 
ette, myosotis, phlox D. 

3. Flowering plants that should be twelve inches apart: Aquilegia, aster, 
campanula, calliopsis, colosia, helichrysum, heliotrope, larkspur, marigold, 
nasturtium, " drop," nigella, petunia, salpiglossis, scabiosa, verbena, 
zinnia, sweet william. 

4. Flowering plants that should be eighteen to twenty-four inches apart: 
Canna, chrysanthemum (annual), cosmos, dahlia, delphinium, digitalis, 
g>'psophila, nicotiana, phlox (hardy), salvia, rudbeckia, schizanthus, 


5. Vegetables that should be six inches apart: Beet, celery, lettuce, 

parsnip, parsley, spinach, salsify, ttunip. 

774 Rural School Leaflet 

6. Vegetables that shcuid be twelve inches apart: Bean, cabbie, cauli- 
flower, eggplant, endive, koM-rabi, pepper. 

7. Vegetables that may be sown thickly: Carrot, leek, onion, pea, radish. 

8. VegetabUs that should be three to four feet apart each way: Bean (pole), 
com, cucumber, kale, melon, squash. 


In many school gardens as well as in many home gardens, the lack 
of a good supply of water often results in a partial failure of the crop 
or demands hard work in carrying water. This lack of water may be 
overcome by the use of some kind of mulch. The mulch serves several 
purposes: conserving moisture in the soil by preventing evaporation; 
keeping the surface of the soil loose; protecting the plant roots from 
injury by frost; and to a certain extent with some materials adding 
plant food to the soil. The first two considerations are perhaps the 
most important in the school garden, and even where water may be 
used in quantity it is often better to mulch the ground around the plants 
than to use water too freely. 

Constant watering will cause heavy soil to become sodden and sour, 
whereas by the use of two or three inches of mulch the soil will remain 
loose and sweet. Mulch is also valuable on light, sandy soil where evap- 
oration is rapid. Plants demand moisture around the roots, but do not 
thrive with their roots standing in water; and where a mulch is used 
there is a constant supply of moisture rising through the soil which will 
be held near the surface by the mulch. 

The material that can be used as a mulch may be anything supplying 
shade and lying dose to the ground: short grass, straw, hay, coarse manure, 
leaves, and old boards. Stirring the surface of the soil with a hoe or a 
rake will produce a "dust mulch" that will be of benefit. (See page aig.) 

Rural School Leaflet 




'OR the ctiltivation of a large piece of 
ground for children's gardens, it would be well 
to buy the seeds in bulk. Some of the older 
children will enjoy putting them up in 
packets and marking them. This will be a 
good school exercise. The teacher with some 
of the children might estimate the number of 
lineal feet to be planted with each kind of 
seed. If the teacher does not know the 
quantity needed for this estimate, the seeds- 
man will tell her. If there are but few 

children in the school or a small piece of ground to be cultivated, the 

penny packets will be found satisfactory. 

.4// orders must be sent through the teacher. 

Post office State 

School No Grade 


James Vick*s Sons 
189 Main Street, East 18-20 Stone Street 

Rochester, N. Y. 

Please fill our order for the following: 

Flower Seeds 






. . Nasturtium < 


Bachelor's Button 



. . Petunia 




. . Poppy 


. . Scabiosa 


Morning Glory 

. .Sweet Peas 

. . Zinnia 

Vegetable Seeds 


. .Onions 


. .Radish 


. .Spinach 


. . Sweet Com 

Postage, two cents extra for every 12 packets of flower seed, and three cents extra 
for every 12 packets of vegetable seeds. Large orders will go cheaper by express, 
charges to be paid by the purchaser. No order accepted for less than one dozen packets. 

Yfi Rural School Leaflet 

~ Editor 

and giirls in rural districts have the 
porhinity to give pleasure and profit 
themselves and to others by plant- 
it trees. Make the most of it. Tell 
ather that you want to plant and 
I apple tree each year, and ask him 
) you to decide on the place for your 
wtM. He will be glad to do this. Girls 
as well as boys should try. 

An apple tree will unfold a story to the watchful boy or girl, which 
will be as interesting as many stories in books ; the effort of the young 
tree to make a start in life ; the first springtime when it shows itself ready 
to take advantage of the sun and rain; the struggle [with the storms; 
the first blossoms; the first fruit. You will watch the insect enemies and 
will protect the tree. Some day a robin will sing from its branches. In 
future years a mother bird may find it a safe and sheltered place for her 
home. Yes; you will want to plant a tree this year, and bud it when 
the time comes. 

Read the following stanzas. You will then understand what one 
naturalist felt as he stood in his own orchard, 

" For I planted these orchard trees myself 
On hillside slopes that belong to mc; 
Where visions are wide and winds are free 
That all the round year might come to my shelf. 

And there on my shelves the white winter through. 

Pippin and Peaimain, Rambo, and Spy, 

Greening and Swaar and Spitzenbeigs lie 
With memories tense of sun and dew. 

They bring the great fields and the fence-rows here, 
The ground-bird's nest and the cow-bell's stroke, 
The tent-worm's web and the night-fire's smoke, 

And smell of the sinartweed through all the year. 

They bring me the days when the groimd was turned, 
When the trees were pruned and tilled and sprayed, 
When the sprouts were cut and grafts were made, 

When fields were cleaned and the brush-wood piles burned." 
L. H. Bailey 

Rural School Leaflet 



Fig. I 

C. S. Wilson 

Eow to plant an apple tree. — The apple tree is bought from the nursery- 
man in the fall or the spring. It should be two years old, and the variety 

should be Northern Spy. The tree is planted in 

the spring as soon as the ground can be worked. 

Dig a round hole large enough to receive the 

roots of the tree, and deep enough to plant the 

tree three or f otir inches deeper than it was in 

the nursery row. This will cover the bud and 

crook near the base. When the hole is dug, 

throw back into the bottom a few shovelfuls of 

the good surface dirt; then place the tree in the 

hole. Let one pupil hold the tree straight, while 

others throw in the soil, at the same time work- 
ing it between the roots with the fingers. Step 

on the soil and tramp it down firmly. Fill the 

hole up level ivith the surrounding surface. 
Budding. — This is such an interesting and im* 

portant farm operation that every boy and girl should know how to do 

it. It is so simple, too, that one can learn it in a few minutes. 

Think of changing the little apple trees in the orchard, or those that 

come up in the fence row, to any variety of apple 
you wish I And this is exactly what budding is for. It is 
to change. the variety of a fruit, and this change can 
be made on branches as small as a lead pencil or as large 
as the thumb. 

The nurserjrman buds the Kttle trees in the nursery 
row about two or three inches above the surface of the 
ground, inserting a single bud in each tree. The fruit- 
grower top-buds the trees he has set in the orchard the 
spring before, inserting two or three buds in the main 
stem of each tree about three feet from the ground. 
This is what you will do if you have planted a Northern 
Spy tree in the spring. 

Plan to bud the tree in August. At this time the bark 
peels readily. It would peel in [the spring also, but then 
the flow of sap is so great that the little bud would be 

drowned or forced out of the bark. Later in the fall than August the 

bark becomes so dry that it will not peel. 



Pig. 2 

778 Rural School Leaflet 

To prepare the tree or stock. — Choose the place for the bud. Make a 
horizontal cut across the stem just through the bark. This cut should 
be made with a rolling motion of the knife, and should be 
crescent-shaped. Then, beginning in the middle of this 
crescent-shaped cut, draw the knife straight down, making 
a vertical cut, as in Fig. a. To loosen the bark, twist the 
knife sidewise before drawing it out. The stock is now 
ready for the bud. 

The bud stick.— Take the buds from bearing trees of 
the variety you wish. From the ends of the branches 
cut twigs that have grown this spring. These are called 
bud sticks. The leaves are still on them. At the base of 
each leaf and between the leaf and the branch you will 
' find a little bud. This is the bud you wish to insert into 
the tree, which has been prepared as above. 

To cut the bud. — Cut the leaves off the bud stick about a quarter of an 
inch above the bud, thus leaving the base of the leaf stalk as a handle 
for the bud. Also cut off the upper part of the bud stick three or four 
buds from the end. These end buds are soft and immature, and should 
not be used. Cut each bud as you use it. Beginning with a sharp knife 
below the bud, cut upwards just through the bark beneath the bud and 
above it about half an inch. Be sure to cut through the bark, but be 
careful not to get much wood beneath the bud. The illustration (Fig. i) 
shows how to cut the leaves from the bud stick, and also how to cut the 

Inserting the bud. — Push the bud down into the incision made in the 
stock, using the leaf stalk as a handle. Be sure that the entire bud is 
shoved into the incision. If a portion of the bark should project above, 
cut it off. Fig. 3. 

Tying. — The bud is now ready for tying. Raffia is the best material 
to tie with, but if that is not available use ordinary 
string. Wrap the wound entirely except where the bud 
is. Begin below the bud to wind the raffia. Wrap it 
carefully and snugly up to the bud, around the sides, and 
above the bud beyond the top of the wound. Then tie 
securely. Fig. 4. 

Later treatment. — Leave the raffia or string about two or 
three weeks, when the bud will have " stuck." Then 

remove the rafha. It is the common practice to draw 

a sharp knife over the strings on the side opposite 

the bud, completely severing them and allowing them to fall off as 

they will. The bud will remain dormant during the winter, and will 

Rural School Leaflet 779 

begin to grovr in the spring. After the buds have grown one year, 
choose the strongest branch and cut off all the others. From this 
branch allo^v^ the main branches of the tree to grow. 


WiLFORD M. Wilson 

We have seen the beautiful sunrise and sunset colors many times, and 
perhaps have wondered what makes the sky so much more brilliant at 
evening or in the morning than during the middle of the day. Of course 
we all know that it is the sunlight falling on the clouds which makes them 
so beautifiil at evening, but is not the sunlight brighter and are not the 
clouds just as beautiful in the middle of the day? It must take some- 
thing besides sunlight and clouds to make a brilliant svmset. How can 
we find out what it is? 

During the latter part of the year 1883, all of 1884, and a part of 1885, 
the sunset colors all over the world were remarkably brilliant. They 
were of such unusual beauty that almost every one spoke of it. 

In the Strait of Sunda between Java and Stunatra is a little island called 
Krakatoa. On this island was a volcano. On August 27 and 28, 1883, 
there was an eniption of this volcano so violent that it destroyed more 
than one half of theislandand left water athousandfeet deepwherethemoun- 
tain once stood. The ashes and the dust thrown up by the eruption fell 
for hundreds of miles arotmd. The finer dust reached great heights in 
the atmosphere, and the winds carried it all arotmd the world. As the dust 
spread out over the world the sunsets became so remarkably brilliant 
that almost every one noticed it. 

Many times before and since this incident it has been noticed that 
the sunset colors were much more brilliant after the eruption of volcanoes 
that threw much dust up into the air, than at other times; but in no case 
have they been so beautiful or continued so long as after the eruption of 
Krakatoa. We feel almost certain that the dust in the air has something 
to do with the sunset colors. Let us see whether we can find out just 
what happens to simlight when it shines through air that has a large 
amount of dust in it. 

What colors do you see the most in the simset sky? Red, orange, and 
yellow, of course. Did you ever see any blue or violet? Not often, I 
think. You remember that sunlight has in it the seven rainbow colors, 
\*iolet, blue, peacock, green, yellow, orange, and red. We sorted them 
out by letting a little beam of light pass through a piece of glass called a 
prism. We found that the finest light waves were violet and the coarsest 

780 Rural School Leaflet 

were red, and becavise the little violet waves were bent more in passing 
through the prism than were the larger red waves, each fell in a different 
place on the screen. 

Dtist also sorts out the colors in sunlight, but not in the same way 
that a prism does. In the first lesson we said that many ocean harbors 
had breakwaters, or great walls, to stop the waves as they came in from 
the ocean, so that ships might have a quiet place to anchor. Suppose 
that a wave higher and bigger than the breakwater should come in from 
the ocean. Would the breakwater stop it? Of coiu^ it would not. It 
wotdd roll right over the breakwater on into the harbor, would it not? 
Would the breakwater stop a little wave — one that was not so high as 
the breakwater itself? Certainly it would. Now, the little particles of 
dust in the air are something like breakwaters, because they stop the little 
violet and blue waves of light that are smaller than the dust particles; 
but the coarser waves of red and orange, which are bigger than the dust 
particles, pass right on over them. We do not see any blue or violet in 
the simset colors because the little waves of light that make these colors 
have been stopped by the dust in the air. In the same way that a break- 
water will not stop a wave from the ocean that is higher than itself, so 
the dtist in the air will not stop the waves of light that are larger than the 
dust particles themselves. These larger waves that make the yellow, 
orange, and red pass on through the dust, and when they fall on the 
clouds we see them in the gold and crimson colors of the sunset. 

But is there not just as much dust in the air in the middle of the day? 
Then why are the clouds not colored at noon, as well as at morning or 
evening? I think you can answer this question if you will try. When 
the sun is overhead, which side of the clouds does the light fall on ? Which 
side do we always see? When the sim is nearly down, which side of the 
clouds does the light then fall on? There is another reason. Most of 
the dust in the air is near the earth, probably below the clouds. So when 
the sun is nearly or quite down, the light passes through a greater .thick- 
ness of dusty air than when the sun is overhead, and the more dust there 
is the more the violets and the blues are sorted out, leaving only the yellow 
and the red to color the evening sky. 

Note. — Weather maps are now published only at the Ithaca, Buffalo, Binghamton 
Albany, and New York City Weather Bureau offices. 


R-virail School Leaflet 


Pnliialiad moaOiMy br *!■• Btw Toik Stita CoHafa of Acrieolttm at Coniall QnfnnltT, tram 
ScpMmbw to 1C«. and aolavd u Mcond-clui mitUc Baptambw 30, iMTLit tha PmI Offic* 
at Ilhaca, Il«w Tnck, ondar tba Act at Coomu of Jal7 it, iSm- ^ B> B«ilv, Dlraclw 

AATHUR D. nKAlf, C. XBWARD JolfSS, G. V. TASXKH, and C. H. TDCE, Adriian 

VU. 5 ITHACA, N. Y., APRIL-MAY, 1912 No. 4 

Only a little forest-brook 

The farthest hem of silence shook; 

When in the hollow shades I heard — 

What is it, a spirit or a bird? 

Or, strayed from Eden, desolate, 

Some Peri calling to her mate, 

Whom nevermore her mate would cheer? 

"Peril peri! peer!" 

From "The Pewee," by J. T. Trouhridgt. 

7S2 Rural School Leaflet 


We are looking for the best possible development of our New York 
State girls and particularly of the girls living in ootmtry districts. A long 
summer vacation is near. It will afford an opportunity to accomplish, 
some definite piece of work for the improvement of the home and for the 
comfort of the family. A garden to furnish flowers and vegetables for 
the table; a room which it shall be your care to keep neat, dean, and 
attractive; some new curtains for the windows next fall; clean paper 
coverings for the cupboard shelves; a well-made dish of food. In line 
with this last suggestion we print the following article on Bread Making. 
Try the recipe imtil you are able to obtain each time bread that is evenly 
porous, with a sweet, nutty flavor, thoroughly baked with a well-browned 
crust, and having no odor nor taste of yeast. 

bread making 

Flora Rose 

Suppose you try to plant a yeast garden and make a loaf of bread. 
For one loaf of bread: 

i pint of water or milk 

} of a yeast cake, softened in \ cup of water, or 

\ cup of liquid starter 

I teaspoon of salt 

If a crtunbly crumb is liked, use i teaspoon to i tablespoon of lard 
or drippings or butter. 

If sweet bread is liked, use i teaspoon to i tablespoon of sugar. 

At first use enough flotu" to make a batter (about 2 to 2 J cupfuls). 

After the batter has become very light add enough flour to make a 
dough. I cannot tell you how much floiu* to use at this time, for different 
kinds of flour vary so much in the amount of water they take up, but 
do not have the dough either very stiff or very soft. Knowing the 
characteristics of yeast, you will not have any trouble in understanding 
the following directions: 

Have hands, cloths, and utensils scrupulously dean. If milk is used, 
boil it up once, add salt, butter, and sugar, and then let it cool imtil it 
is about lukewarm. It is better to boil the water used, for it may con- 
tain some living things harmful to the yeast. After the liquid has cooled, 
add the yeast and enough flour to make a batter and then heat it well 
to put in plenty of oxygen. Cover with a clean cloth and set in a warm 
place until light. If compressed yeast or " starter " is used, the batter 
will be light in three or four hours. If dry yeast is used, it will take at 
least over night for the yeast to get a good start. When the batter is light, 
add enough flour to make a dough and knead it until it is no longer sticky. 




Rural School Leaflet 783 

Then put it back into the same bowl or pan in which the sponge was 
made and let it rise imtil it is a little more than double its original bulk. 
Shape into a loaf, put into a buttered bread pan, and let it rise again until 
it has about doubled its size. It should feel light and very elastic. Bake 
at once in a moderately hot oven for 40 to 45 minutes. This will not 
make a very large loaf of bread, but I hope you are going to learn to make 
and to like the small loaves of bread, for they are easier to bake through 
and they have a larger amount of good crust. 

A good loaf of bread should be evenly porous; should have a sweet, 
nutty flavor; should be thoroughly baked; have no odor nor taste of 
yeast; the crumb should be tender and elastic; the crust should be well 
browned; it should be so palatable as to encourage the family to make 
ii a prominent feattu*e of the meal. 


Arthur D. Dean 

(New York State Education Department) 

Right at the start I expect him to be a Boy — not a cherub, not a little 
old man, not a sneak. Just plain unadulterated Boy. I expect that he 
stands well on his feet, lodes you in the eye, tells you the truth; that he 
sleeps when l^e sleeps, works when he works, plays when he plays; that he 
swims like a duck, runs like a deer, sees like an eagle; that he plays fair 
on the field, at the school, in the home; that he likes a dog, delights in 
woods and fields, believes in comrades; that he admires real men, stands 
by his heroes, looks up to his mother; that he sees in a violet, a sparrow, 
a worm, the touch of the hand of God. 

Furthermore, I expect that the boy has a father as well as a mother, 
a few brothers and sisters, a wise teacher or two; that his father remembers 
that he was once a boy; that his mother tempers her all-abiding love with 
justice; that his home is more than a pantry and a bed; that his school 
is more than a recitation period; that his teacher sees something beyond 
marks; that his church is more than a form. 

But my expectations are more than one-sided or two-sided; they are 
many-sided. I rather suspect that the boy expects a few things himself. 
He expects that his parents are sturdy, responsible, clean; that fresh air 
is his in sleep, at play, in school; that he is fed at least as sanely as are 
horses, cows, and hens; that his desire for activity is turned from devilry 
into useful knowledge, productive labor, wholesome play; that his parents 
reverently tell him of the functions and care of his beautiful body; that he 
IS taught obedience and right thinking by example as well as by preach- 
ment ; that his capacity, interest, and native ability are studied and wisely 
directed; that the idealism of his adolescence is nurtured as though it 

784 Rural School Leaflet 

were the voice of God. In fact, he expects that every hour out of the 
twenty-four is a step forward in his educative process, and that the task 
of educating him is more than a school affair. 

There is yet more. Beyond my expectations or his expectations there 
are our expectations. You and I — everybody. He is oiu* boy. He is 
to be our Michelangelo, our Thomas Edison, our Abraham Lincoln, our 
First Citizen, our Great Good Man. It is for us to give him his chance 
to be great, good, and godlike. It is for us to give him a parentage 
untainted by disease — social, civic, or industrial. It is for us to give 
him his rightful heritage of playgrounds, of good schools, of clean cities. 
It is for us to close the door of the comer saloon, the dive, the vulgar 
show. It is for us to prevent his exploitation in sweatshop, factory, or 

Our boy cannot run the race with his feet tied. He cannot do it all. 
He will do his share. We must do oiu^. Now let's all push and pull 
together, then we shall find that our boy meets my expectations, his expec- 
tations, our expectations. 


Bojrs and girls throughout New York State are now interested in birds. 
There is not the careless hunting that used to drive away the little singers 
long ago. Birds are needed because they are useful and because they give 
us joy. Let us see each year how much we can learn about them and how 
well we can protect them from their enemies. 

If I were to go into your schoolroom and ask you to name all the birds 
you know, I am sure you would name the blackbird, the crow, the robin, 
the owl, and a number of the larger birds. There are very few boys and 
girls, however, who could tell me an3rthing about the group of small birds 
called warblers. I should like you to try to see some of them during the 
summer. They are very interesting. 

Keep your eyes open, then, for all small birds and have particularly 
in mind the little redstart, since it is one of the fly-catching warblers that 
we have for study this year. Remember it is smaller than a sparrow 
and you will have to look carefully to find it. You may see a bird smaller 
than a sparrow that does not answer to the description of the redstart 
on page 237 ; if so, describe it and we may be able to name it for you. 

Before summer comes, try to learn from the description on the next 
page the colors of the redstart. Read what Thoreau, the great naturalist, 
says of the little bird. Listen for every delicate bird note all summer and 
try to find the bird that makes it. If you do not find the redstart you 
will probably see one of the other warblers. 

Rural School Leaflet 785 

the kbdstart 

Size; Smaller than a sparrow. 

General color: Black above, iocluding the throat, with six orange 
patches, one in each wing, one on 
each side of the base of the tail, and 
one on each side of the breast. Under 
parts white. The female has the black 
replaced by green and the orange by 

Distinctive features: The black and 
orange ojlor, t<^ether with the small size, 
will distinguish it. 

" May 10, 1853. 

" I hear, and have for a week in the 
woods, the note of one or more small 
birds somewhat like a yellow-bird's. 

., , , , , , What is it? Is it the redstart? I now 

Neil of redstart , , _, -. 

see one of these. The first I nave dis- 
tinguished. And now I feel pretty certain that my black and yellow 
warbler of May ist was this. As I sit, it inquisitively hops nearer and 
nearer. It is one of the 
election-birds of rare 
colore which I can 
remember, mingled dark 
and reddish. This re- 
minds me that I supposed 
much more variety and 
fertility in nature before 
I had learned the num- 
bers and names of each 
order. I find that I had 
expected such fertility in 
our Concord woods alone 
as not even the complet- 
est museiun of stuffed 
birds of all the forms and 
colorsfrom all parts of the 

worldcomesupto. The '^'^ 

neat andactive creeper hops about the trunks, its note like asqueaking twig." 

Thoreau, Journal 


Rural School Leaflet 



The Editor 

Summer is almost here and with it comes vacation. 

I like to think of the rosy-cheeked girls and £f eck- 

led-faced bo)rs in the country who will be free 

to work and play out of doors through the 

long, long stmmier days. To help father in the 

fields or to help mother in the home will give work 

enough, but there will probably be time to spend 

many hours with chipmimk or squirrel or gay robin 

redbreast, or in finding some new wood or way- 

"*' side plant that you have never seen before. In 

times of leisure you can add much to your nature 

knowledge and boys and girls should not neglect 


The world needs persons who have knowl- 
edge of natxire because all agriculture is 
founded on this knowledge. There is always a 
demand for the successful farmer and there is also 
a demand for the man in the city who is awake to 
his surroundings. This is why we want boys and 
girls in the public schools to study natural forces 
and objects. If you become farm folk in the future 
you will then have preparation to become successful farmers. If you go to 
the city to live you will find that your training in the study of nature 
will help you in any line of work. 

A boy or girl who wants to live well should train the senses. To see, 
to hear, to feel, to taste, to smell — all are important. As you grow older 
you will know that many persons have failed to make the most of one or 
more of these gifts. If any one of the senses is neglected while we are 
young we can never have the use of its full power. I am going to ask 
you, therefore, to learn all that you can through sight, sotmd, touch, taste, 
and smell. There are hundreds of ways in which you will do this all by 
yourselves. I am going to suggest some things to think about along this 
line, that come to me as I write. 



I. The dawn of the new day: what it reveals in the sky, in the fields, 
in the distant trees, in the life in and about the farm. 2. Simset time. 
How many different colors will you see diuing the spring and simimer 

Rural School Leaflet 787 

evenii^? Hovr does one sunset differ from another? Look out into the 
nights, some starry and some moonKt. 3. Note all the different greens 
that can be seen in a landscape: the greens of trees; the different crops; 
a far-away bit of ivater. Note the touches of rich color that brighten the 
landscax)e, all tbe reds and the yellows. 4. Try to see some bird that is 
smaller than a sparrow. Many bo3rs and girls never see the very small 
birds. 5. Look closely to find all the parts of some one flower: a lily of 
the valley, a tiger Uly, a wild rose, or a bluebell. 6. Try to see blossoms 
on at least one tree. Often young persons do not realize that trees blossom. 
7. If you have red poppies growing in your garden, arrange some with 
ripened wheat and see what beautiful color you will have. 8. Notice the 
best-kept grounds in your neighborhood, and notice the most attractive 
house inside and out. 9. Look in villages near, or in your own com- 
munity, for the most attractive garden. 10. Learn to see at a glance when 
motlier or father needs you. When you truly see this your heart will 
ans^ver the need. 


I. Listen to the early morning sotmds. Sound gives to some persons 
as much joy as does sight. 2. Try to distinguish the different bird notes. 
3. I^ten to the mtisic of the crickets and katydids, and to the sounds 
of otlier insects by day and night. 4. Leam to recognize the sotmds made 
by tlie pines, the rain on the roof, the hail near the close of the summer 
shower, s- Listen for the sound of the church bell which may come to 
you from the village near. 6. Notice how restful and pleasant it is to 
hear persons speak in low, soft tones. Try to speak in this way when 
talking to others. 


T. The warm, sweet winds of spring. 2. The touch of a gentle rain 
on your face. 3. The cool, soft moss in the deep wood. 4. The joy that 
all clean things give: cleanliness of person; of clothing; of everything in 
the house or bam. 5. The confidence of your dog when he puts his nose 
into your hand- 6. The response of the farm animals to your affection. 


1. Good bread and butter. Some persons do not know when butter 

is good and w^onder why the butter they make is not in demand. Leam 

to tell the difference. 2. Girls should find out how the best bread is made. 

Do not be satisfied until you know that you can make it. 3. Leam to 

distinguish quality in apples and other fruit; in vegetables. 4- Leam the 

value of cool, refreshing, pure water. 

788 Rural School Leaflet 

80mb things to smell 

I. The pine woods. The distant buckwheat field. The lilac hedge. 
Garden flowers at night. 2. A clean bam. 3. Clean rooms at home. 
Good cooking. 4. Be sure that all unpleasant odors, indoors and out, 
are removed as soon as possible. Help to keep all parts of the house and 
farm buildings clean so that you will be able to get the benefit of the 
agreeable odors. 


Covert, N. Y., January 18, 1912 
Dear Mr. Tuttle: 

We received the Cornell Leaflets some time ago and we were all very 
glad to get them. We enjoy studying and reading them very much. I 
am greatly interested in the raising and care of poultry. My father 
and I have a large flock of pure-bred White Leghorn ptdlets. They are 
just beginning to lay now. I enjoy caring for chickens especially when 
they are laying a good amount of eggs. 

You asked if we were planning to have a Com Day celebration. I am 
glad to say that we are planning to. We expect to recite pieces and we 
thought it woxild be nice to pop com and if we could we wanted to get 
some farmer to tell us about the raising and cultivating of com. We also 
want to trim our schoolroom and make it look nice. 

My father works a large farm. We have a large flock of Brown Leg- 
horn hens, several small pigs, and several head of sheep. We keep four 
cows and we also have four horses. I enjoy farm work and chores very 
much. I am glad that I live in the coimtry where I can get black rasp- 
berries, blackberries, and strawberries in the summer time when the sun 
is so hot, but the fruit tastes very good when cold weather comes. 
There is a large woods on the land that my father works. In the spring 
I Uke to go and gather flowers and along in May and June and July there 
are lots of white and red lilies to gather, also Leopard Tongue ; some people 
call them yellow lilies. I think the squirrel cornflowers are pretty also. 
I like to study about the different kinds of birds. There are a great many 
different kinds of birds. There are a great many different kinds to learn 
about. I liked the story about the junco bird in the last Cornell Leaflets 
that we received. 

Very truly yours, 

Rural School Leaflet 789 

Dear Girls and Boys: 

HIS letter is the last one that I shall write to you this 
spning. I desire first of all that it shall tell you of the 
joy I have found in my touch with you. How my heart 
^^rarms to read the letters that come to me signed, '* I am 
your true friend," or " A girl of the open coimtry," or " A 
boy who loves the country"! As I read these letters I am 
more and more sure that you all do love the country and 
that you realize the opporttmity which is yours to five 
free, wholesome, happy, useful lives. 
One of the things I wish to ask of you is that you will not be disappointed 
if I do not i>ersonally answer your letters. If it were possible to follow 
my deares, each one should receive an answer at once. But I cannot 
do this, for there are so many of you. However, in each Leaflet there 
will be a letter that will answer all of yours. In these letters I shall try 
to tell you those things that perhaps may interest you, and to help you 
to feel how sincerely I wish for your good fortune and how eager I am for 
your confidence and friendship. Now let us consider some important 
things to think about and to work out between now and next fall. 

As I write. Farmers' Week here at the college is about to begin. Of 
course, when you read this letter it will be long past, nevertheless I think 
you will be interested. You remember that we asked to have some prize 
com sent to tis for an exhibit, and in January we also asked each school 
sup)erintendent to have some school in his district send us an exhibit 
of Nature-Study work. The display is a remarkably fine one and I wish 
all of you might see it, especially those who contributed something. 
Perhaps you have guessed that the reason why I have told you about all 
this is that I want you to begin now to think about two exhibitions for 
next year — Com Day in the schools and Farmers' Week at the college. 
This is the time to make plans to take part in them. 

We are considering holding Com Day in November instead of in January, 

because November is closer to the com harvest time. What do you think 

of this plan? If you want some com to exhibit, grow it, (See page 243.) 

If you are going to make a collection of plants or leaves or seeds or flowers 

or twigs for Farmers' Week, be constantly on the lookout for the finest 

specimens. If yovi ^^ going to keep chickens or cultivate a home garden 

this summer, such as was suggested in the last letter, decide to keep a 

neat accurate, and complete account of all you do and of your results. 

A record of this kind is as valuable to exhibit as is com or a collection. 

790 Rural School Leaflet 

It tells of real experience and will help others. Whatever you plan to 
do, resolve to do it with all your might, and to have a piece of work to 
show that will make your fathers and mothers and friends realize that you 
have done something worth while: something that has not only been a 
pleasure to you, but that has helped others. 

I want every boy and girl who reads this letter to think of what Mr. 
Dean has said in this Leaflet that he expects of a boy of fourteen. 
It applies not only to a boy at this particular age, but to all boys, younger 
and older; and girls, also, will find things there to think of: things that 
will help them in many ways. 

Now it is time for me to say good-by. It is not good-by for good, 
because next fall I shall write to you all again, and between now and then 
many letters will come to me from you, some of which I shall try to answer 
personally. Let me ask one thing of you. The thing I want to ask is 
that each boy and girl will take a share of responsibility: responsibility 
to self, in that good, clean, strong habits are formed; responsibility to 
others, in that their feelings are considered and their needs supplied, that 
they may be made comfortable and be helped; responsibility to a task, 
in that it may be carried to a definite and sure end. This does not mean 
that I do not want you to play and have fine, happy times. I do. I 
think something would be wrong with you if you did not do these things. 
Be natural, free, happy boys and girls, but be clean, respectful, useful 
boys and girls, too. I hope you will feel that I am very earnest in my 
desire to be a friend that will stand by and pull with you and for you. 
I shall watch you growing day by day and month by month, and it will 
be my joy to see the boys and girls of this State find the fullness of life. 

Good-by, and good luck. 

Your friend always, 

You hear that boy laughing? — You think he's all fun; 
But the angels laugh, too, at the good he has done; 
The children laugh loud as they troop at his call, 
And the poor man that knows him laughs loudest of all ! 

Oliver Wendell Holmes 

Rural School Leaflet 791 


E. R. Minns 

Preparation, — Select some good ears of a variety of com that is known 
to produce a large crop of ripe com in your neighborhood. A few kernels 
from each ear of seed com should be tested to make sure that they will 
sprout vigorously. 

The soil on 'which to grow a prize-winning crop of com should be chosen 
from the most fertile part of the farm, if possible. Sod land which grew 
a crop of clover last year, and which has had a coat of barnyard manure 
scattered on it during the winter or early spring, is an ideal place to plant 
com. It should be carefully plowed early in the spring and harrowed 
several times before the date for planting arrives, to make the first three 
inches of soil fine and level. 

Planting. — It will not be best to plant com before the weather is warm 
enough for boys to go barefooted every day and all day long, for com 
needs warmth in the soil and air. We expect such weather as com needs 
some time in the month of May or in early June. 

Make furrows across the com plat in its longest direction, if that will 
not hinder the work of cultivation. Three and one-half feet between 
furrows will be wide enough. If a furrow marker drawn by horses or 
pushed by hand can be used, it will save time. Furrows may be made 
by stretching a stout string between two stakes placed at opposite ends 
of the plat and drawing a hoe beside it through the soil, so that the comer 
of the hoe makes the bottom of the furrow. The stakes have to be reset 
for each furrow. 

Plant the corn in hills, five kernels in each hill. Make the hills three 
and one-half feet apart in the row for large-growing varieties, a less dis- 
tance apart for small varieties, especially sweet com and popcorn. Cover 
each hill with fine mellow soil so that the kernels lie buried about one 
and one-half inches below the surface. If the soil is rather dry, pat the 
surface lightly with the back of the hoe blade to bring the soil moisture 
up around the buried com kernels and make them sprout faster. 

If a hand planter can be fotmd that will drop the five kernels in each 
hill, it will save time to use it; but one should be careful to see that enough 
loose soil falls in on the com to cover it well after the open blades of the 
planter are withdrawn from the soil. 

If a horse-drawn com planter can be managed by any young corn- 
grower it will save furrow-making before planting and will leave the 
rows in better condition for cultivation. 

Cultivation. — To kill the sprouting weeds which lie near the surface 
of the soil, the plat should be harrowed lightly or stirred with a weeder. 

792 Rural School Leaflet 

About a week after the com shoots can be plainly seen in the rows it is 
time to begin using the cultivator. A qiiiet, steady horse hitched to a 
single cultivator, or a team and a wheel cultivator with small blades 
should be used to stir the soil between the rows of com. Cultivation 
kills the weeds, airs the soil, and prevents the evaporation of moisture 
from the deeper soil. Com is benefited by frequent cultivation, at first 
moderately deep, then more lightly as the roots spread out through the 
soil, and when the hot, dry days of summer come, and the com is tasseling, 
a small-toothed cultivator that leaves the surface soil fine and nearly 
level will be most useful. Unless weather conditions interfere, the com 
plat should be cultivated four times or more. The soil between the 
hills in the row needs to be hoed as often as weeds appear. Never hoe 
nor cultivate the com plat when the soil is so moist that it feels sticky 
if squeezed in the hands. 

Enemies. — While the com plant is young one must watch for its 
enemies. The crows and large blackbirds must be frightened away from 
the field until the com is too lai^e for them to pull it up. Sometimes 
a cutwomi can be found lurking near a com hill and killed before it has 
cut off all of the stalks. 

Thinning. — When the com plants are about six inches high and danger 
from birds and insects seems to be past, every hill that has more than 
three stalks should have the extra ones removed by pulling them out, 
leaving the three most vigorous ones. 

Harvesting. — In September when the lower leaves on the cornstalks 
begin to die and many of the husks are turning dry, it is time to cut and 
shock the7com crop if one wishes to save the fodder for feed- About 
sixty hills of com may be gathered into a shock and the tops boimd together 
to make the shock stand up. Too large a shock will not cure properly 
and some of the ears may thus be spoiled. Six weeks of good autumn 
weather will cure the com shocks sufficiently for husking. If one does 
not care for the fodder the ears will be better if left on the standing stalks 
until the latter are dead and dry and the ears are thoroughly ripened. 
After husking, com ears should be stored where air can circulate 
between them but where rats and mice can not get in. 


Rxjrcil School Leaflet 


nibOvbed nwaltilr br tha ITcv Toit SMt* CoUai* of Airicultars itCorn^irDETarritT, from 
Svptambor to Hu. uid eoMiod u Mcond-clui nuttoSspisinbarjo, 1907, it (ho PotI Office 
■t tthacK, n*w Tork, luidK iha Acl of Concrau of Jalj 16, iS^- L. H. BalloT, Diioctor 



Vol. 6 ITHACA. N. Y., SEPTEMBER, 1912 No. I 



FOR 1912-1913 



794 Rural School Leaflet 


We are indebted to Mr. E. F, McDonald^ Mr, A. J. Merrell, Mr, C, L. 
Mosher, and Mr, L. S. Hawkins of the New York State Education Depart- 
ment for helpful suggestions in preparing this leaflet. 

The selections from John Burroughs' s works are used by permission of 
and special arrangement with Houghton Mifflin Company , the only author^ 
ized publishers of his works. 

The poem on page ijo is printed by permission of the Atlantic Monthly, 

By permission of the New York State Conservation Commission we are 
able to publish the frontispiece drawn by Mr. L, A, Fuertes, 

Chickadee and NutkaUh 

Rural School Leaflet 795 


L. H. Bailey 

A FUNDAMENTAL necessity to successful living is to be in sym- 
pathy with the nature-environment in which one is placed. This 
sympathy is bom of good knowledge of the objects and phenomena in 
the environment. The process of acquiring this knowledge and of arriv- 
ing at this sjnnpathy is now popularly called nature-study. 

The nature-study process and point of view should be a part of the 
work of all schools, because schools train persons to live. Partictdarly 
should it be a part of rural schools, because the nature-environment is the 
controlling condition for all persons who hve on the land. There is no ef- 
fective living in the open country imless the mind is sensitive to the 
objects and phenomena of the open country; and no thoroughly good 
fanning is possible without this same knowledge and outlook. Good 
fanners are good naturalists. 

For many years it has been one of the purposes of the College of 
Agriculture in New York to jxrint the way to this nature-sympathy; 
and inasmuch as this nature-sympathy is fundamental to all good farm- 
ing, it was cjonceived that the first duty of any movement was to lend 
the effort to the establishing of an intelligent interest in the whole en- 
\Tronment — to knowledge of fields and weather, trees, birds, fish, frogs, 
soils, domestic animals. It would be incorrect to begin first with the 
specific agricultural phases of the environment, for the agriculttiral 
phase (as any other special phase) needs a foimdation and a base: it is 
only one part of a point of view. Moreover, to begin with a discussion of 
the so-called "useful" or "practical" objects, as many advise, would be 
to teach falsely, for, as these objects are only part of the environment, 
to single them out and neglect the other subjects would result in a partial 
and untrue outlook to nature; in fact, it is just this partial and preju- 
diced outlook that we need to correct. 

In our own work, we have always had in view the agricultural aim 
or appUcation. We should have been glad if there had been sufficient 
nature-study sentiment to have enabled xis to confine ourselves to the 
agricultural aim; but this sentiment had to be created or quickened, 
and we have tried to contribute our part toward accomplishing this 
result. At first it was impossible to secure much hearing for the agri- 
cultural subjects. Year by year such hearing has been more readily 
given, and the work has been ttuned in this direction as rapidly as the 
conditions would admit — for it is the special mission of an agricultural 

^Reprinted from the September, 191 1, Leaflet. 

796 Rural School Leaflet 

college to extend the agricultural applications of nature-study. In later 
years the content of the work has had very direct relation to farm-life 
questions. The time has now come, we think, when we can devote 
practically all our energies to this application. It is the purpose of this 
leaflet to aid the teacher in the rural school to work out the practical 
daily problem of teaching agricultural subjects. 

In doing this, we merely confine ourselves to our more special field. 
The general nattu'e-study outlook is fundamental, and we shall continue 
to emphasize it; but we feel that the appreciation of this outlook is now 
so well established as to allow us to specialize. The Education Depart- 
ment has issued syllabi for agriculture and nature-study; we desire to 
be useful in applying them to the conditions and needs of coimtry Kfe. 
Schools here and there are ready for agricultural work: we want to 

In making these statements we have in mind that the common 
schools do not teach trades and professions. We do not approach the 
subject primarily from an occupational point of view, but from the 
educational and spiritual; that is, the man should know his work and his 
environment. The mere giving of information about agricultural ob- 
jects and practices can have very little good result with children. The 
spirit is worth more than the letter. Some of the hard and dry tracts 
on farming would only add one more task to the teacher and the pupil 
if they were introduced into the school, making the new subject in time 
as distasteful as arithmetic and grammar often are. In this new 
agricultural work we need to be exceedingly careful that we do not go 
too far, and that we do not lose our sense of relationships and values. 
Introducing the word agriculture into the scheme of studies means very 
little; what is taught, and particularly how it is taught, is of the great- 
est moment. We hope that no country-life teaching will be so narrow 
as to put only technical farm subjects before the pupil. 

We need also to be careful not to introduce subjects merely because 
practical grown-up farmers think that the subjects are useful and there- 
fore should be taught. Farming is one thing and teaching is another. 
What appeals to the man may not appeal to the child. What is most use- 
ful to the man may or may not be most useful in training the mind of a 
pupil in school. The teacher, as well as the farmer, must alwa3rs be con- 
sulted in respect to the content and the method of teaching agricultural 
subjects. We must always be alert to see that the work has living 
interest to the pupil, rather than to grown-ups, and to be on guard that it 
does not become lifeless. Probably the greatest mistake that any teacher 
makes is in supposing that what is interesting to him is therefore inter- 
esting to his pupils. 

Rural School Leaflet 797 

AH agricultural subjects must be taught by the nature-study method 

which is: to see accurately; to reason correctly from what is seen; to 

establish a bond of sympathy with the object or phenomenon that is 

studied. One camiot see accurately tuiless one has the object itself. 

If the pux>il studies com, he should have com in his hands |ind he should 

make his own observations and draw his own conclusions; if he studies 

cows, he should make his observations on cows and not on what some one 

has said about cows. So far as possible, all nature-study work should be 

conducted in the open, where the objects are. If specimens are needed, let 

the pupils collect them. See that observations are made on the crops in the 

field as well as on the specimens. Nattuie-study is an outdoor process : the 

schoolroom should be merely an adjimct to the out-of-doors, rather than 

the out-of-doors an adjtmct to the schoolroom, as it is at present. 

A laboratory of living things is a necessary part of the best nature- 
study work. It is customary to call this laboratory a school-garden. 
We need to distinguish three types of school-garden: (i) The orna- 
mented or planted grounds; this should be a part of every school enter- 
prise, for the premises should be attractive to pupils and they should 
stand as an example in the community. (2) The formal plat-garden, 
in which a variety of plants is grown and the pupils are taught the usual 
handicraft; this is the prevailing kind of school-gardening. (3) The 
problem-garden, in which certain specific questions are to be studied, 
in much the spirit that problems are studied in the indoor laboratories; 
these are little known at present, but their number will increase as school 
work develops in efficiency; in rural districts, for example, such direct 
problems as the rust of beans, the blight of potatoes, the testing of 
varieties of oats, the study of species of grasses, the observation of efiEect 
of fertilizers, may well be tmdertaken when conditions are favorable, and 
it will matter very little whether the area has the ordinary "garden" 
appearance. In time, ample groimds will be as much a part of a school 
as the buildings or seats now are. Some of the school-gardening work 
may be done at the homes of the pupils, and in many cases this is the only 
kind that is now possible; but the farther removed the laboratory, the 
less direct the teaching. 

To introduce agriculture into any elementary rural school it is first 
necessary to have a willing teacher. The trustees should be able to 
settle this point. The second step is to begin to study the commonest 
and most available object concerning which the teacher has any kind of 
knowledge. The third step is to begin to connect or organize these 
observations into a method or system. This simple beginning made, 
the work ought to grow. It may or may not be necessary to organize a 
special class in agriculture; the geography, arithmetic, reading, manual 


Rural School Leaflet 

training, nature-study, and other work may be modified or re-directed. 
It is possible to teach the state elementary syllabus in such a way as 
to give a good agricultural training. 

In the high school, the teacher should be well trained in some special 
line of science; and if he has had a course in a college of agriculture 
he should be much better adapted to the work. Here the teaching may 
partake somewhat more of the laboratory method, although it is possible 
that our insistence on formal laboratory work in both schools and colleges 
has been carried too far. In the high school, a separate and special 
class in agriculture would better be organized; and the high school 
syllabus of the Education Department provides for this. 

In all agricultural work in the schools of the State, the College of 
Agriculture desires to render all the aid it can. Correspondence is invited " 
on the agricultural questions involved. In special qases an officer of 
the College may be sent to give advice on the technical agricultural 
phases of the teaching. Considerable literature in the publications of the 
College is now available and will be sent on application. 

In many districts the sentiment for agricultural work in the schools 
will develop very slowly. Usually, however, there is one person in the 
community who is alive to the importance of these new questions. If 
this person has tact and persistence, he ought to be able to get something 
started. Here is an opportunity for the young farmer to exert influence 
and to develop leadership. He should not be impatient if results seem 
to come slowly. The work is new: it is best that it grow slowly and 
quietly and prove itself as it goes. Through the grange, reading-dub, 
fruit-growers* society, creamery association, or other organization the 
sentiment may be encouraged and formulated; a teacher may also be 
secured who is in sjnnpathy with making the school a real expression 
of the affairs of the community; the school premises may be put in order 
and made effective; now and then the pupils may be taken to good farms 
and be given instruction by the farmer himself; good farmers may be 
called to the schoolhouse now and then to explain how they raise pota- 
toes or produce good milk. A very small start will grow by accretion if 
the persons who are interested in it do not lose heart, and in five years 
every one will be astonished at the progress that has been made. 

Rural School Leaflet 799 


The Editor 

I. THE rural teacher 

In the State College of Agriculture we believe in 
the rural school teachers of New York State. The 
deep interest shown by many of them in the effort 
to improve coimtry-life conditions has been most 
encouraging. Some of the best educational work 
being done in New York State can be foimd in rural 
schools. Many men and women are making earnest 
effort to help boys and girls in the country to a realization of 
educational opportunities. We consider it a privilege to work with such 
teachers. We hope they will feel free to make suggestions at any time 
tlxat will aid the Department of Rural School Education of the State 
College of Agriculture in more efficiently reaching the boys and girls in 
country districts. 

In the welfare of the country child, rural teachers have a great deal of 

responsibility. Often a child remains with one teacher for several school 

years, and in this way the teacher has a better opporttmity to help him 

than many city teachers have who teach but one grade. In many cases, 

owing to inexperienced parents, or to the fact that parents are having so 

serious a life struggle that there is but little time to attend to the boys 

and girls, young persons enter the rural school who need attention aside 

from their mental development. Although many teachers are fully aware 

of these essentials, we should Uke to mention some of them for the benefit 

of the younger and more inexperienced persons who enter this year into 

the responsible position of teaching boys and girls. We ask consideration 

of the following : 

Physical condition of the children, — Every teacher should be interested- 
in the physical welfare of the children under his care. Their whole future 
depends on health. The busy mother does not always notice that a child 
is breathing through his mouth instead of through his nose; she does not 
always notice that his teeth need attention; she does not always notice 
that he is gradtially showing less vitality. Effort is being made by the 
State Board of Health to awaken persons in rural conmiunities to weak- 
nesses in sight and hearing among boys and girls. The movement should 
meet with hearty cooperation. It is the duty of every teacher who observes 
physical defects in the pupils in his classroom to do what he can to help 
them, and to see that parents understand the danger that threatens the 
young persons. 

8oo Rural School Leaflet 

Presence. — When boys and girls are ready to go out into the world, a 
large part of their future success depends on personal appearance and 
manners. By commending boys and girls who come to school clean, with 
hair neatly combed and finger nails cared for, who walk instead of shamble, 
who are able to "stand on two feet and look you straight in the eye," 
the teacher will soon find the more careless children making effort to 
receive such commendation. Children should be taught some of the 
essentials of good manners ^ — ^ conduct in school, in the home, in the 
presence of older persons, at table, and in all public places. 

The school grounds. — Everything that a child sees during the day leaves 
some kind of impress. All constructive work stands for definite gain. 

A rural school in Herkimer County 

It is a serious thing when children day after day enter unkept school 
grounds and look upon dilapidated, unclean outhouses. The children 

could not do a more valuable piece of work than to help improve the school 
grounds. Everything should be made as neat as possible about the build- 
ing this fall, and as much enthusiasm as possible created for planting in 
the spring. 

The sckoolkouse. — No matter how unclean or unattractive the interior of 
the school building may be. it should never seem hopelessly so to the rural 
teacher. Such a condition may be opportunity for him to work with the 
children to make it livable and attractive. The effort on the part of the 
children to do this may be suggestive of many improvements that can be 
made in their homes. Some rural teachers in New York State have called 
mothers' meetings for the purpose of discussing the improvement of the 
school btiiiding, and they have found the mothers ready to help in making 

Rural School Leaflet 8oi 

the building a fit place for the children. They have helped to paper the 
walls, and by means of paint and other inexpensive materials they have 
demonstrated the satisfactory restdts that come from labor. If the children 
take part in cleaning and hnproving the school building, they will be more 
interested in keeping it in good condition. 

Books, — It is most important that children in the country should have 
some good literature. Very few children in rural districts have much 
opportunity for reading, and when these boys and girls go out into the 
world they soon learn that it is difficult for older persons to become ready 
readers. The habit of reading should be encouraged in every possible 
way. The children should have books that appeal to the imagination, 
such as fairy tales, books of travel and adventure, and the like. They 
should also have books that relate to the great out-of-doors, such as the 
works of Burroughs and other naturalists. The older boys and girls should 
know that there are good books written along the lines of everyday farm 
practices and interests, and some of these books should be added to the 

Poetry. — Every human life is enriched by a knowledge of poetry. It 
keeps the heart young and the spirit atttmed to the higher life. It creates 
a taste for beautiful, deep, holy things. Teachers do not always realize 
how soon young children cultivate this taste if the teacher shows 
interest. I have seen rural boys and girls look forward to the hour when 
they recited together selections from Shelley, Wordsworth, and the others; 
or poems that have a httman interest, such as " Snowbound " and " Hora- 
tius at the Bridge." They should be encouraged to conmiit to memory 
passages from poems that are worth while. 

Out-of-door knowledge. — Every boy and girl, whether in city or country, 
should be in sympathy with the out-of-door world. There can be no greater 
contribution to mind and spirit and no greater resource for all future time 
than the knowledge of natural objects and phenomena. The country 
child has opportunity in all out-of-door study. This opportimity should 
be used in every possible way. 

Agriculture, — It is most significant that at the present day persons of 
education and wealth who have had the opportvmity to investigate all 
forms of education for their children are choosing agriculture as funda- 
mental to pjreparation for life. It provides work with hands and mind 
in a wholesome, interesting form. To develop a practical agricultural 
work requires the essentials that make for successful life: creative power, 
keen observation, accuracy, perseverance, attention to details, a business 
sense, an appreciation of ike needs of plant and animal life, a love of beauty, 
a kinship with the out-of-doors. With a wise teacher, the ftmdamentals for 
such development could be given on a half acre of ground connected with 

Soj Rl-ral School Leaflet 

the school. There is no other one line of education that offers the all- 
round growth which comes with farm experiences and practices combined 
with nature sympathy. Intellect and spirit are awakened. 

A rural school in Oneida county 


TIk New York Slate Syllabus. — The work in the public schools of New- 
York State in nature-study and agriculture for the year 1912-1913 includes 
the following subjects: (i) For special bird study, the nuthatch and the 
hen; to be recognized, any two kinds of winter birds and any five of the 
following: oriole, goldfinch, phoabe, grackle. brown thrasher, meadow 
lark, cliff swallow, black-and-white warbler, peacock, and eagle. {2) 
For special animal study, the cow and the cat; to be recognized, goat, fox, 
skunk, muskrat, and frog, (3) For special plant study, the potato; to be 
recognized, one of the clovers, one of the grasses, one of the grains, and 
any six of the following: willow, cherr>', daisy, marsh marigold, anemone, 
trillium, partridge berry, black medick, squash, turnip, pitcher plant. 
(4) For special insect study, the potato beetle and the lady beetle; to 
be recognized, tent caterpillar, honeybee, ant, hornet, spider. (5) For 
special tree study, the locust; to be recognized, two kinds of fruit trees, 
one conifer, and any four of the following: hemlock, spruce, cherry, quince, 
horse-chestnut, alder, eim, poplar, tamarack (larch). In this leaflet lessons 
will be found that will aid teachers in ^ving instruction in the work as 
outlined by the State Education Department. The lessons have been 
prepared in the departments of the State College in which the subjects 
are taught. 

Rural School Leaflet 803 

Ail teachers should read carefully pages iz$~i27 in tke New York Slate 
Syllabus before taking up tke work in nature-study and agriculture. 

Durii^ the first six grades in school, the out-ot-door study should 
develop in the child the spirit of the naturalist — an all-round interest in 
the out-of-doors. If properly taught, at the end of this period the child 
interested in natural forces and objects will have acquired a spirit of patient 
inquiry and accuracy in observation. He will begin to realize the kinship 
of out-of-door objects and the possibilities of interest and resource in 

Teadiers in country schools will find, however, that many of the 
boys and girls are not interested in nature-study from the viewpoint of 
the naturalist. The pupils should not be forced into this interest, even 
if they are in the lower grades, but should be allowed to turn their minds 
to the more practical side of the subjects. We have found very young 
children much interested in the commercial side of poultry raising, growing 
potatoes, and the like. Let us encourage these boys and girls, and, if 
the teacher will help, they will get the point of view of the naturaUst. A 
6eld of timothy is as beautiful as a field of violets. Who has not felt his 
spirit quicken at the sight of a field of oats in the sunlight or in the early 

Measuring beaTU grown in a school garden 

evening? Who has failed to see the beauty of pumpkins in the cornfield 
in the " blue October weather"? 
The work for the seventh and eighth grades as outlined in the elementary 

8o4 Rural School Leaflet 

syllabus has relation to agrictdture and may be intensified according to 
the amount of time and the interest of the teacher and pupils. Each 
lesson should lay the foundation for fundamental agricultural knowledge 
which will be introductory to high school and college work in these sub- 
jects. We would advise teachers of the seventh and eighth grades to 
follow the work outlined by the syllabus* for these grades, choosing, how- 
ever, for the most serious study the subject that is of greatest interest in 
the community; as fruit growing, raising of farm crops, dairying, and the 

If fruit growing is the special interest in the community, begin in the 
auttimn with discussions of the marketing of apples or other fruit. Have 
the pupils collect specimens of all varieties to be found in the neighbor- 
hood. Have these identified and labeled for a school exhibit. Discuss 
the most popular variety of fruit in your commimity and send the pupils 
on a quest to learn why it is the most popular. Ask a successful fruit 
grower in the community to give a talk on the subject. During the school 
year plant a fruit tree. Let the tree planted by each class have signif- 
icance and stand for a permanent piece of work. Have the children 
realize, even in a most elementary way, the interrelation and interde- 
pendence of outdoor things. The study of soils, for example, in these 
grades will be most interesting, and will have added value if made in the 
interest of a tree to be planted. Discuss the advantage of having a 
home fruit garden. Boys and girls will take an interest in such a 

If dairying is the chief interest in the commimity, choose the subject 
matter as outlined in the syllabus for which specific material can be foimd. 
In country places a visit should be made to a farm, in order that the children 
may learn the types of cows and begin to think about pure breeds of cattle. 
A Babcock test machine might be placed in the schoolroom and milk 
from different farms tested by the pupils. When the test has been suc- 
cessfully made in the schoolroom, it would be valuable to have the class 
make this test at a grange meeting or a farmers' institute. The matter 
of balanced rations may be studied, and other subjects of interest on a dairy 
farm. Special lessons in the interest of dairying were published in the Cor- 
nell Rural School Leaflet for September, igi i. Upon request we shall try 
to supply a copy to teachers who did not receive this publication last year. 

To encotirage the children in their general out-of-door observations, 
many teachers have found it helpful to have in the schoolroom a nature- 
study comer. This is fitted up with a table on which specimens may be 
kept. Above is a shelf containing reference books. The children may 
be taught to bring to the schoolroom specimens of plants to be left on 
this table until the teacher has time to identify them. If the teacher is 

Rural School Leaflet 805 

unable to identify any plant, we shall be glad to have it sent to the Uni- 
versity for identification. 

A terrarium, which is an enclosed piece of earth on which things may 
live and grow, has been found very interesting in some of the school- 
rooms in New York State. Many kinds of animal life have been housed 
in terraria. The writer has seen salamanders, toads, snakes, butterflies, 
cater[nllars, beetles, rabbits, hens, guinea pigs, and kittens in terraria 
in different schools. Children have been allowed to watch the animal 
life during leisure hours. 

Aquaria have not been very successful in most schools, but any teacher 
can use to advantage battery jars, or even Mason £mit cans, in which 
aqtiatic forms of life may bf kept for a limited time. 

Trips afield. — There should be at least one outdoor trip for the class 
each year. The boys and girls will loi^ remember the experience, and it 
matters not whether the way lead along a country roadside, through 
meadowlands, on the shore of the sea, or in woodland places — some new 
wonder will be found and some yout^ spirit awakened. 

Exhibits. — A most valuable way to arouse the interest of young persons 
in any new wwk is to have exhibitions. There is educational value in 
such work, as the children nearly always make their very best effort in 
preparing the individual exhibits, and they have opportvmity to compare 
tbeir work with that of other pupils. The small school exhibits are 
doubtless as valuable as any, and the children should be encoiuaged to 
prepare for them. An exhibit of fruit or com or the eggs and feathers of 
poultry, or a general nature-study exhibit, will bring about a broader 
interest than will many formal lessons along agricultural lines. Often 

8o6 Rural School Leaflet 

schools prepare exhibits for the county fair and some for the state fair. 
Many send exhibits to the State College for Farmers' Week. Otir request 
for a Farmers' Week exhibit was responded to with so much enthusiasm 
that we did not have space for all the material received. We hope this 
year that there will be an exhibit in all of our rural schools held at the 
schoolhouse, and that the best specimen from each exhibit will be sent 
to the State College for Farmers' Week. To each school from which we 
receive an exhibit, we shall send some kind of appreciation, a certificate 
or a picture. Additional information regarding the time and method of 
sending exhibits to the College will be published in the children's leaflet 
for November. This will afford ample time for the preparation of a 
good piece of work before Farmers' Week in February. 

One of the largest exhibits sent to the College of Agriculture during 
Farmers' Week was from Tompkins county. We have asked Mr. J. D. 
Bigelow, the superintendent of schools in the district from which it was 
received, to state briefly his methods of interesting teachers and pupils 
in the work. His statements are as follows: 

" When I received the letter asking for an exhibit of evergreens, cones, 
twigs of various kinds, weeds, and the like, I wrote to the teachers of six 
schools then in session. I enclosed the letter and asked to have the col- 
lection made. 

** Some teachers responded cheerfully with offers to do what they could, 
but were afraid they would not do very well. Other teachers felt that 
they already had so much to do that they would not have time to devote 
to the work. Others felt this work was a great burden. They did not 
know how to do the motuiting and somehow it seemed like a heavy load. 

" After a short time, I wrote again and stated how the work of collecting 
the specimens might be given to pupils, and added that if they would 
make the collections I would go to their schools and help in mounting 
them. Of course they all were glad for this help and commenced making 
the collections. At the time appointed I went to the different schools. 
On request I took material for mounting the specimens. When I arrived, 
I fotmd specimens enough collected to keep the pupils busy for a long 
time. This was true in every school but one, of which I shall speak later. 
I asked for five or six pupils to do the work. I helped trim the specimens 
and showed how to mount one or two» and then started the pupils in the 

*' In some instances the specimens were all mounted before the day was 
over. I then asked how many wanted to go out into the fields or woods 
for more things to add to the collection. There was always a ready 
response to this question. I shall long remember the occasion when, one 
stinging cold day, five stiu'dy boys and I started over the crusted snow 

Rural School Leaflet 807 

down into the valles^ and up the hills for something new to put into the 
cdlectiaii for Fanners' Week. The tracks of birds and rabbits, of foxes 
and hounds, added interest on the happy occasion. 

" At one school that I visited with the expectation of having a large 
quantity of sx^eciniens to be mounted, I found that no collection had been 
made. I called for boys to go out into the fields near and collect what 
they could. How glad the young boys were to go out in groups, some for 
one thing, some for another, as they were directed! In half an hour they 
were back with enough specimens for moimting to keep us busy nearly 
all day. 

" At every school in which an exhibit was made, both teachers and 
pupils were surprised and delighted with what was done and many 
were the exdamations of pleasure when they saw how attractive the 
mounted specimens were. 

" About all that is needed to make such an exhibit I learned^ is to have 
some one with enthusiasm enough to start the work and encourage it along 
the way" 

I^eafieis. — There will be but one leaflet issued to teachers this year, 
tlie Cornell Rural School Leaflet for September. We hope to issue at 
lea^ three leaflets for boys and girls, one in November, one in January, 
and one in March. The leaflet for teachers will be sent to all teachers in 
New York State, in city or country, who make request for it. The leaflet 
for boys and girls will be sent to schools in communities of 3,000 inhabit- 
ants or less. The childrei;i's leaflet is sent only on receipt of children's 
names. A blank form is sent with the September leaflet for this purpose. 
In each issue of the leaflet for boys and girls Mr. Tuttle will publish 
a letter. The pupils will gain much by answering these letters. We hope 
that teachers will encourage them to write. To aU young persons who 
write three letters on nature subjects during the year, we shall send a 

Letter writing can be made a most interesting form of composition. 
Life can be given to the exercise if these letters are to be sent to a higher 
institution of learning. If teachers might read the thousands of letters 
received at the College, they would realize the value of having their pupils 
become interested in such a correspondence. Following are three selected 
for publication. We have hundreds of others as good. 

Getzville, N. Y. 
March 5, 1912 
Dear Mr. Tuttle : 

Having permission from our teacher I will now write and thank 
you for the leaflets I received a short time ago. Perhaps you will 
be glad to hear that our school is being improved very much. We are 

«So8 Rural School Leaflet 

about to receive our new desk and library. The color of our schoolhouse 
is red. We have a large school yard. In the summer the grass is mowed 
and raked up by the trustees. There are thirty-two trees in the school 
yard, such as ash, pine, and maple. The school children planted flowers 
last year on Arbor Day which grew very large. We would like to have 
a garden for the school, but our school closes so early in the summer. 
But I am going to have a garden of my own at home. My father is going 
to prepare the ground and I am going to plant the vegetables. I am going 
to plant cabbage, onions, radishes, and lettuce, and some dowers. I will 
write later and let you know how my garden is getting along. Our teacher 
is very neat. I am going to write you three letters and see if I receive 
a picture. 

Very respectfully yours, 

Mamie Heim. 

Trumansburg, N. Y. 

Jan. II, 19 12 
Edward M. Tuttle 

Cornell University 

Ithaca, N. Y. 

My dear Mr. Tuttle: 

As I have just been reading your letter to the boys and girls of the 
country, and as you ask us all to write a letter to you, I am taking this 
opportunity to- do so. 

I love the country because it pertains so much to nature, and I also 
love the birds and animals which Uve upon this earth. 

My work at home is to help care for one hundred hens and the other 

Then, too, I help my mother in the house. I bake, wash dishes, make 
beds, and take many steps for her. 

I am the most interested in the raising of, and caring for, sheep and 

I have a collie dog who is very intelligent. He will drive sheep, play 
hide-and-go-seek, ride down hill on a sled, carry wood, pails, and many 
other things. He will go out to the mail wagon and bring the mail when 
the mail carrier gives it to him. 

Although I enjoy my work on the farm, I also love to play. My favorite 
games in summer are " drop the handkerchief " and " play ball " and in 
winter I play " fox and geese.'* 

One of the things which I learned when reading this leaflet was the 
selection of seed com. I have become greatly interested in the selecting 
of other grains to exhibit at the fairs. I also enjoy gathering grasses. 
Having seen some time ago a bulletin on the breeding of timothy by Pro- 
fessor Webber, I enclose a sample of timothy which I gathered last June. 
I have been wondering if Mr. Webber has succeeded in breeding timothy 
larger than this. If so, I should like to know about it. 

Rural School Leaflet 809 

My father is a breeder of pure-bred sheep, and I love to see the young 
lambs grcwing tip. I have noticed that the improvement of the flock 
came from breeding by selection. 

As my letter is growing long I fear' you will not have time to read the 
other letters -which are probably coming into your oflBce. Thanking you 
for this interestiTig leaflet, I am, 

Your friend, 

Stella N. Weatherby. 

White Creek, N. Y. 

Feb. 6, 191a 
Bkiward M. Tut tie 

College of Agriculture 
Ithaca, N. Y. 
Mv dear Mr. Tuttle: 

In your letter you asked us to write to you soon, but different things 
have prevented me from doing so. This afternoon we have devot^ 
to writing a letter to you. 

I have received James Vicks' Sons' catalogue and am making out my 
seed order. I am going to get some white dent com and many kinds of 
vegetables for my own garden this year. I have a box of dirt in the cellar 
already to put in my hotbed this spring. We have a book in our school 
library which is entitled " Agriculture for Beginners." It is from this 
book that I learned how to make and take care of a hotbed. I sowed 
some tomato seeds in a dish in the house. After they were big enough 
I transplanted them into dried-beef cans. I kept them in a sunny window 
and watered them well and they grew very fast. I raised all of my other 
plants in my hotbed. I had about one hundred and fifty tomato plants. 
Some were the Earliana and some the Stone tomatoes. I had about 
eight bushels of tomatoes and sold most of them. The rest mother used 
for pickling and canning. I also had about twenty-five pepper plants, 
some potatoes, and cucumbers. I sold three bushels of potatoes at a 
dollar a bushel. I made over five dollars out of my garden last year. 
I had a large bed of small vegetables, such as radish, lettuce, turnips, and 
beets. At one side of this bed I had a row of celery and at the other side 
a bed of strawberries. At first I had only twelve plants given to me and 
one of them died. The rest grew well and there are several runners on 
each plant. This spring I will clip the runners and transplant the straw- 
berries in rows where a cultivator can be run through. 

I also take a great interest in flowers. Last year my petunias and 
asters did very well. Every year I try to have a more attractive and well- 
arranged flower garden. I do not have my flower gardens all over the 
lawn. You suggested that lawns do not look so well with flower gardens 
all over them, making it hard to m.ow. By the time we write our next 
letters to you we will probably have oiu- hotbeds made and we can tell 
you all about them. 

Yours very sincerely, 

33 Frederick L. Masten. 

8io Rl'ral School Leaflet 

Com Day. — This year Com Day will be observed Friday, December 6. 
The time to begin to prepare for Com Day is in September, The 
children should make the selection of com befme it is 
cut. The teacher could make this experience a most 
valuable one if he would go out with the boys and 
girls when they select the com. Ten ears each of as 
many varieties as possible should be selected. Place 
on the blackboard before the children make their 
selection of com the following information, prepared 
by Professor Gilbert: 

What constitutes a good ear of com 
I . Shape of ears. — A perfect ear of com should be 
full and strong in the middle part, indicating a 
strong constitution. It should retain this ^ze to 
near the tip and the butt, thus forming as nearly 
as possible a cylindrical ear. 

a. Butts of ears. — The rows of kernels should 
extend well down over the butts of the ears, thus giving an ear of better 
appearance and containing a higher yield of grain. The shank, or the 
part of the stalk which is attached to the ear, should not be too large 
and coarse. Swelled, open, or badly compressed butts, as well as those 
having kernels of irregular size, are objectionable. 

3. Tips of ears. — Tips of the ears should be well filled out, indicating 
a type of com that will mature easily. The rows of kernels should extend 
in a regular line to the extreme tip of the ear. 

4. Shape of kernels. — The shape of the kernels is very important. They 
should broaden gradually from tip to crown, with edges straight, so that 
they will touch throughout the full length, and should be wedge-shaped 
without coming to a point. Kernels of this shape will fit close tt^pther 
and thus insure the highest possible yield of grain that can be grown on 
the cob. If the kernels have this wedge shape, there will be found no 
wide spaces between the rows. Such spaces are always objectionable. 

5. Proportion between com and cob. — There should be a lai^e proportion 
of grain as compared with the amount of cob. This will be the case with 
ears having deep kernels. A large ear does not necessarily indicate a 
heavy yield of grain, and it is objectionable in that the cob, being lar^e, 
contains a considerable amount of moisture which, dryii^ out slowly, 
injures the grain for seed purposes. 

6. Color of grain and cob. — Good com should be free from admixture. 
White com should have white cobs and yellow com should have 
red cobs. 

Rural School Leaflet 8ii 

3. the district superintendent 

With the new sux)ervision of schools, a great impetus has come to the 
work in connection with the Rural School Education Department of the 
State College of Agriculture. While in the past we have had the coopera- 
tion of many school commissioners, there has never been such widespread 
interest as at the present time. The district superintendents are making 
effort to give the teachers opportunity to become familiar with work 
relating to country-life interests. They are doing their part in every 
way to help the teachers in their districts to make use of our publications 
and any suggestions that we are sending from the College. This is most 
encouraging and is an essential movement in the interest of a better rural 
life. The opportunity of the district superintendent for the improvement 
of rural conditions is limitless. We wish to cooperate with him in every 
way and will be grateful for suggestions for making our work more suited 
to the needs of teachers. Whether agriculture and nature-study shall be 
taught i^^xie public schools of New York State is not for the State College 
to decide, nor is it our province to say how much time shotdd be given to 
these subjects. That rests with the State Education Department. Our 
work is to help place before the rural teachers of New York State accurate 
subject matter, prepared by persons who are teaching the various subjects 
in the State College. 

There are many ways in which the district superintendents can help to 
make our work more effective, the most important of which are: {i) By 
sending us the names of their teachers as early in the year as possible, (2) By 
urging the teachers to send us the names of the children ai the beginning of 
the year. (3) By encouraging the teachers to have the children write letters 
to the College three or four times during the year. 

With our large correspondence, it is absolutely necessary that we file 
the names of teachers and pupils who desire the publications. It is quite 
important that the /materials should be mailed to the teachers the first 
of the year. It is the right of every boy and girl in New York State to 
know that he is entitled to copies of the Cornell Rural School Leaflet 
which are prepared for him. The district superintendents can help us 
to keep our mailing-lists complete and accurate. They can help the boys 
and girls in their districts by encoxiraging them to take an interest in 
the out-of-doors and in farm practices. 

It wotdd be well for the district superintendents to speak to their 
teachers about the importance of sending addresses when they make 
request for the leaflets. Many letters have reached us in which no 
address was given. 

The following report will doubtless be interesting since it shows the 
distribution of the Cornell Rural School Leaflet for the year 1911-1912: 

8i2 Rural School Leaklet 

Copies of the leaflets sent out: 

To cities lOiS" 

To villages : j ,303 

Totrainir^ classes 5t46t> 

To teachers in rural schools 30,206 

To rural children 228, 640 

Total 375,930 

Range o£ distribution: 

I. In all but one rural county in the State every rural teacher was 
supplied with the exception of a few whom we were not able to reach. 
Over 75 per cent of the teachers in the remaining county were supplied. 
There were probably not over 300 of the 16,363 (1911 Report) teachers 
in the rural districts of the State unsupplied. 

3. All but six of the forty-nine cities and all but one of the forty-one 
villages of the State received leaflets. 

3. All training schools and all but nine of the eighty-nine training 
classes were supplied. 

4. In country districts 94,853 children received at least one leaflet; 
most of them received all three. 

During 1911-1912 many of the district superintendents have held 
teachers' conferences in connection with farmers' institutes. The con- 
ferences have proved particularly valuable at that time, since the services 
of both agricultural instructors and representatives of the State Educatiop 
Department were available. Teachers can contribute to the success of 
sudi meetings and get much from them by presenting questions and by 
offering experiences that might prove helpful to others. The district 
superintendents should encourage teachers to come to such meetings 
prepared to do their part to make the meetings usefpl. Any part of the 
State Syllabus or lessons in the Rural School Leaflet not luiderstood 
should be brought up for discussion. The teachers can get the best 
help by presenting specific problems to the instructors. 

Rural School Leaflet 813 

*^ 4. the granger 

V^ . TT^ JROM past experience in our work connected 

^ B^ with the public schools of New York State, 

^^\^^ I Wy we find that the opportunity to help country- 

^^SmB^^^^Bf life education through the State College has 

^H^^l^^r been greatly increased by the earnest effort of 

^^^^Pr nien and women on the farms. They have 

encouraged us in our endeavor to reach the boys 
and girls; they have encouraged the teacher to consider the educational 
advantage to be gained by instruction that has direct relation to 
country living; they have discussed rural education at meetings of the 
grange and, in fact, have kept in touch with the progress of the times 
in the interest of agriculttiral education. 

We are now ready to ask very concrete help from New York State 
grangers. Their organization is conducted in a way that makes it possible 
to be of great social service. There is no more important question before 
the world to-day than the public school. To all grangers and to the staff 
of the State College of Agriculture the rural school is of special interest. 
We must look to education to bring about a more nearly ideal country 

It is most significant that the educational world to-day is looking to 
agriculture as a means to the ftmdamental preparation for life to which 
all boys and girls have a right. As we have before stated in this leaflet, 
agriculture provides wholesome, concrete labor which, if combined with 
the intellectual processes necessary for its success, will make it 
stand for an all-round development. A child trained through farm 
practices and experiences the while he gains intelligent sympathy with 
nature, is receiving valuable education. All children should have such 
education, but cmly the children in the country can have the advantage 
of the practical outdoor experience. 

The staff of the State College of Agriculttu'e is deeply interested in the 
boys and girls in the country districts. Eventually we should like to be 
in touch with all of them. We are making effort to strengthen every 
medium by which we may reach the children, so that any message of 
value to them may be sent promptly. We must not lose the opportunity 
for a close connection with the grange. We shall ask, therefore, all men 
and women in New York State who are members of the grange and 
who are interested in agricultural education to send their names and 
addresses for our special grange file in the Department of Rural School 
Education. This will enable us to send commimications to them and 
to keep them in touch with what we are doing in connection with the 

RcKAL School Li;.\flet 

rfc# rigkl ipirit 

Rural School Leaflet 815 


" A thousand voices tahisper it is spring; 

Sky Rimers start up to greet me on the vtay. 

And htmiinf birds preen their swift win^s and sing 

The praises 0} the friendly, lengthen%ng day. 

" Lxt me rejoice, now skies are blue and bright. 

And the round world pays tribute to the spring; 
The birds and I wiil carol our delight. 

And entry breete Love's messages shall bring." 


The most important factor in bird study is that the teacher should be 
interested. It then takes but little effort on his part to start the children 
on a quest for bird knowledge that will be full of joy and growth as long 
as they live. The subject is one well suited to real live study. The 
result of sjririted work will mean compensation in many ways. 

It will not matter whether 
the quest is started in con- 
nection -with regular school 
work or by means of a bird 
club. In many rural districts 
the children make their obser- 
%'ations of birds on the way to 
school and report on these 
observations as a part of the 
morning exercises. A good 
reference book is valuable for 

such an exercise. Chapman's 

" Bird Life " and Neltje 

Blanchan's " Bird Neighbors" 

are used a great deal by 

teachers in the State. Interest 

is increased by keeping a bird 

calendar; by watching the 

^i^ migration and reporting 

on it; by learning pieces of 

literature relating to birds; by 

feeding the birds in winter; by 

building bird houses. jim Craw 

It will be well for teachers 

to notice the illustrations on pages aa-3S. Spirit is manifested in each 

one and each tells the story of wise instruction. The children are 

8i6 Rlhal ScHonr. Leaflet 

members of a bird club organized by Mr. Hugh Findlay of the 
Morrisville School of Agriculture. The boys and girls are not only 
receiving the valuable training that 
comes through natural history study, 
but they are deepening their nature 
sympathy and laying the foundation 
for recreation that will become a 
great resource in future years. Mr, 
Findlay has the kind of enthusiasm 
that inspires and that keeps on in- 
spiring until definite results are 
obtained. TlwchOdren do the work. 

There are many ways of keeping up 
the interest in bird study during the 
winter. Have the children hang suet 
or beef fat on the branches of the 
trees, and scatter seeds on the ground, 
_ ■ . - . Gradually bring the feeding stations 

nearer to the house. The chickadees, 
nuthatches, woodpeckers, and blue jays will visit the suet. The seeds 
will be appreciated by the tree sparrows, juncos, fox sparrows, and quail. 
A shelf placed outside the window has been found very useful in pro- 
viding a feeding place for birds. It is said that winter birds frequently 
suffer from thirst. Whenever possible, water should be placed where they 
can reach it. 

Encourage each child to build his own bird house. Teach the impor- 
tance of having the doorway the right size. It should be just large enough 
to admit the bird. For the wren and the chickadee the opening should 
be an inch auger hole, and for the others it should be about one and a half 
inches. A perch or doorstep should be provided below each door, " It is 
here," says Director Bailey in "The Birds and I," "that the birds often 
stop to arrange their toilets; and when the mistress is busy with domestic 
affairs indoors, the male bird often sits outside and entertains her with 
the latest neighborhood gossip." 

The spring migration is always interesting. Have the children ready 
to watch it intelligently. Tell them to listen in early spring for the 
strange sound of " the wild geese honking from out the misty night." 
The following hst of migratiiig birds is taken from Chapman's " Hand- 
book of the Birds of Eastern North America" and was compiled for use 
in the vicinity of New York City. The latter dates in the column are 
about what may be taken for the middle tier of counties. Encourage the 
children to watch and report. 

Rural School Leaflet 



(Until April 20 — Approximate) 
Date of arrival 

Feb, is-Mar. 10 

Purple graclde 
Rusty grackle 
Red-winged black- 
Meadow lark 
Fox sparrow 
Wilson's snipe 
Mourning dove 
Swamp sparrow 
Field sparrow 
Great blue heron 
Purple finch 
Vesper sparrow 
Savanna sparrow 
Chipping sparrow 
Tree swallow 
Myrtle warbler 
American pipit 

Date of arrival 
Apr. i-io Hermit thrush 
Apr. 10-20 Yellow-bellied wood- 
Bam swallow 
Yellow palm warbler 
Pine warbler 
Louisiana water 

Ruby-crowned king- 
Apr. 20-30 Green heron 

Spotted sandpiper 
Chimney swift 
Least flycatcher 


■ Ovenbird 
House wren 
Brown thrasher 
Wood thrush 

8i8 Rural School Leaflet 

Anna Botsford Comstock 

" The busy nuthatch dimbs his, tree. 
Around the great bole spirally t 
Peeping into vrrinkles gray. 
Under ruffled lichens gay, 
Latily piping one sharp note 
From his silver mailed throat" 


" With more artless inguisitioeness than fear, this lively little acrobat stops his hammering 
or hatching at your approach, and stretching himself out from the tree until it would seem 
he must fall off, he peers down at you, head downward, straight into your upturned opera- 
glass. If there is too much snow on the upper side of a branch watch how he runs along 
underneath it like a fly, busily tapping the bark, or adroitly breaking the decayed bits with 
his bill, as he stretches for the spider's eggs, larva, etc., hidden there; yet somehow, between 
mouthfuls, managing to call out his cheery 'quankl quank! hank! hank/* " 


A voice outside is calling at me; I cannot describe it accurately, but it 
is making delightful woodsy remarks that make me long to throw aside 
the pen and go out and wander where the snow is making still softer the 
carpet of dead leaves on the forest floor. It is not a musical note but 
it is most enticing and translates into sound the picture of bare-branched 
trees and the feeling of enchantment that permeates the forest in winter. 
Neltje Blanchan says the voice reiterates, ** hank, hank," others say it is 
"nay, nay" — but no nasal sound of the human voice and no spelling of 
the EngUsh language adequately represents this call of the white-breasted 

On the tree in front of the window I can see the owner of this sylvan 
voice. It is a little bird blue-gray above, with black head, black and white 
V-trimmings on the back of its suit, and soft, white breast. It is flitting 
blithely from tree to tree enjoying the snowstorm and coming often to the 
suet feast that I have spread for him and his little feathered kin. 

We have had exciting times at the suet banquet this morning. The 
btuldtng in which my office is, stands on a high knoll near the forest- 
covered brink of a deep gorge. Thus my window is opposite the tops of 
the trees. One of our nature-study staff, a brave and gallant knight, 
who loves birds and knows that I love to watch them, climbed two of 
these trees at imminent risk of breaking his neck in order to place this 
suet just opposite my window. The whole chickadee family, four 
nuthatches, and Sir Downy Woodpecker and Madam Hairy Woodpecker 
had been reveling in the feast all the morning when suddenly, one after 
another, three crows appeared on the scene. My heart sank as I saw 
them e3ring the suet with interest. Nearer and nearer they hopped from 

Rural School Leaflet 819 

brandi to brantJi. I pounded on the window and called out "Go away!" 
in both the crow and the English language, all in vain. One braver or 
hungrier thaji the others, with one defiant eye on me, flapped confidently 
down and sought to carry the suet off in his beak; to his surprise it was 
tied on. That seemed suspicious and when we raised the window and 
leaning far out explained matters, he lifted slowly with a jeering " caw " 
that said plainly, " I'll call sometime when you are not at home," and 
he and his companions disappeared 
up the gorge. The invited guests 
at the suet table were less distiu-bed ■ 
than was I, and I suppose it is 
rather inconsistent to feed the 
chickadees and let the crows go 
hungry. But this suet will last 
the little birds a month, while it 
would hardly furnish a breakfast 
for three crows; and in philan- 
thropic enterprises one is obliged 
to draw the line somewhere even 
at the cost of consistency. 

To return to my nuthatch^ 
who has, by the way, just 
hammered off a piece of suet and 
thrust it into a crevice of the 
bark on the tree bole. Why does 
he do that ? Is it for convenience 
in eating, or is it an attempt to 
store up some of his dinner for 
future need? Anyway, it is bad 
manners, like carrying off fruit 

bam table d'lUfte. ButheispoUte Chickadee mUrint it, mst 

enough in another respect: every 

time after eating the suet he wipes his beak on his branch napkin with great 
assiduity, first one side and then the other, almost as if he were sharpening it, 
The woodpeckers are similarly fastidious in cleaning suet off their beaks. 

The loud note of the nuthatch, which seems out of proportion to the 
size of the bird, is by no means its only note. Yesterday we observed 
a pair hunting on the branches of an elm over our heads, and they were 
talkii^ to each other in sweet confidential syllables, "wit, wit, wit," en- 
tirely different from the loud note that is meant for the world at large. 

The nuthatches and chickadees hunt together all winter. This is no 
business partnership, but one of congeniality based on similar tastes. 

820 Rural School Leaflet 

Thus it is that the two birds are often confused. The black throat of 
the chickadee, however, distinguishes it from the nuthatch at the first 
glance. Strange to say, the nuthatch has been confused also with the 
sapsucker and has gained imjust censure thereby. How any one with 
eyes could confuse these two birds is a mystery, for they resemble each 
other in no particular nor in general appearance. 

Although the nuthatch finds much of its food on trees, Mr. Torrey tells 
of seeing one awkwardly turning over the fallen leaves for hidden cocoons 
and other things quite worth his while; and Mr. Baskett tells of having 
seen these birds catch flies in the air and become quite out of breath at 
this unusual exercise. 

Audubon made some most interesting observations on nuthatches. He 
says they may sleep hanging with head downward. He also says, of their 
nesting habits, that ** both birds work together, all the time congratulating 
each other in the tenderest manner. The male, ever conspicuous on such 
occasions, works some, and carries off the slender chips chiseled by the 
female. He struts around her, peeps into the hole, cherups at intervals, 
or hovers about her on the wing. While she is sitting on her eggs, he 
seldom absents himself many moments; now with a full bill he feeds her, 
now returns to be assured that her time is pleasantly spent." 

The red-breasted nuthatch is sometimes associated with its white- 
breasted cousin; it is a smaller bird and is essentially a northern species. 
The nuthatches get their name from their custom of wedging nuts and 
acorns into bark and then hammering or hatching them open with their 
strong bill. From every standpoint the nuthatches are most desirable 
acquaintances, and we cannot spend our time to better advantage than 
in becoming familiar with their interesting habits. 


Observations on the appearance of the nuthatch. — i. What is the general 
color of the nuthatch above and below? 

2. The colors of the top and sides of the head? 

3. The color of the throat and breast? 

4. Colors of bill, legs, and feet? 

5. Color and markings of the wings? 

6. Colors and markings of the tail ? 

7. What are the differences in color between the nuthatch and the 

8. What is the difference in shape between the bill of the nuthatch and 
that of the chickadee? 

Facts for teachers, — The general color of this bird is bluish gray above, 
with white breast, and reddish beneath the tail. The top of the hea4 

Rural School Leaflet 821 

and the neck are glossy black; the sides of the head are white, as is the 
breast. The bill is blackish and so are the legs and feet. The wing 
feathers are dark brown edged with pale gray. The upper middle tail 
feathers are bluish, like the back; the others are dark brown and spotted 
\\'ith white in such a manner that when the tail is spread it has a large 
white patch on either side. The chickadee is gray in color, while the 
nuthatch is bluish gray; but the most striking difference is the black bib 
of the chickadee, which the nuthatch lacks entirely. The bill of the 
chickadee is short — ** a sharply pointed little pick just suited to taking 
off insect eggs '* — while the bill of the nuthatch is long and slender, 
being as long as, or longer than, the bird's head. 

Observations on the habits of the nuthatch, — i. Is the nuthatch seen most 
commonly on tree trunks or up in the smaller branches? 

2. Does it alight on a tree trunk with head up or down? 

3. When climbing a tree does it ascend in a spiral route? 

4. When descending a tree does it go head downward? How does it 
compare in this respect with the downy woodpecker? 

5. Does it use its tail as a brace when climbing a tree, as does the downy ? 

6. How are the nuthatch's toes arranged to enable it to cling to the 

7. What is the note of the nuthatch, and has it more than one note? 

8. What is its food and where is it found? 

9. How does the nuthatch open an acorn? 

10. Of what use is the nuthatch to the farmer and the fruit grower? 
Facts for teachers. — The nuthatches and chickadees usually hunt 

together, the chickadees ordinarily taking the smaller branches arid the 
nuthatches the larger branches and tree trunks. The nuthatch is quite 
likely to alight head downward on a tree trunk, and it also often climbs 
the tree in a spiral route; it runs about over the tree so rapidly that it 
has been called the " tree mouse." Three characteristics distinguish 
this bird from the woodpeckers: it descends a tree trunk head first; its 
tail is short and square across the end and is never used as a brace; it 
has three toes directed forward, and one very long and strong one directed 

The common note of the nuthatch may be spelled ** ank, ank " or 
"yak, yak," but these birds have for each other some quite different, 
and very sweet, little confidential notes. While the nuthatch is fond 
of acorns and nuts and also the larvae which are the " worms " in nuts, 
it is also fond of all kinds of insects and spends much time hunting for 
those that are hidden in the bark of trees. It is therefore a help to the 
farmer and the fruit grower by destroying so many injurious insects. 
It is comical to see a nuthatch take off a bit of suet, wedge it into a crevice 


822 Rural School Leaflet 

in the bark, and then strike it with great force with its beak, apparently 
forgetting that it is not encased in a shell. 



H. D. Reed 

The white-breasted nuthatch is one of our most industrious gleaners 
of insects and their eggs and young from the trunks and branches of 
trees. An individual nuthatch hustling about his work, as frequently 
upside down as the reverse, is the very embodiment of industry and keen 
scrutiny. No crack nor cranny is too insignificant to escape inspection. 
The nuthatch does not dig holes in the trees in search of its food as do 
the woodpeckers, but rather gets it from the crevices in the rough bark. 
In such places millions of insects deposit their eggs for safe keeping during 
the winter months. The bill of the nuthatch is adapted through its shape 
to slip under the pieces of bark and to the very depths where eggs and, 
later, larvae (" worms ") are to be foimd. It is impossible to estimate 
the millions of injurious insects destroyed by a single nuthatch during a 

Among the injurious insects devoured by the nuthatch are: beetles, 
which bore in the bark or wood; scale insects, among which is the oyster- 
shell bark louse, injurious to apples and pears; cankerworms; and the cater- 
pillars of the gypsy moth. A single stomach of the nuthatch in one 
instance proved to contain one thousand six himdred and twenty-nine 
eggs of the fall cankerworm. Granting that half of these eggs would 
produce females, which in ttim would lay a large number of eggs, some 
idea can be gained of one day's service of this bird to man. There are 
other insects which would probably become pests were it not that they 
are held in check by the nuthatch. 

During the winter months the nuthatch feeds to a large extent on the 
seeds of weeds, thus adding to its right to life and protection. There is 
no doubt that this bird is to be considered the friend and colaborer of the 
forester, the fruit grower, and the farmer, and in return for its very 
eflSdent service it deserves encouragement and protection. 


You call them thieves and pillagers; but know, * 

They are the winged wardens of yourfarms^ 
Who from the cornfields drive the insidious foe^ 

And from your harvests keep a hundred Harms; 
Even the blackest of them aU^ the crow. 

Renders good service as your man-^t-armSf 
Crushing the beetle in his coal-of-maU, 

And crying havoc on the slug and snail." 


Rural School Leaflet 823 

The Editor 

Orchard oriole 

Orchard oriole. — Size: Smaller than a robin. 

General color; The whole head, neck, and tail are black; a broad black 
band extending from the neck down the back. The rump, sides, breast, 
and under parts are rich chestnut. 

Baltimore oriole. — Size: Larger than an English sparrow; smaller than 
a robin. 
General color: Orange and black. 

" How falls it, oriole, thou hast came to fiy 
In tropic splendor through our Northern sky? 
At some glad moment was it nature's choice 
To dower a scrap of sunset utith a voice?" 


*The deacriptlocu of tlu birda were fumiihedby Dr. H. D. R«fld. 

824 Rural School Leaflet 

" My oride, my glance of summer fire, 
^^.,„-— ■ .... , ■• " '" ^ Is comt at last, and ever on the waUh, 

Twilchrs the pack-thread I had lighliy wovtid 
t - About the bough to help his housekeeping, — 

Twitches and scouis by turns, blessing his luck. 
Yet fearing me who laid it in his uiay. 
Nor, more than ttiiser we in our affairs. 
Divines Ike providence that hides and helps. 
Heare, ho! heave, ho! he whistles aslhetwne 
Slackens its hold; once more, nov>: and afloih 
Lightens across the sunlight to the elm 
Where his maU dangles at her cup of fell." 


Peacock. — Size : Larger than the 
domestic hen, the tail much longer 
than the rest of the body. 

General color ; Prevailing colors 
iridescent blues and greens. Broad 
ends of tail feathers with conspicuous 
Baltimore oriole spots margined with gold. 

Black-and-white warbler. — Size: Smaller than a sparrow. 
General color: Streaked all over mth black and white except on the 
imder parts, A decided white streak on the top o£ the head. 

Nelt je Blanchan says : ' ' Nine times out of ten this active little warbler is 
mistaken for the downy woodpecker, not because of his coloring alone, but 
also on account of his common habit of running up and down the truriks of 
trees and on the under side of branches, looking for insects, on which all the 
warblers subsist. Butprcsently 
the true warbler character- 
istic of restless flitting about -j - ■ ' 
shows itself. A woodpecker v 
would go over a tree with pains- 
taking, systematic care, while 
the black-and-white warbler, 

no less intent upon securing r 

its food, hurries off from tree 
to tree, wherever the most 
promising menu is offered." ^^ 

" His fine strain reminds me of 
kair-vnre. It is unmeslionaiiy the 
finest bird-song to be heard. Few 
insect strains will compare with it in 
Ais respect, while it has none of the 
harsh, brassy character of Ike latter, 
being very delicate and lender." 

JOHN BURROUGHS Black-and-whiU warbltr 

RrRAL School Leaflet 825 

Goldfinch. — Size: Smaller than a sparrow. 

General color : Top of head, wings, and tail black ; remainder of body 
bright yellow. 

The goldfinch 

"Just listen to him some day as he Jlies away front his nest, singing ovt 
'"^s ef txquisiU love and tendimtss his sweet bay-bee, bay-ee-bee." 


Rl'ral School Leaflet 

" II is a tPee, sad-cidored thing. 

As shy and secret as a maid. 
That, ere mi choir the robins sing. 

Pipes its own name like one afraid." 



The phaAe 

Phcebe. — Size: About that of a sparrow. 

General color; The general tone of the body is brown, grayish beneath, 
the head being much darker. 

Distinctive features: It possesses no striking color characteristics. 
There are no white bars across the wings, which distinguishes it from the 

Rural Schooi, Leaflet 827 

pewee. It may always be identified in the field by its habit of wagging 
the tail when perched. 

" When buckets shine 'gainst ma^t trees 
And drop by drop the sap dothfiam. 
What days are marm, but niihts do freete, 
And deep in woods lie drifts of snow. 
When cattle low and fret in stall, 
The morning brings the phabe's call, 

Phtebe, phabe,' a cheery note 
While cackling hens make such a rout." 


Cliff swallow. — Size: About the same as a sparrow. 

General color: A white band across the forehead and a rich chestnut 
patch on the throat. The under parts are whiti^, Tke tail is not 
deeply Jorked like that of the horn swallow. 

' ' Gallant and gay in their doublets gray. 

All at a flash like the darling of flame. 
Chattering Arabic, African, Indian — 

Certain of springtime, the swallows camel" 


Rural School Leaflet 

The brown thrasher 

" The viise thrush, he sings each song ttcice oner, 
test you fear he never could recapture 
That first fine careless rapture." 


Brown thrasher. — Size : About the size of a robin, but with longer tail. 

General color: The upper parts, wings, and tail reddish brown. Wing 
coverts tipped with .whitish; under parts white, streaked with black except 
on throat and middle of belly. 

Distinctive features: The brown thrasher flirts his tail much as the 
catbird does. One can distinguish him from the thrushes similar in color 
by the two white wing bars and long tail. 

" The brown thrasher calls half furtively, half archly, from the tree-lap back in the bushy 
pastures; 'Croquet, croquet, hit it, hit it, cone to me, come to me, tight it. tight it, you're out, 
you're out.' " 


" Our long-tailed thrush, or thrasher, delights tn a high branch of some stdiiary tree, 

whenr^e it will pour out its rick' and intricate warble for an hour together. This bird ii the 
great American chipper. There is no other bird thai I tnow of that can chip with such 
emphasis and military precision as this yellow-eyed songster. It is like the click of a giant 


Sural School Leaflet 829 

Crackle. — Size: Larger than a robin. 

General color: Black all over. 

Distinctive features: The grackle walks like a crow. The absence of 
red shoulder patches distinguishes it at once from the red-winged blackbird. 
At close rajige it may be distinguished from the rusty blackbird, by its 
larger size, wedge-shaped tail, and yellowish eyes, the eyes of the rusty 
blackbird being white. 

Chapman in " Bird Life " gives some interesting facts about grackles, 
as follows : . 

" Grackles are among the few of our land birds who live in flocks all 
the year. They pass the winter and migrate in larger companies, but 
when nesting are in smaller bands or colonies. They generally select a 
pine grove, often choosing one in a cemetery, park, or other locality where 
they will not be disturbed. This may result in a scarcity of food when 
the young are bom, but, rather than abandon a locality which experience 
has proved to be safe, they make long journeys in search of food for their 
nestlings. By watching the old birds one may then easily learn where 
they live." 

Tke bronzed packle, 

Rural School Leaflet 

" SvKtl, sweet, stout! happy thai I am! 
{Listen to the meadow-larks, across the fields that sing!) 
Sweet, sweet, sweet! subtle breath of balm. 
winds that blow, buds thai grow, O rapture of Ike sprintf 

" Svxet, sweet sweet! Who prates of care and pain? 
Who says that life is sorrowful? O life so glad, so fleet! 
Ah! he viho lives the nobUst life finds life the noblest gain. 
The tears <^ pain a lender rain to make Us waters sweet." 


The meadow lark 

Meadow lark. — 
Size: Larger than 
the robin,* but with 
shorter tail. 

General color: 
Bright yellow breast 
with a black crescent. 
The back is streaked; 
the outer tail feathers, 
which show when 
spread, are white. 

" What a twang there is 
about this bird and what 
vigorl It smacks of Ike 
soil. It is the winded em- 
bodiment of Ike spirit of 
our spring meadtnus. What 
emphasis in itf 'z-d-t, 
t-d-l,' and what character 
in its long piercing note! 
Its straight, tapering, sharp 
bill is typical of its voice. 
'Spring o' the 
yearl spring o' the year!' it 
says, with a long-drawn 
breath, a lillle flainlijie, 
but not complaining or 


" Ok meadow lark! 
From dawn to dark 

Your carol quaint is ringing, 
And ne'er did float from thrush's throat 
Song sweeter than your simple note. 
Of sunny summer singing. ' ' 

" Upfront Ike marsh a chorus shrill 

Of piping frogs swells in the night; 
The meadow lark shows flashing quSl 

As o'er brown fields she takes her flight." 


Rural School Leaflet 831 

Bald eagle. — Size: Pour times as large as a hen. 
General color: Head, neck, and tail white. Remainder of body dark 

" He elaspt tiu crag taith hooked hattdt; 
Close U> the sun in toiuly lands, 
Ring'd mitk the ature world, he stands. 

" The wrinkled sea beneath him cravds; 
He vntches }rom his mountain walls, 
And like a thunderbolt he falls:' 


8,^2 Rural School Leaflet 

Anna Botspord Comstock 

^OWLEDGE of our domestic fowl leads us 

to believe it is descended from the jungle 

fowl of Asia, which, although a ground 

bird, has a powerful flight. Ages of disuse 

. of its wings, however, have robbed our 

samyard fowl, to a great extent, of the ability 

» fly; moreover, the hen has been bred for 

!ood until she has attained too great weight 

x> be carried by her wings. 

t the hen's nature to scratch for a living. For 

irpose her legs are strong and protected by 

scales, and her flexible toes are armed with 

claws. Her beak is also strong and homy. 

she is able to extract from the earth the in- 

seed there hidden. She does not need teeth, 

since she swallows her food whole and it is ground fine in her gizzard. 

The hen also uses her beak as a weapon of offense and defense. 

The hen can run rapidly. The track she makes shows four toes, one 
projecting backward and three forward. The long hind toe enables hpr 
to retain her hold on the perch when she sleeps; the bending of her legs as 
she settles dowxi on the perch flexes hor toes inward and downward, and 
thus they grasp the perch mechanically while she rests. 

The hen's nostrils are two small holes near the base of the beak. She 
probably has not a keen sense of smell. Her hearing, however, like that 
of all birds, is very acute. The ears in some varieties of fowl are mere 
openings in the head, more or less covered with feathers, though some 
breeds have ear lobes which seem to be more ornamental than useful. The 
hen can see well. She is able to make her eyes far-sighted or near-sighted 
at will, to serve her when scratching for seeds at her feet or when watch- 
ing for hawks in the sky. Her eyes are at the sides of the head, and she 
has a habit of reinforcing the judgment of one eye by bringing the other 
to bear on any object in view. The iris is usually yellow, the pupil black 
and round. When she winks, it is the lower lid tliat covers the eye; and 
when she is dozing a thin film-lid slips over the eye from its irmer comer. 
Birds are the only creatures clothed in feathers, a covering superior 
to hair and fur, since it gives them the power of flight. The feathers on 
different parts of the fowl differ much in size and form. The feathers 

Rural School Leaflet 833 

on the baxdc form a roof; they are closely webbed, overlap Uke shingles, 
and have pointed tips. The plumage on the breast is softer, and each 
breast feather is closely webbed at its tip and fluffy at its base. The 
fluff, being next to the skin, helps to retain the heat of the body. This 
fluff, commonly called down, is the only covering of little chicks. The 
fluff has no quill. When new feathers come, either on the chick or on 
the hen, they are called pinfeathers, because they are enclosed in a pointed 
sheath. To make her coat waterproof, the hen possesses on her back, 
near the tail, an oil gland from which she squeezes the oil with her beak 
and applies it to her feathers. 

The feathers of the wing are wonderfully adapted to their service. 
The strong shaft of each is slightly curved and has a tightly knit web, 
^'hich enables it to press down on the air. When a bird starts to fly it 
beats its wings very- rapidly; thus the curving under-surfaces catch the 
air like an umbrella and lift the bird upward. While the lifted wings 
are carrying the bird, the tail acts as a rudder, by which the bird may 
=toer itself in any direction. For this purpose the tail feathers have a 
'iitlerent shape and texture from those on the wings. They are straight- 
shafted, with the webs equal on both sides. 

The feathers on the barnyard fowl are not only a protection from the 
rain and cold and of use as organs of flight, but they also make the bird 
l*eautiful. The rooster's long curling plumes and handsome collar feathers 
add much to his beauty, and secure for him the admiration of his flock. 

In the early spring the hen begins to lay eggs regularly, one each day, 
announcing the fact with triumphant cackling. She wall make her own 
nest on the ground if we do not provide her with one in the poultry 
house. When sitting, she seldom allows her eggs to become cold; she 
turns them daily by pushing them with her breast and her beak; she leaves 
trie nest for food and drink, usually twice a day. The incubation lasts 
-'r>out twenty-one days. 

The chick has on the upper tip of its beak a small, homy tooth with 
'^'hich it breaks through its shell. Soon after birth this tooth disappears. 
The chick is covered with down when it leaves the egg, and is active, 
• ri^'ht-eyed, and alert, ready to follow its m.other anywhere in search of 
food. It is very different in appearance and actions from the young 
robin, which is blind and naked and is nourished by the food brought 
'''y its parents. When the chick is young it sleeps under its mother's 
^■injj, but as it grows up it roosts on trees or perches and tucks its head 
Ix-ncath its wings. 

The conversation of the barnyard fowls is rather extended. The hen 
ilucks to her chicks and they answer by peeping. When she sees a hawk 
or any other peril she warns her brood by a peculiar note, which causes 

8^4 Rural School Leaflet 

every chick to run to cover and remain motionless. When a chick is lost 

its peep is loud and pitiful; when it cuddles under its mother's wing its 

note is full of contentment. The hen's spring song is one of the most 

joyous sounds of nature. Her triumphant cackle over the newly laid egg 

is quite different from her cackle that results from surprise; when she is 

very much afraid she squalls; and when grasped by the enemy she utters 

loud squawks. The rooster crows to assure his flock that all is well and 

to challenge other roosters. When hens take their dust baths together 

they seem to gossip with each other. These dust baths are very essential 

to the good health of fowls kept in close yards. They help to relieve the 

fowls of vermin and to cleanse 

' eir skin, for hens are not 

water bathers, as are the 

song birds. 

When roosters fight they 
confront each other with 
lowered heads, and use 
their beaks, wings, and 
leg-spurs as weapons. 

Observations by pupils. — 

I. Can a hen fly like a 

robin or swallow? If not, why? 

A drinking t^act Where does the hen find her 

food ? Where does the swallow 

find its food? Docs the hen need to fly like the swallow? 

2. What tools has the hen for getting her food? 

3. Why are her toes so long and strong? Why have they homy claws 
at their tips? What covering protects the feet and legs? How are the 
feet and legs fitted for scratching the soil? 

4. After the hen has found the insect or seed by scratching in the earth, 
with what does she seize it ? How is the beak fitted by size, shape, and 
covering, to secure the food? 

5. Has the hen any teeth? How is the food ground fine for digestion? 
Does she need any teeth? Why is it necessary to feed grit, or small 
gravel stones, to fowls kept in close yards? Does the hen use her beak for 
anything else than picking up food? 

6. Can a hen run rapidly? Note how the hen uses her wings in run- 
ning. What sort of track does she make in mud or snow? Make a 
sketch of the track of a hen. How many toes show in the track? Num- 

Rural School Leaflet 835 

bering her toes with the hindmost projecting toe as first, how many toes 
has she? 

7. Where does the hen sleep? How does she keep her hold on the 
perch while sleeping? 

8. Can you see the hen's nostrils? Are they large? Describe the sur- 
face surrounding them. Do you think that the hen has a keen sense 
of smell? Why? 

9. Has a hen ears? Where are they and how do they look? Have 
they lobes, and, if so, do you think these lobes are ornamental or an aid 
to hearing? 

10. What is the color of the hen's eyes? What is the shape of the 
pupil? How does the hen wink? Can you see a little film-lid come out 
of the comer of the eye and cover it when she is drowsy? Do you think 
the hen can see far and well? How far off can she see a hawk? Can 
she see an object with both eyes at once? Why does the hen turn her 
head first this way and then that, when looking at you ? What advantage 
is it to the hen to have her eyes directed sidewise instead of both focusing 
in the same direction? 

11. How does the covering of birds differ from the covering of animals? 
Study a feather and learn the shaft or quill, the web, the fluff, the barbs, 
and the barbules. If you have a microscope, or even a good double lens, 
examine a wing feather and see the little hooks on the barbules which 
hold the web together. 

1 2. How are the feathers arranged on the back of a hen? Why? How 
does the hen look when standing in the rain? 

13. How are the feathers arranged on the breast? Compare a feather 
from the back with a breast feather and note the difference. 

14. Are both ends of a breast feather alike, and, if not, what is the 
difference? Is the fluffy part on the outside or next to the bird's skin? 
VHiy? Why is the smooth part of the feather on the outside? 

15. When feathers are all fluff what are they called? At what age 
is a fowl entirely covered with down? 

16. What is a pinfeather? 

17. How do hens keep their feathers oily so that they will shed water? 
Where does the hen get the oil? Describe how she oils her feathers and 
which ones she oils most. Is she likely to oil her feathers just before 

a rain? 

18. When you have an opportunity, look at a fowl all plucked ready 
for market or oven, and see how the wings of a bird correspond with 
the front legs of an animal or the arms of a human being. 

19. Examine the wing of a hen with the feathers on. How are the 
feathers arranged to press down on the. air? How does a bird lift itself 

836 Rural School Leaflet 

in the air when it starts to fly? What does the wing press against? Can 
you press against air? If you carry an umbrella on a windy day, which 
catches more wind, the upper or the under side? Why? How does the 
wing of a bird correspond to the umbrella? 

20. Examine a wing feather. Are the barbs equally long on each side 
of the quill? Is the wing feather curved? Is the concave or the convex 
side uppermost on the wing? Why? Which way does the feather bend 
most easily? 

21. If the bird flies by pressing its wings against the air on the down 
stroke, why does it not push itself down on the up stroke? 

22. Look at a tail feather and see how it differs from a wing feather. 
Does a hen, when she is flying, keep her tail closed, or open like a fan? 
Have you ever seen a young robin, with tail not yet grown, try to fly? 
How did it act? Do you think a bird could sail through the air if it had 
nothing to steer with? What is the bird's tail used for? 

23. Are the feathers of the hen beautiful in color? Which is the 
more handsome, the hen or the rooster? Note the difference in shape 
and color of the tail feathers of hen and rooster. Do the graceful, curv- 
ing plumes in the tail of the rooster help him any in flight? Are they stiff 
enough to act as a rudder? If they are of no use in flight, nor in keeping 
him waim, nor in keeping off the rain, then what are these beautiful plumes 
for? Is the rooster's plumage aside from the tail ornaments more 
beautiful than the hen's? 

24. Name all the ways in which .feathers are useful to the hen. 

25. Observe the combs and wattles of the rooster and the hen. In 
which are they the more showy? 


Observations by pupils. — i. At what time of year does the hen nattirally 
lay the most eggs? How many does she lay in one day? When would 
she naturally stop laying? How does she announce to the world that 
she has laid an egg? 

2. How does a hen make her nest if we do not make it for her? How 
i^nany eggs can she sit on at once? How does she care for her eggs when 
she is sitting? How often does she come off her nest while sitting? How 
long does it take her eggs to hatch? 

3. How does the chick get out of the eggshell? For what purpose 
is the little tooth on the tip of the yoimg chick's beak? What becomes 
of this tooth? 

4. What is the difference between the covering of a chick and of a 
hen? The chick has wings — can it fly? Why not? 

Rural School Leaflet 837 

S- How does the newly-hatched chick differ in appearance from the 
young robin? Which is the stronger and more active? Where and how 
does the young chick get its food ? Where and how does the young robin 
get its food? Where does the chick sleep at night? 

6. What noise docs the chick make when following the mother hen? 
WTien lost? When frightened? When cuddling under the mother's wing? 

7. What noises does the hen make when with her brood? When she 
finds food for them? When she sees a hawk? How do the chickens 
obey their mother's call? 

8. How does a hen drink? Why? Does a pigeon drink in this way? 
Do other birds ? 

9. Note how a hen expresses suspicion, fright, terror, and happiness. 

10. How do hens fight? How and with what weapons do roosters 

11. What is the chief note of the rooster? When does he crow and 
why? Note other sounds made by a rooster, 

12. Describe how a hen dusts and suns herself. Why does she do this? 

The lien. — " It is good to see Miaatt's hens pecking and scratching Ike ground. What 
wter-faiiing health Ihey suggesti Even tkt sick hen is so naturally sick — like a green 
itaf turning to brown. No wonder men lone to have hens about them and hear their creaking 
"olf. They are even laying eggs from time to lime still — the undespairing race. ' ' 


" Exn the hen has a homely contented carol ; and I tredit the owl with a desire to fill the 
m'tti mlh music. All birds are incipient or would-be songsters in the spring. I find 
cortoborative evidence of this even in the crouing of the cock," 


Feeding the chickens 

8.i8 Rural School Leaflet 


i. improving the quality of poultry 

James E. Rice 

We should aim to ret^n purity of breed and vigor of our stock, and to 

have high-grade market quality in our poultry and eggs. By so doing, 

the profits may be 
greatly increased 
and the k>sses re- 
duced because the 
selling value of the 
product will be in- 
creased. We shall 
also get more pleas- 
ure and satisfaction 
out of our occu- 
A fl4xk of misceUaneous colors and types such as is often found pation because we 
on tlu joeraiefarm. Cockerils of this lort are of no value shall take pride in the 
01 breeders and are poor ornaments. '^ 

improvement made. 
The difference in price between poultry and eggs that are attractive 
and those that are unattractive is enough to warrant great care in breeding 
for improved quality. 

Some of the reasons why pure-bred poultry is more de^rable than 
common stock are: i. Pure-bred fowls lay eggs that are more uniform 
in size, shape, color, and texture of shell. Uniform eggs sell for a higher 
price. 2. They are more hkely to breed true, that is, the chickens will 
grow up to be like their parents. 3. They are more uniform in shape and 
size of body and in color of sldn and shanks, therefore more attractive 
and more profitable when placed on sale. 4- They are more attractive as 
a flock, because they are similar in appearance. It is worth while to 
keep poultry that 
looks well, s- They 
furnish a larger in- 
come because eggs 
for hatching and 
stock for breeding 
can be sold at prices 
considerably higher 
than for market pur- 
poses. 6. They are A fiock of pure-bred Barred Plymoutk Rochs. Nolt the beaviy 
' .-'c . ■ of a fiock like this as compared with afiock of mixed breeds 

more satisfactory, be- ■' ■* '^ -^ ' 

cause, other things being equal, they may be expected to give better 
results in feeding, hatching, and rearing, due to the fact that 

Rural School Leaflet 839 

they are more nearly alike as to rate of growth, size, temperament, 
activity, and the like. 

What can we do to improve our poultry? — Any boy or girl who is old 
enough to take care of chickens can improve the quality of poultry in 
two wajrs: first, by keeping only pure-bred stock and by selecting, 
mating, and taking proper care of them; second, by selecting and using 
only the right kind of eggs for hatching. Both of these things should 
be done, but either one alone will be likely to result in sufficient improve- 
ment to warrant the effort of doing it. We should keep a pure breed 
instead of conamon mongrel fowls. This is within the reach of all. It 
is neither difficult nor expensive to secure in any neighborhood a few 
pure-bred fowls or their eggs. With these a small start can be made. 
Each year more and more pure-bred chickens can be reared to take the 
place of the common fowls until all the flock are pure-bred. 

Find out for yourself, by trying, whether it will pay better to have a 
pure breed of poultry. Remember, however, that not all pure-bred fowls 
are good fo'wls. Whether we have puie-bred or mongrel stock they must 
be strong, vigorous, and healthy. 

ii. sblbcting and keeping eggs for hatching 

James E. Rice 

One of the easiest ways to increase the money-earning value of poultry 
is to improve the quality of their eggs. The best customers usually are 
willing to pay a higher price for eggs of superior quality. Frequently this 
difference in price is as high as five to ten cents a dozen. Each hen in a 
good flock should lay on the average ten to eleven dozen eggs a year. If 
the eggs are of such quality that they will sell for even two cents more a 
dozen than ordinary eggs, this would mean a net difference of about 
twenty-five cents a hen in a year. This extra price is nearly all clear 
profit, due to the uniformity in size, shape, and color of the eggs. 

The eggs that bring the highest price will depend somewhat on the 
inarket (see Lesson XI). We must first find out what kind of eggs will 
bring the highest price and pay the largest profit in our market, and then 
produce that kind only. 

There are several things that we can do which will help to improve the 
selling quality of the eggs: 

1. We should keep a pure breed of poultry that will lay eggs as nearly 
ss possible the right size, shape, and color to meet the requirements of 
our market. Such fowls cost little, if any, more to. keep than fowls that 
lay an inferior quality of eggs. 

2. Only those eggs should be used for hatching that are of best market 
type as to size, color, and texture. Piue-bred fowls will be likely to lay 
eggs similar to the eggs from which they were hatched. In other words. 

S40 Rural School Leaflet 

the kind of eggs we select for hatching will determine the kind of eggs 
that will be laid by the chickens that are hatched from the eggs. 

When eggs from the same variety of fowls are compared, the size of an 
egg apparently determines to a considerable extent the size of the chicken 
that will hatch from it. Therefore, if we wish to have chickens of good 
size we must set good-sized eggs. Hence, we see that there are at least 
two good reasons why all the eggs that are selected for hatching should 
be full size, perfect in shape, and of the right color and texture. 

Eggs for hatching should weigh at least two ounces and should not 
exceed two and one half ounces each. They should be perfect in shape 
so that they will pack well in the shipping case, that is, so that they will 

Croups of eggs showing the various sixes and shapes that are obtained from almost an 
fiock. AU the eggs in Ike same rov) were laid by one hen. Note that the eggs laid i 
one hen have a characteristic shape. Only uniformly shaped eggs should be marked i 
first class 

fill the compartments without danger of breakage from top or side pressur 
They should be uniform in color, that is, each egg should be of one co!< 
and the right color over its entire surface, and all the eggs should be of tl 
same color. The two colors that are most in demand are pure white ar 
pure brown. There are many degrees of white and of brown in eggs, whi< 
will be seen only when the eggs are carefully examined in a good ligh 

The texture of the eggshell should be smooth, hard, and free fro 
transparent spots when examined with a tester. Eggs having defecli' 
shells are not so Ukely to hatch well or to produce strong chickens. 

Eggs for hatching should be kept in a moist, cool place not over 
to 60°, and for not more than a week or ten days if it can be avoids 
They should be turned every day or two, and should be kept covered 
as to prevent too rapid evaporation. 

Rural School Leaflet 841 

Selecting eggs for hatching is interesting and useful work for any boy 
or girl to do. It vnll also prove profitable work. How many will do it 
and do it wfell? 

iii. hatching the eggs 

Clara M. Nixon 

Every one -who has tried to set and care for a hen so that a good brood 
of healthy chickens will hatch, knows that it is no slight task. We need 
education for this as well as for other bnes of work. Let us see what we 
can learn in the following lesson: 

The hen. — "You will probably have the hen all ready to receive the eggs 
when they arrive. She should be of moderate size. If too heavy, she 
may break the eggs; if too small, she can cover a few only. She should 
be quiet and peaceable, a hen that may be handled without being fright- 
ened, and one that is likely to pay strict attention to business. 

Do not trust the hen with valuable eggs until you are sure she intends 
10 sit. It will be better to give her two or three other eggs (china eggs 
^ill do) and let her sit on these for two or three days. She will probably be 
more contented on the nest she has chosen for herself, if it be a suitable one. 

In case you must change the hen to another place, go quietly after dark, 
lift her gently, and put her on the nest that has been prepared. Give her 
two or three eggs, one at a time, and let her place them under her breast 
as best pleases her. If she clucks contentedly, and snuggles the eggs 
codly under her feathers, she will usually sit on this nest. It is best, 
hoirever, to put a crate or well-ventilated box over the nest. The top 
slunld be high enough not to disturb her while sitting, but not high enough 
to allow her to stand comfortably. If she sits quietly for two or three 
da>-s, she will probably stay, 
and you may give her the eggs. 
Keep the crate over her for a 
few days longer, allowing her 
to get off the nest every day 
for exercise, food, and water. 
but have her go back in a 
reasonable time. 

The nest. — Have the nest 
comfortable, clean, and free 
from lice. It should be large 
enough for the hen to change 
her position on the nest and 
10 turn her eggs, but not so large that the eggs will move out of the warm 
hollow under her breast. First, place some earth in the bottom of the 

842 Rural School Leaflet 

box, then enough bright clean hay to make a good nest; the hen will fix 
the curve of the nest to suit herself. She feels safer in a somewhat dark, 
secluded place, and it is best to humor her. 

Care of the hen. — The hen has undertaken a very confining task, which 
will last three weeks. This is a long time. For twenty-one days and 
nights the patient hen must stay in almost the same position. If you 
4o not think this is tiresome, watch her when she first comesi off the nest. 
She can scarcely stand. The least we can do is to have things as well 
prepared for her comfort as we can. Plenty of whole grain (com and 
wheat are best), clean, fresh water, grit, and a dust bath should be placed 
where she can reach them, and she should be allowed to exercise every 
day if she wishes. Be sure to dust a little insect powder into her feathers 
occasionally. This is a wise precaution, even if you do not find any lice. 
In case she should break an egg, clean up the nest as well as you can, and 
wash oflE the badly smeared eggs in lukewarm water. They wiU not be 
likely to hatch if not cleaned. 

If the hen seems irritable when the eggs begin to hatch, the oldest 
chickens may be taken from the nest as soon as they try to get from under 
the hen, wrapped in a piece of flannel, and kept in a warm place until the 
others are out. This will keep the hen more quiet, and she will not be 
likely to kill the younger chickens in the nest, or to leave the nest before 
the remaining eggs are hatched. If the hen is quiet, it is best not to 
disttu'b her while the eggs are hatching. The nest box must be deep 
enough to prevent the chickens from jiunping out. 

With careful attention to the instructions given, you should have good 
success with the eggs. 

iv. brooding and care op the chickens 

Clara M. Nixon 

When the eggs are hatched, as they should be by the end of the twenty- 
first day, take the hen and chickens from the nest and put them in the 
coop you have prepared for them. 

The coop, — The coop should be large enough so that the hen can move 
^bout, and high enough so that she will not strike her head. If it has no 
floor, set the coop on a platform of boards. This will help to keep out 
the rats and weasels, as well as to keep the coop dry. The separate floor 
is more easily cleaned and dried. The coop should be slatted in front, 
but closed on the other sides; it should have a roof that will keep out the 
rain. It should face the south and be placed on. clean land on which no 
chickens have recently been reared. This is a precaution against disease. 
Everything should be clean, thoroughly disinfected with a coat of white- 
wash, and kept dry. Dampness is fatal to young chickens. 

Rural School Leaflet 843 

During hot weather a shelter against the heat should be arranged on 
the south side, unless the coop is located in the shade. The coop should 
be turned over often and the floor set up on edge, so that the sunshine may 
dry and cleanse every part. 

i Care 0/ the ken and chickens. — It is better to keep the hen in the coop 
for a few days, for she will then be likely to return to it. Let the chickens 

TTu first meal. After ehkks have been hatched for 24 '0 36 hours they will begin to hunt 
for food. Feed little and often. Provide fine pit and pure water at all ttmes and a 
clean grass sod for pasturage 

run if the weather is fine; they will not go far from the hen. In case the 
winds are cold, a httle yard covered on the sides with coarse muslin in- 
' stead of chicken wire will give protection. As soon as the chickens can 
run well, the hen may be allowed her freedom in fine weather, but she 
should be fed near the coop. In rainy weather it seems best to keep the 
hen and chickens out of the wet. 

Enemies and disease. — Be sure that the hen and chickens are tree from 
'.ice, A wise precaution against these pests is to apply a little fresh lard 
to the hen's body imder the wings. An equal quantity of scotch snufE 
mixed with the lard makes it more effective. A liberal apphcation of kero- 
sene and whitewash to the inside of the coop several days before the hen 
and chickens are placed in it will be a wise precaution against red mites. 

844 Rural School Leaflet 

In case of the mysterious disappearance of the chickens, look for cats, 
rats, crows, hawks, weasels, and other thieves. Crows and hawks catch 
the chickens in the daytime, when they are roaming about. Rats and 
weasels often get into the coop at night, and may destroy an entire brood 
in one visit. Cats are often enemies. Your pet cat may be the one to 
eat your chickens. Watch her until you know she is to be trusted. The 
loss from disease will be greatly decreased if the chickens are alwaj-s 
well cared for and well fed and if their coops are kept clean. 

V. pall preparations for winter eggs 
James E. Rice 
The early fall months should be one of the busiest seasons of the year 
for the boy or girl who is taking care of poultry. It is a most delightful 
time to work out of doors. 
In the North when fall comes 
we feel the hibernating in- 
stinct of squirrels. We enjoy 
" snugging up " as the days 
get shorter and the frosts 
remind us that winter is com- 
ing. We know from ex- 
perience how good it feels 
at this time to be comfort- 
able. The hens feel the same 
way. Notice how they seek 
the shelter of bushes, fences, 
A cheap and tny satisfactory lypt of hen house, h ^"^ buildings. They know 
is neat and warm and gives opportunity for fresh full well that this is no time 
air for the birds . . . , , 

' to lay eggs or to rear a brood 

of chickens. Therefore, what they do is perfectly natural and excusable, 
from a hen's viewpoint: they stop laying. Hens everywhere do the 
same; that is why eggs are always high-priced at this season of the year 
and later. In New York State the season of low egg production is Octo- 
ber, November, and December. 

Did it ever occur to you that hens commence to lay less about the last 
of June each year, when the days begin to get shorter, and that they 
naturally begin to lay more about the first of January, when the daj-s 
lengthen? They apparently know by the amount of daylight and of 
sunshine when a more favorable or less favorable season is approaching. 

Hens lay well only when they are comfortable and happy. The happy, 
singing hen is the laying hen. That is why great care is necessary in the 
fall to get fowls into congenial winter quarters early. There are many waj-s 

Rural School Leaflet 845 

of doing this. One is to provide them with a cheerful, cozy, clean house 
in which they can be sheltered from the wind, have plenty of sunshine and 
fresh air, and at the same time have an opportunity to run out of doors. 
On the sno'W ? Yes ! Yes ! A hen does not mind cold feet if she can have 
her own way. In some respects, hens are like human beings. It is not 
so important for a hen to go out of doors each day the year round, as it is 
for her to kno'w that she can if she wants to. Hens will not lay well unless 
they are contented, and freedom helps to make them contented. 

There are many things to be considered in making a home for hens. The 
word home instead of house is used because many expensive houses are not 
hen homes ; they may look all right but they are too high or too dark or 
loo damp or too dirty. The home of a hen should be low, bright, dry, and 
clean, and have neat nests in which the birds can hide their eggs. The 
location should be dry and sheltered and should have good air drainage. 
Many of the most troublesome poultry diseases are due primarily to 
improperly located and poorly constnicted poultry houses. The walls 
must be built to provide warmth, dryness, and strength for the home, 
ease of cleaning and disinfecting, economy in construction, and durability. 
Interior fixtures should be portable, in order to facilitate fighting the 
miles. A dust wallow should always be provided. 


C. A. Rogers 
As the fall advances and the leaves on the trees fall to the ground, it 
is time to get the season's flock of pullets into cozy, warm quarters where 
they can spend the winter in 
comfort. TWs is a time when 
the chickens should be given 
careful attention, for when 
exposed, the c»ld nights and 
occasional snow flumes soon 
put a stop to their growth and 
development . It is also a 
critical time, for under favor- 
able care they should soon 
begin to lay. 

The pen. — Choose, then, a 
comer of the bam or shed that 

can be partitioned of! into a ^^' f^'t^.H. ^'"* ' u" "^""^ Jl^'f': '.^^ 
' uc p«" , • J ■ nouses should be thoroughly deaned and dtsin- 

pen of the desired size; or, }ected. Nem liimr should be put in and all signs 
better Still, build a small house "/ '^""^' destroyed 

purposely for the pullets. If you have fifteen fowls, build the house 
eight feet wide and ten feet long. If there are twenty-five fowls, make the 

846 . Rural School Leaflet 

house twelve feet wide and twelve feet long. Be sure to build it on a dry 
place that is protected from the cold winds as much as possible. Have the 
front face the south in order to get all the warmth of the sun's rajrs. 

Fresh air and sunlight. — These are two very important factors. Both 
should be provided through windows on the front (south) side. A 
small window may be made near the top, into which is fitted a cloth curtain 
frame. During the daytime in pleasant weather this curtain should be 
removed or swung on hinges or fastened up out of the way, thus letting 
in the sunshine and fresh air. At night when closed, the muslin cloth 
keeps the house warmer and still allows abundant circulation of air. In 
addition to the cloth curtain there shoxild be a glass window with six-by- 
nine-inch panes for the houses mentioned. For best results this window 
should be placed one and one half feet above the floor, with the longer 
dimensions up and down. 

Warmth, — Next in importance is the warmth of the pen, on which 
depends largely the coziness of the quarters. One of the easiest ways to 
secure this is to line the walls with paper and board up roughly. In addi- 
tion to this, if the roof is high build a loose ceiling at a height that allows 
plenty of headroom. Fill the space above with straw. 

Dryness, — The straw not only makes the pen warmer, but also keeps it 
drier. Dryness is equally as important as w^armth. With the three walls 
made tight with paper, the ceiling filled with straw, and a deep litter 
of straw or hay chaff on the floor, the fowls will be comfortable and con- 
tented. Such conditions always add to the number of eggs in the egg 

Roosts. — Make the inside arrangements neat and convenient. Small 
poles or two-by-four sticks of liunber make the best perches. All perches 
should be on the same level, because fowls seek to roost on the highest 
if some are higher than others. The scrambling for the higher places 
often results in injiuy to some fowls and always causes distiu'bance. The 
best height for the perch is about two and one half feet above the floor. 

Nests. — By natural instinct hens seek a secluded place in which to lay 
eggs and this should be provided. They will be likely to lay more eggs 
when satisfied with their surrotmdings. An easy way to make such a 
nest is to fasten a box on the side wall at about the same height as the 
I)erches, leaving a small opening at the side of the box toward the back 
wall through which the hen enters and from which the eggs can be gathered. 
The nest is very inviting when kept clean and filled with fresh straw or hay. 

Freedom. — Fowls should be given their freedom in winter as well as in 
summer. This is particularly desirable when the house opens into a dry 
barnyard in which the fowls can roam about and pick up bits of food left 
by the other animals. 

Rural School Leaflet 847 

Cleanliness. — The pen must be kept clean. The health and comfort of 
the fowls depends very largely on this. Do not wait until the litter becomes 
wet and filthy, but change it as soon as it begins to pack. Provide a 
small box of screened coal ashes or road dust in which the hens can dust. 
This will help to keep the lice ofE their bodies. Whitewashing the house 
will help to keep the lice in check ; if necessary, put kerosene on the peroties 
and over the nest boxes, refilling the nests with clean bedding. The white- 
washing is very desirable, since it makes the pen lighter and cheerier, and 
kills most of the vermin. 

In the above ways the pullets at a very small cost can be made comfort- 
able for the winter. The one thing above all others which young poultry 
raisers should remember is: Provide your Jowls with wholesome surround- 
ings and they will make it worth your while to keep them. 

vii. euhinating unprofitable chickens 

James E. Rice 

In nearly every flock of chickens or fowls there are good ones and poor 

ones; in some flocks there are very good ones and very poor ones, and 

occasionally there are flocks in which 

there may be found greater extremes 

than these. Very likely the good 

ones are profitable and the poor ones 

are kept at a loss. If we are to make 

money from our fowls or chickens we 

must not keep any that are not profit- 
Every chicken should be looked 

upon as a. living machine for trans- /- t j 

fomiing food into chicken meat or *" 

eggs. Unless we have a good machine we cannot get good results from 

the food. In the case of many flocks of chickens a division may be made 
into three groups: (1) chickens that are growing or laying; (2) chickens 
that are not growii^ nor laying; (3) chickens that are losing weight and 
not laying. All three of these groups are eating valuable food, and if we 
keep all of them together they will probably eat more than they earn. 
If we dispose of the third group the others may pay expenses. If we 
remove the second and third groups, the first group alone should pay 
a good profit. We shall have one third as much work to do in caring for 
those that remain, and the chickens will have two thirds more room. 
Moreover, the flock of good chickens by themselves will look far more 
attractive, will grow better, lay better, and will be less Ukely to suffer 
from disease than they would be if kept with the others. 

848 Rural School Leaflet 

There are several types of unprofitable chickens that should not be 

1. A chicken of any breed or age that shows signs of sickness or weaJc- 
ness. All such should be removed at once and doctored, or killed and. 
burned. Prompt action may prevent further trouble. Delay is almost 
certain, in the end, to have serious results for the rest of the flock. 

2. Old hens that may still be well and strong. Generally it does not 
pay to keep hens after they are two or three years old unless they are 
strong and especially valuable for breeding purposes. Fowls should be 
marked so as to indicate their age. 

3. Surplus cockerels are unprofitable boarders. It is a common mis- 
take to keep too many males. This is frequently due to a natural desire 
to avoid killing desirable breeders, and with a hope that if they are retained 
they may be sold alive for high prices. After they become large enough 
for market most cockerels do not make enough growth to pay for the food 
they eat. They also injure themselves or others by fighting. The room 
they occupy, the food they eat, and the labor they require might better 
be bestowed on early hatched pullets. They should seldom be allowed 
to go into winter quarters. They usually fail to grow well in cold weather, 
and occupy valuable space that should be used by better stock. They 
are imable to wrestle with larger individuals and generally remain under- 

Careful grading of all stock as to size, age, breed, vigor, and purpose 
for which it is kept is one of the most important factors in the successful 
handling of poultry. This is second in importance only to the elimination 
of the undesirable members of the flock. This policy should be practiced 
persistently and continuously from shell to maturity. 

viii. feeding the chickens 

Clara M. Nixon 

The food, — The egg yolk is enclosed within the body of the chicken just 
before hatching, and may supply nourishment to the chicken after it 
leaves the shell. For this reason chickens should not be fed until they 
are thirty-six hotirs old. The first meal may be of equal parts of bread 
crumbs and roUed oats, moistened with some milk or water to make the 
food crumbly but not wet. * Sprinkle over this food a little fine sand or 
grit, fine charcoal, and some finely shredded clover, lettuce, or chickweed 
leaves. Mix with the food a little well-burned bone or some bone meal. 
After the first few days, hard-boiled egg may be added in the proportion 
of one part of egg to eight or nine parts of the bread and rolled oats. 
In addition to the moist food, a grain food should be given. A mixtiu'e 

Rural School Leaflet 


of three pounds cracked wheat, two pounds com (finely cracked), and 
one potmd pinhead oatmeal, rolled oats, or hulled oats is good. A dry 
mash may be left before the chickens at all times, but only as much 

should be given at one time as will be 
eaten in a day. If any of the mash 
becomes dirty it should be taken away 
from the chickens. The mash may con- 
sist of four pounds wheat bran, three 
Troughs for feeding large chickens pounds wheat middlings, three pounds 

com meal, three pounds sifted beef scrap, and one half pound bone meal, 
well mixed together. Beef scrap that is not perfectly good and fresh 
should never be used. 

For chickens four weeks old or over, the bran may be reduced to three 
pounds. Cottage cheese may be given in addition to the other foods, but 
not in large quantities. It may cause bowel trouble if the chickens get 
ux) much at first. All foods should be smeet and clean, never moldy nor sour. 
Make all changes in ration gradually. 

The feeding. — Care should be taken to have the hen well supplied with 
whole grain and large grit. The chickens should be fed often at first, 
usually five times a day. The moist food may be given in a shallow dish 
or on a bit of clean board, and should be taken away as soon as all the 
chickens have had enough. The first few days, they will probably eat 
but a small amount of grain, and it may be scattered in a shallow dish con- 
taining a little dry mash made 
according to the directions given 
above. After two or three days, 
the dry mash by itself may be fed 
in the dish, and the grain scat- 
tered on the ground or floor. 
Two other meals of the moist 
food may then be given, the 
other feedings being of grain. 
The dry mash may be left where 
the chickens can get it at any 
time. After the first week, the 
bread and rolled oats need not 
be given, but a Uttle of the mash 
mixture may be moistened and 
given instead. 

As the chickens grow older the ntunber of meals may be less, and the 
grain of larger size. At four or five weeks of age they will be able to eat 
whole wheat, hulled oats, and larger cracked com. Then if they have a 

Chick feed-trays of different sizes 

850 Rural School Leaflet 

large range and the weather is favorable so that they may run about, 
they need only two meals of grain and one of moist mash a day. They 
can always come back to the 
dry mash if they get hungry. 
Beginning with the first meal 
green food should be supplied, 
but the hen will soon teach 
the chickens to peck tender 
pieces of clover and the like 
if she is allowed to range with 
the brood. 

When the chickens are 
about eight weeks old, the 
grain and groimd food may 
be fed from a large feed 
hopper from which they may 
help themselves at any time. 
The grain mixture may consist 
of equal parts of wheat and cracked com. The chickens should also have 
free access to cracked bone, fine grit, screened oyster shell, and charcoal. 

Give plenty of fresh, clean water in a vessel into which the chickens 
cannot jump. Ordinarily a water fountain is used for the purpose. 

A serviceable water fountain can be made from a pint basin and a 
tomato can that does not leak. Cut half-inch notches in the edge of the 
can on opposite sides. Fill the can with water, cover with the inverted 
basin, then turn the whole thing over, holding basin and can tightly 
together. The water will run into the basin, but not overflow. If the 
basin does not become full enough, cut the notches higher. 


C. A. Rogers 
Does it ever occur to boys and girls that fowls are fond of a variety of 
food? This is especially so when the weather becomes cold and they are 
shut up in their pens. Then they are away from the fields where in summer 
they can nearly gain a living on the bugs, scattered grain and seed, and 
grass. It is true that they will subsist, even in the winter, on com and 
water given them at irregular intervals, but under such care they cannot 
lay eggs. Notice how much better you feel after eating a meal of whole- 
some, well-cooked food that you like. Fowls are just as partial, and 
respond when well fed. There is no one method of feeding that can be 
applied equally well under all conditions. The method described in the 
following paragraphs, however, may be followed to advantage under many 

Rural School Leaflet 851 

conditions and may also serve to suggest ways of improving your present 

^formng feed. — In the morning the fowls are hungry and ready to work 
for their breakfast. It is well to let them keep as busy as possible. Work 
keeps them warm, healthy, and contented. With this in mind, scatter 
mixed grains in the litter. Be rather sparing of the feed in the morning, 
so that the fowls will not quickly obtain their fill, but will continue to 
work and hunt for the grain for the greater part of the forenoon. This 
grain should be a mixture of all the kinds grown on the farm. They may 
be mixed in the proportion of three pounds com, two pounds wheat, and 
one pound oats, to which may be added, if available, one pound buck- 
wheat and one pound barley. Fresh water should be given to the chickens 
every day. 

Noon feeding. — At the midday meal is the best time to provide those 
appetizing mixttires so greatly relished by the fowls and so successful in 
helping to produce eggs. Take the scraps of meat, bread, and vegetables, 
or oatmeal, from the table, mix them with com meal, wheat bran, and 
wheat niiddling:s. Moisten the mass with skimmed milk until it is crumbly. 
When skimmed milk and table scraps are not to be had, take a pail of 
cut alfalfa or clover hay and pour boiling water on it, allowing it to steam. 
Feed when it is still warm. A portion of this steamed alfalfa added to 
the noon mash gives it a pleasant, appetizing odor. A little salt and pepper 
can also be added to the mash, in about the same proportion as would be 
used in your own food. When it is not convenient to make a moist mash, 
the same ground feeds may be fed dry in a hopper that should be left 
open during the afternoon. A good mixtiu^ for this purpose is: six parts 
com meal, six parts wheat middlings, three parts wheat bran, five parts 
meat scraps, one part oil meal. The best results will be obtained if the 
hens eat about one third of the ground feed mixture to two thirds whole 
or cracked grain. At noontime as much green food (beets, cabbage, 
or lettuce) as the fowls will clean up before the following noon should be 
given. At this time see that the oyster-shell and grit hoppers are filled. 
^Tien it is impossible to follow the practice of feeding three times a day, 
the scraps and green food shotdd be given with the morning feed. 

Night feeding. — Fowls go to roost very early, making it necessary for 
them to eat before sundown. This requires feeding in the latter part of 
the afternoon, while they can still see to pick up the grain. When given 
the opporttmity, a fowl will go to roost with its crop rounding full of grain, 
which it gradually digests during the night. This process of digestion 
warms the body and keeps it more comfortable. An empty crop is a poor 
bedfellow for the fowl. The same grains can be fed at night as in the morn- 
ing, but in large quantities so that some will be left over after the fowl's 
appetite has been entirely satisfied. 

852 Rural School Leaflet 

x. fattbning poultry 
W. G. Krum 
By fattening we do not mean filling a fowl's body with a large deposit 
of oily fat such as is often found in old hens, but producing large, soft 
muscles with sufficient fat so that when cooked they will be tender, juicy, 
and of fine flavor. Not only does this improve their quality for home use, 
but they will sell in good markets for a much higher price a poimd. 

The best way to fatten poultry is to restrict exercise by placing them 
in slatted coops about two feet 
square, having the bottom 
slatted or covered with one- 
half-inch-mesh wire cloth. 
This will hold four to six 
fowls or eight to ten young 

The fattening coop should 
be located in a cool, shady 
place in hot weather and in a 
comfortable place in cold 

The fowls should be thor- 
. should bt arranged .M the sho4t By mtam of Qughly dusted with Uce pow- 
troughs, wet mash may be fed three times a day o j 1- 

der, as fowls infected with 
lice do not fatten well. Neither do fowls or chickens of low vitality fatten 

Poultry should not be fed for twenty-four to thirty-six hours before 
feeding the fattening ration. The ration should then be fed sparingly at 
first. Afterward they should be kept eating well by feeding only as much 
as they wiU clean up in ten to twenty minutes. If they have more than 
they can digest for a meal or two they lose their appetite, fail to grow well, 
and may lose weight. 

I Feed fowls or mature young stock three times daily for about two weeks, 
this being as long as they will do well under this heavy feeding. 

I A good ration consists of three pounds com meal, three pounds buck- 
wheat middlings, three pounds oat flour, one pound beef scrap, and a 
little charcoal. These are mixed with sour skimmed milk or buttermilk 
(the latter preferred) to the consistency of batter, which is then allowed 
to stand and sour twelve hours before feeding. 

Ten pounds of feed usually requires seven to nine quarts of milk. The 
oat flour may be obtained of manufacturers of oat ilakes or oatmeal. Flour 
middlings may be used in the place of oat flour, although it is not quite 
so satisfactory a food. 

Rural School Leaflet 853 

It is usually best, in fattening broilers, to give this ration morning and 
night only, giving at noon a light feed of cracked com and wheat. 

WTien stock fattened in this way is shipped to market the padcages 
should always be marked " Milk Fed," This will secure the best prices. 


E. W. Benjamin 

In order to sell eggs most profitably, you should know how to grade and 
pack them for market. 

As soon as the eggs are gathered, sort out all the soiled ones and clean 
them. If they are only slightly stained, use a cloth moistened in -vinegar; 
if they are badly soiled, use scouring soap or similar substance. Do not 
soak the eggs in water, as the Uquid will pass into the interior of the egg 
carrying undesirable flavors. 
Washed eggs will not keep so 
wcU as clean, unwashed eggs, 
therefore it is better to keep 
the washed ones for home con- 
sumption and use them while 
they are fresh. 

The market eggs should be 
kept in a cool place and sold 
at intervals of not more than 
one week. These e^s should 
be carefully sorted and packed. 
To grade the eggs, make two 

groups according to size. The p,-,,,.^,„„ ^^g, „„j, j, ,^^^ ,■„ „„, „,,^, 
first group should contain eggs and delivrred in private cuslomers. Prices well 
ach weighing two ounces or jS-J^XJ/.S"""" °" """ """"'' '" 
more, that is, one and one half 

pounds or more per dozen. The second group should contain eggs 
weighing less than two ounces each. The grading will be easier if you 
weigh a few eggs of two ounces each and use them as samples. Practice 
will enable you to select the eggs of various grades without weighing them. 
From each group of ^:gs take out those having approximately the same 
color (either uniform white or uniform brown), and a uniform shape and 
Kze. After all the eggs of small siz^, poor color, and abnormal shape have 
been taken out, you will have two grades of first-class market eggs for 
which you should be able to secure higher prices than the ordinary 
niarket will pay. Egg dealers in New York City have been known to pay 

ten cents more a dozen for the large eggs than for medium-size eggs of the 

854 Rl'ral School Leaflet 

same color. They have also paid five to fifteen cents more a dozen for 
the uniformly white eggs than for mixed colors of the same dze. The eggs 
that go into the cull grade may be sold for nearly market prices. 

The best grade of eggs that you are producing for the wholesale trade 
should be packed in an ordinary thirty-dozen case if express shipments 
are to be made. You may be able to have some private customers in 
the city who look to you for their regular egg supply. This class of trade 
is not difEcuIt to secure if your eggs are of superior quality. The same 
grade should be sold each time to the same customer, so that he wll 
become educated to appreciate superior grades in eggs. Consumers are 
usually glad to pay a premium for eggs of reliable quality, A little care 
and interest on your part will give you a profitable business all your o^vn, 
which will afford some of the best profits and pleasures of farm hfe. 

Remember the following: (i) Breed and grade your fowls so that they 
will lay eggs that are uniform in size, shape, and color, and of the quality 
that will best suit your customer; (2) gather the eggs daily; (3) care- 
fully clean all soiled eggs; (4) sort the eggs into at least two grades; (5) 
neatly pack the firsts in cartons, or other attractive packages, which 
will command a considerable increase in price; (6) furnish your customer 
each time with a unifonn grade of eggs; (7) up-to-date knowledge com- 
bined with attention to details, absolute honesty, and good business 
methods will bring success. 

Qeaning egg' " " f °<«' occupation for the children. SoOed 
eggs skoiad never be offered lo a ouUmer 

Rural School Leaflet 855 

The Editor 


Not often so friendly 

Although the special study of animals for this year includes the cat, 
ire shall not give any lesson on this subject. Most of the necessary inform- 
ation relating to cats is known to teachers and pupils. It would seem that 
time nright be much better spent in giving instruction that relates to other 
forms of animal life. 

It is very essential, however, that the point of view of some of our best 
students of natural history should be considered in regard to the large 
number of cats that are allowed freedom throughout the country. At 
night they wander in all kinds of places and then go back into the homes 
in which they are the companions of children. Many persons who make 
pets of cats feel that there are too many and that the freedom allowed 
them is serious to the public. 

We have asked permission of Professor C. H. Hodge to pubhsh his 
oinnion on this question and we hope that teachers and parents will give 
it some consideration. However much any individual may care for a 
cat, he will doubtless be open-minded enough to help in working out a 
problem that is of deep interest at the present time. It will be well for 
teachers to read over the following extract to the older boys and girls 
and to discuss the subject with them. This will give opportunity to con- 
ader the question of humane treatment of animal life whenever it is 
necessary to take measures to prevent animals from becoming a public 
nuisance. Professor Hodge presents his opinion as follows: "Unlike 
dogs, cats readily return to a wild, or semi-wild Ufe, and thus become a 
menace to much of the valuable and interesting nature life of the country, 
game birds and animals, and even to poultry. They breed in great num- 
b!rs in cities, where their lives are, for the most part, a prolonged misery 
both to themselves and the community. Their cries at night are the most 
dis^reeable sounds we have in nature. The various smells that mark 
the places they infest are utterly nauseating and intolerable. 

856 Rural School Leaflet 

" Cats are the worst enemies of our common birds. Mr. Forbush 
estimates that on the average a cat kills fifty song birds a year, and lie has 
known of a single cat destroying six bird's-nests in a day. In most States 
the legislature has deemed it wise to pass laws imposing fines upon those 
who kill birds. It is ob\^ously absurd to fine a man for killing one bird 
and at the same time allow him to keep a cat that kills fifty. In some 
cities in Europe, where every effort is being made to protect the birds, 
cats are considered public nuisances if allowed to run at large. People 
who wish to have cats must.p3nfine them within their own premises, both 
by day and night, because numerous cat traps are continually set for 
strays. While not inaugurating a crusade against cats as pets, the lessons 
in nature study may exert some influence toward inducing children to 
observe what cats do and possibly to keep other pets so far as possible. 
Special attention should be directed toward preventing cats from killing 
birds; abundant feeding, keeping in at night during nesting time, and 
possibly training, may prove effective in some cases. Bells worn about 
the neck, as sometimes advocated, may save now and then an old bird, 
but not the newly hatched nestlings or young birds that are not yet wary 
or strong enough to fly." 


The cow was given for special study last year, but it has such an 
important place in the world that it is again recommended by the State 
Education Department for study in the rural schools this year. In the 
Cornell Rural School Leaflet for September, 191 1, a series of articles was 
given relating to dairy in terests. We are reprinting a few of the lessons that 
will probably be most important for the use of teachers this year. The 
other lessons can be obtained by any teacher to whom the September 
leaflet of last year was not sent. The list of lessons that we have not 
reprinted is as follows: "Why Milk Sours," "A Lesson in Milking," 
" Clean Milk," " The Constituents of Milk," " The Babcock Test for 
Butter-Fat in Milk," " Milk Records," and " Cottage Cheese Making," 

In the following lessons we have given more material for the study of 
cows than any teacher will take up in the classroom during the year. 
The teacher should, however, have more knowledge of the subject than 
is presented to the boys and girls, and from the material given he will 
be able to select the lessons that will have the most live interest for his 
school. The work will find a more active response in the dairy sections 
of the State. 

In presenting the lessons on dairjring, a visit should be made to a dairy 
farm, if possible. For this trip the teacher should prepare the pupils by 
a classroom lesson on the things to be observed. Try to have the farmer 
give a talk on his personal experience in dairying. 

Rural School Leaflet 




E. S. Savage 

URE-bred cows constitute only about 1.5 per 
cent of the cows raised in New York State. 
This number should be increased, for it costs 
no more to keep pure-bred animals than grade 
animals; and the profit from pure-bred animals 
is likely to be larger than that from grades. 
Furthermore, it is a great satisfaction to own a fine, 
pure-bred herd of cows. Let us teach boys and girls 
to recognize the fotu* leading dairy breeds of cattle and 
the four leading beef breeds. The lessons will give some 
interesting study in color and in markings, and the young 
persons will make a beginning on observation of cattle in 
the neighborhood. 

The four great dairy breeds in New York State, in order of numbers 
of cows, are the Holstein-Friesian, called simply Holstein, the Jersey, the 
Guernsey, and the Ayrshire. The color of the piu*e-bred animals in each 
of these breeds is always the same within rather narrow limits. A pure- 
bred Jersey would never be mistaken for a Holstein or an Ayrshire, and 
very rarely indeed would she be mistaken for a Guernsey by any one with 
any real knowledge of the breeds. 

This color characteristic is the one, perhaps, which is most surely 
transmitted from father and mother to offspring among pure-bred animals. 
Among grade animals, the color, in most cases, will be that of the breed 
of which the grade animal carries the most blood. 

vVe may first discuss the color of each of the separate dairy breeds, 
and then of the leading beef breeds. One way *to become familiar with 
the different breeds of cattle is to see, as often as possible, copies of farm 
papers that give considerable attention to live-stock production. 

The dairy breeds 

The Jersey. — The color of the Jersey, in general, is solid fawn, vary- 
mg through all the shades from light to dark, and becoming almost black 
in some cases. White is allowable and occurs in patches with sharply 
defined outlines in the general fawn color of the body. Jersey cows show- 
ing white are comparatively few in number. The photograph of the* 
Jersey shown is that of a very light fawn-colored cow. Jerseys usually 

858 Rural School Leaflet 

have a black nose, a black tongue, and a black switch, but these points 

are not required for eligibility to registration. The hair along the back 

and under the abdomen, and that immediately surrounding the muzzle 
and the eyes, is usually lighter 
than on other parts of the 
body. The skin should be a 
rich yellow. 

The Guerns e y. — The 
Guernsey cow is generally- 
larger than the Jersey and 
perhaps a httle coarser. The 
color is yellowish, brownish, 
or reddish fawn. This is 
wholly luihke the fawn of the 
Jersey, and is not likely to be 
mistaken after a few individ- 
uals of each of the breeds 
have been seen. The reddish 

fawn prevails. White markings are more common with Guernseys than 

with Jerseys. White occurs most often on the limbs and the under part 

of the body. The muzzle of the Guernsey is buff or flesh-colored, and 

is surrounded by a circle of light hair. The eyes are surrounded by the 

same kind of marking. 

The Guernsey is noted for the rich, yellow color of the skin and of 

the secretions coming from 

the skin. There is supposed 

to be a relationship between 

this rich skin-color and the 

bright, rich yellow of Guern- 
sey butter and cream. 

The Holslein-Friesian. — 

The color of this breed is 

black and white. There is no 

variation in shade, the only 

variation among indi\'iduals 

being in the amount of each 

color. At various times in 

the history of the breed, more ^ Guernsey cow 

white has been popular than 

at other times. For example, at present a Holstein bull calf having more 

than 5° per cent white will bring a larger price than an equally good 

animal having less white. 

A Holsuin CI 

Rural School Leaflet 859 

The Ayrshire. — The Ayrshire cow is red and white, although occasion- 
ally a brown and white animal may appear. In such cases, the brown 
alwaj-s has a reddish tinge. As with Holsteins, a large proportion of white ' 
is popular. The color 
markings in the Ayrshire 

are not so regular as the I 

black and Tirhite of the 
Holstein. Often a white 
Ayrshire cow will be 
flecked with red instead 
of being marked in large 
patches or in any regular 

The best way to learn 
the different charactetis- 
lics in color is to see ani- 
mals of each breed. It 
is suggested to teachers 
ihat the children be encouraged to tell what kinds of cows they have at 
home and to describe the colors. Visits to good dairy herds in the 
\-icinity of the school will increase the interest in the subject and give the 
children first-hand study of animal life. 

The beef breeds 
There are comparatively few of the four great beef breeds — Shorthorn, 
Hereford, GaUoway, and Aberdeen-Angus — in New York State, as this 
is primarily a dairy State. At ' 
one time Shorthorn cattle were 
in demand in New York, how- 
ever, and in 1873 the highest 
price ever paid for a cow, 
$40,000, was paid for 8th 
Duchess of Geneva, a Short- 
horn. Beef cattle have given 
way to dairy cattle, and we do 
not find large herds of beef 
animals except in one or two 
places. The influence of the 
An Ayrshire caic Shorthorn blood has been left 

in our grade and scrub herds, however, and we find many animals re- 
sembling Shorthorns. The grades of the other beef breeds are not nearly 
so numerous. 

A Hereford a 

860 Rural School Leaflet 

The Shorthorn. — The colors found among Shorthorn cattle are red 
and white in great diversity of proportions. We have wholly red animals 
'and wholly white animals. Then there is found in large numbers the 

roan, a mixture of the 
red and white with the 
colors grading impercep- 
tibly into each other 
through a mixture of the 
red and white hairs. In 
some cases, the colore 
are distinct and the out- 
lines of the patches of 
red are clearly defined. 
The picture shown on 
page 71, in the lesson on 
" The Beef Type and 
the Dairy Type," is that 
of a roan Shorthorn cow with some parts of the body graded into clear 
white and other parts a clear red. 

The Hereford. — The characteristic color marking of the Hereford cow 
is her white face, white line on the back, white underline, white markings 
on the legs, and white switch. There is no definite extent prescribed for 
these colors, but the face is always clear white and the outlines of the 
other white markings are distinct. The body is a soUd dark red. The 
Hereford heifer shown in 
the above illustration well 
represents this breed. 

The Aberdeen- Angus. — 
The Aberdeen-Angus cow is 
solid black, and is distin- 
guished from the Galloway 
by having shorter and 
straight hair. The Angus 
cow is polled; that is, from 
birth she has no horns. 

The Galloway.— The Gal- 
loway cow is also solid black, 
with the best coat of hair of 

any of the breeds of cattle. . An Angus cote 

The hair is rather long and 

wavy. The hide of the Galloway is especially prized for robes and fur 
coats. This is a polled breed, also. 

Rural School Leaflet 86i 

The cows of the different breeds cannot always be distinguished by 
color alone. Other characteristics, which have not been mentioned, may 
need to be considered; but the color will enable us to determine the 
breed in the great majority o£ cases. 


H. H. Wing 
Cattle are kept for two main purposes: for the production of milk 
and for the production of beef. These two purposes make quite differ- 
ent demands on the vital energies of the animal. For this reason, by 
selection through many generations of those animals, on the one hand, 
that are best developed for meat production, and of those, on the other 
hand, that give the largest amount of milk, there have arisen two types 
more or less distinct in fom. and cert;ain other characters, one known 
as the " beef form " or type, and the other known as the " milk form " 
or type. 

It must not be supposed that these two types are entirely distinct 
or separate, for the cows of the beef type always give some milk, and 
animals of the dairy type will furnish beef of reasonably good quality 
when properly fattened. Then, too, while the types may be readily 
recognized in the best-developed individuals of either, there are a great 
many animals of intermediate form that it would be difficult to assign 
to either type, since the two types tend to merge into each other by very 
gradual gradations. 

The chief differences in form that distinguish the beef and dairy 
types are: 
1. In outline of body, especially as viewed from the side. 

862 Rural School Leaflet 

3. In depth and smoothness of flesh. 

3. In size of udder and external blood vessels connected therewith. 

In the beef form, the outline of the body approaches the rectangular. 
The general contour of the top and bottom lines is straight and parallel, 
and the general dimensions of the body approximate those of a. brick; 
that is, length twice the depth, and depth twice the thickness. 

In the dairy type the general outline of the body is " wedge-shaped 
from before backward"; that is, the general contour of the top and bot- 
tom hnes diverges from the front toward the rear. This is brought about 

The dairy type 

by a relatively large development of the hind quarters and sometimes 
by relatively low and thin shoulders. The height of the animal at the 
hips is one half to one and one half inches greater than at the shoulders. 
The wedge-shaped appearance is increased by a large and pendulous 
abdomen and by a lar^e and well-developed udder. 

In the best beef animal, even when not fully fattened, the whole body 
is thickly and smoothly covered with flesh (muscle) so that the angles 
of the bones are nowhere prominent. This is seen particularly over the 
upper part of the ribs immediately back of the shoulder, on the loins, 
in the thighs, and on the shoulder. The neck is short and blends 
smoothly into the shoulder and the whole body has a rounded appearance. 

Rural School Leaflet 863 

In the dairy animal, the lack o£ muscular development gives rise to a 
spare, angular appearance. The angles and joints of the bones are 
prominent, particularly in the pelvis and the spinous processes. This 
does not mean that the animal is poor or emaciated, for there may be 
abundant fat, as indicated by a soft, pliable skin, and by rolls of fat in 
the fold of the skin in the flanks, and still the animal may present this 
spare appearance. 

In the dairy type,the udder is, of course, much larger and fuller than 
in the beef type, and the so-called " milk veins " stand out promi- 

nently on the abdomen, extending well forward to the chest. In the 
Wf type, not only is the udder small and comparatively insignificant, 
but the exterior veins leading from it are small and more or less em- 
bedded in the surrounding muscular and fatty tissue. 


Young folks in the State of New York should become more familiar 
with the animals of the farm. They should be taught to love farm ani- 
mals; for cows can be loved and petted as well as dogs and horses, and a 

864 * Rural School Leaflet 

child's friendlmess vnil be as fully appreciated by cows as by other ani- 

Children in the schools can be taught to study animals at home and 
to report their observations at school. The teacher of a rural school 
should visit the homes of the children as much as possible and observe 
the animal life with the children. In this way parents will become more 
interested in the school work. In the hope of giving some suggestions to 
teachers, the writer has prepared the following topics and questions con- 
cerning the cow: 

1. The origin of cows, 

a. What two rather distinct types of cows are there? 

b. In what countries are they found? 

c. From what countries have the cows in the United States come? 

2. The parts of the cow's body. 

a. Where is the milk produced? 

b. What do the milk veins carry? 

c. Where are the withers? 

d. What is the " wedge shape " in the dairy cow? 

e. How does a cow kick as compared with a horse? 

3. The teeth, 

a. How many teeth has a cow? How many molars? How many 

incisors? On which jaw do the incisors grow? 

b. How does a cow bite? 

c. What other farm animal bites like the cow? 

4. Telling the age by the teeth. 

a. How many incisors has the calf when he is bom? When does 

the calf get all his " milk " incisors? 

b. When does the middle pair of permanent incisors appear? The 

next pair? The next pair? The outside pair? 

5. The digestion. 

a. How many compartments has the stomach of a cow? 

b. What other farm animal has the same number of compartments 

in its stomach? 

c. How many times does the cow chew its food? 

d. Which is the true stomach? 

e. For what purpose are the first three stomachs? 

6. Food of the cow. 

a. What foods are adapted to the needs of the cow? 

b. Why does a cow need succulent food at all seasons of the year? 

Rural School Leaflet 865 

c. For convenience in studying the feeding of a cow, into what groups 

of nutrients do we divide her food? 

d. Can ■we divide the body of the cow into the same groups of 

materials ? 

e. What is the interrelation of these materials in the food and in 

the body? 

f. How do we compute a ration? 

g. What is the nutritive ratio? 

Tht parts of a caw: a. mtude; b. eye; c, forehtad; 
ihouidtr; i, kip: j. rump; k, Ikurl; I, thigh; m, let 
f. udder; j, teats; t, milk vein; u, svrilck 

■ Breeds of cows. 

a. What are the four principal dairy breeds in America? 

b. What are the four principal beef breeds in America? 

c. In order of richness of milk, how do the dairy breeds stand? 

d. In order of prominence and favor in the United States, how do 

the beef breeds stand ? 

e. Which is New York, a dairy or a beef-producing State? 

866 Rural School Leaflet 

Answers to questions on cows 

1. Prehistoric animals related to our cattle were domesticated by the 
Swiss Lake Dwellers. These cattle existed in rather large mimbers down 
to histcMic times and were the ancestors of our domestic breeds of the 
present day. The two kinds of domestic cattle that exist to-day are 
our own cattle as we know them as separate breeds in Europe and America, 
and the humped zebus of the eastern countries of the globe. The humped 
zebu was domesticated in Egypt 2,000 years before the Christian Era. 

The cattle of the United States have come chiefly from England, Scot- 
land, the Channel Islands (the islands of Jersey and Guernsey in the 
English Channel), and Holland. The beef breeds and all the dairy breeds 
except the Holstein-Friesian originated in England, Scotland, and the 
Channel Islands. The Holstein-Friesian cattle came from Holland. 
The man who may be called the father of all modem breeding and improve- 
ment of cattle was Robert Bakewell, who lived in England from 1725 to 


2. The parts of the body of the cow are shown in the illustration on 

the preceding page and require no further explanation. The udder and 
the milk veins make up the mammary organs of the cow. The milk veins 
do not carry milk. They drain the blood from the udder. The fresh 
blood from which the milk is manufactured is supplied to the udder from 
the heart through arteries and is drained away through milk veins. The 
larger the milk veins, the larger the amount of blood probably flowing 
through the udder and the larger the milk production of the cow. 

The wedge shape and the dairy shape are explained in the article in this 
leaflet on *' The Beef Type and the Dairy Type,** by H. H. Wing, page 69. 

The body of the cow is so made up that she can reach much farther 
forward when she kicks than can the horse. This enables her to protect 
her udder to a greater extent. A horse usually kicks straight out with 
both feet to protect himself. 

3. A cow has thirty-two permanent teeth: twenty-foiu* molars, twelve 
on each side, six above and six below, and eight incisors. The incisors 
are all on the lower jaw. The place of the incisors on the upper jaw is 
taken by a hard pad of cartilage against which the lower chisel-like teeth 
strike w^hen the animal crops the herbage in the pasture. The arrange- 
ment of the teeth of the sheep is the same as that of the cow. Sheep and 
cows can crop the grass closer to the ground than can horses. 

4. A calf, when bom, has two pairs of incisors. The other two pairs 
appear during the first month. When a calf is 18 months old he loses 
the middle pair of ** milk " incisors and grows a permanent pair. The 
next pair, one on each side, are replaced at 27 months of age, the third 
pair at 36 months, and the foiuth or outside pair at 45 months. The 

Rural School Leaflet 867 

time of the appearance of these incisors varies within rather narrow limits, 
so that we are able to tell the age of young cattle fairly accurately. A 
calf also has a temporary set of molars which are later replaced with 
permanent ones; but they are not considered in estimating the age of the 

5. The stomach of the cow and of the sheep has four compartments. 
The first three help in the storage and mechanical manipulation of the 
food. The fourth is the true stomach of these animals, in which that 
part of the digestion takes place which we ordinarily think of as taking 
place in a stomach. 

A cow chew^ her food twice. The first compartment of her stomach 
is large and enables her to eat a large amount of food without stopping 
to masticate it thoroughly. This food is stored temporarily in the first 
compartment of her stomach. Later, at leisure, she can lie in the shade 
aad re-chew all her food. After the second chewing, the food is swallowed 
and passes along to the true stomach and on into the intestines in the 
regular course of digestion. 

6. Coarse foods are adapted to the requirements 
of the cow. A cow can consume large quantities •• 
of such coarse foods as hay, cornstalks, and the '^^^^^S^BSWJ^^'b 
like. Under modem conditions when cows are -e^^JUs*^^ 
jidding large quantities of milk a large quantity ^^^ ^^ ^^ '^^ ^^ ^_ 
of grain also is fed. The grain is made up of the manent incisors. The 
ground cereals or the ground by-products from the middle pair, marked j, 

^ • i r «i appear at 18 months of 

manufacture of certam htiman foods. age; the pair marked 2 

Succulent foods are peculiarly adapted to the f/^^i^''. °^ ^'^u months; 

--,, , i. ^ . e '^ P^^^ marked j, at 

needs of the dairy cow. The best food is, of ^6 months; the outer 

course, the natural food of the cow, which is green ^*''' ^''^f^ 4. appear 

, at 45 montns 

pasture grass. At all times of the year when pas- 
ture is not available, some succulent food, such as com silage or roots, 
should be given. The cow will respond ia every way to special care, such 
as providing a variety in her ration, with some succulent food when 

For convenience in studying in detail the feeding of a cow, we divide 
her food into five great groups according to composition: water, ash, 
protein, carbohydrate, and fat. Her food is almost entirely of vegetable 
origin and the plants or the produce of plants that she eats are made up 
entirely of these groups of materials. The water in the plant is the same 
as any pure water with which we are familiar. It serves the plant in two 
imoortant ways: by filling out the cells and thus helping in the support 
of ihe plant, and by transporting the food from the roots, or from wherever 
it is made, to those cells that need food. The ash of the plant is the mineral 

868 Rural School Leaflet 

matter. The protein is the nitrogenous part of the plant tissue. The 
carbohydrates include the sugars and starches and like materials. The 
fat is the oil of the plant. All agricultural books use these terms, there- 
fore the teacher should have the children familiar with them. 

It is not easy to give common examples of the ash or of the protein of 
plants. These groups are intimately associated with the life of the plant 
and are present in all parts of it. 

The plant may use any one or all three of the groups, protein, carbo- 
hydrates, and fat, as its form in which to store reserve food. Mainly, 
however, the common form in which reserve food is stored is in the form 
of carbohydrates, of which starch is the most common example. 

The body of a cow is built up from the food that she eats. It is com- 
posed of the elements that also make up the plant body. These elements 
form numerous compoimds, which may be grouped into the same five 
groups into which we separated the plant body or the food of the cow: 
water, ash, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. The chemical formula for 
an animal fat may not be the same as for the particular vegetable fat that 
was in her food ; and this will hold true also for proteins and carbohydrates. 
In the animal body there are few compounds that are carbohydrate in 
nature. The plant, as noted above, stores its surplus food mainly as 
carbohydrate, with some protein and fat. The animal, on the other hand, 
stores its excess food material as fat. The proportion of protein in the 
animal body as a whole is large because the lean meat of the muscle tissue 
is nearly pure protein. A good example of animal protein is the albumen 
of an egg\ another is the casein, or curd, of the milk. We have no conMnon 
animal carbohydrate. Lard and tallow are common forms of animal fat. 

What data we have go to show that in order to form the protein of the 
body the animal must have protein in the food. Any excess of protein 
in the food that is not needed to form body protein will be broken up. A 
part of the protein carrying the nitrogen will be excreted and the remainder 
will be used as carbohydrate material. The protein of the body can have 
no source except in the protein of the food. The carbohydrate material 
in the body can have as its source, protein, carbohydrates, or fat in the 
food. The fat in the body may be manufactured from the protein, 
carbohydrates, or fat. Therefore, to summarize, there must be a sufficient 
amount of protein in the food to keep up the necessary protein of the body, 
but the fat or carbohydrates of the body may be derived from any one 
of the groups (protein, carbohydrates, or fat) in the food. 

The animal uses the water that it drinks and that it derives from its 
food to keep up the supply in the body, much in the same way that the 
plant uses its water to help support the body by keeping the cells distended, 
and as a transportation agent. The ash (mineral matter) taken into 

Rural School Leaflet 869 

the body forms the bones and ftimishes the mineral matter that is present 
in all the tissues. The protein makes up the muscle tissues of the body 
and any nitrogenous matter in the other tissues. The carbohydrates are 
used to ftimish the energy for the muscles. Any excess of carbohydrates 
may be transformed into fat and stored as reserve material. Fats in the 
body are used to give energy to the cells, or they may be stored as body fat. 
A cow or other animal has three uses for the food it t?.kes into its body : 
(i) to furnish energy for the mechanical work of the body; (2) to repair 
any loss of material in the make-up of the body itself; (3) to store as fat 
any food material in excess of these needs. Fat and carbohydrates and 
excess protein over the protein requirements of the body, are used for energy 
and fat prcKluction. Some protein and ash are used for the repair work and 
for the new material added to the body in the case of the growing animal. 
A ration is the amoimt of food that is fed to an animal in twenty-four 
hours for the above needs. The needs as to digestible protein, digestible 
carbohydrates,- and digestible fat for our animals have been carefully 
calculated. Estimating the amount of food to meet these needs is called 
computing a balanced ration. 

It has been found that there is a certain relation between the necessary 
amount of protein and of carbohydrates and fat in a ration. This relation 
has been called the nutritive ratio. The ratio is expressed between one 
pound of digestible protein and the necessary niunber of pounds of digesti- 
ble carbohydrates and digestible fat. When the first term of the ratio is 
expressed as one, the second term is found by multiplying the fat by 2^, 
adding to it the carbohydrates, and dividing this amoimt by the protein. 
The digestible fat is multiplied by 2 J because fat is considered to yield 
to the body ai times as much energy as carbohydrates. 

For dairy cows, it has been found that a nutritive ratio between i :$ 
and 1 :6 seems to give the best results in nulk flow. 

To conclude: When we wish to compute a ration for a dairy cow 
weighing about 1,000 pounds, we try to furnish suitable food in sufl&cient 
quantity to yield about twenty-four poimids of dry matter, in which the 
relation of the protein to the carbohydrates plus 2 J times the fat is as 
1 15 or 1 :6. 

7. The breeds of cows are mentioned in some detail in the article in 
this number of the leaflet on the colors of cows. In order of richness of 
milk, the dairy breeds rank as follows: Guernsey, Jersey, Ayrshire, and 
Holstein. The milk of the Guernsey and the Jersey tests 5 per cent to 6 
per cent of butter fat. The products of the Guernsey are a golden yellow; 
the products of the Jersey a somewhat lighter yellow, or cream color. 
The milk of the Ayrshire will average about 4 per cent of butter fat, while 
the Holstein gives milk testing on the average about 3.5 per cent butter fat. 


870 Rural School Leaflet 

The Shorthorn probably is held in higher favor in the United States 
than the other beef breeds, with the Hereford second; the Aberdeen- 
Angus stands third and the Galloway fourth. 

New York is primarily a dairy State. Very little beef is raised in this 
State except, i)erhaps, in the western part. Most of the beef consumed is 
imported into the State from the great western markets. 

To introduce the study of the cow successfully, the teacher shotdd use 
every opportunity to become acquainted with the details of dairy work. 
There are excellent opportunities to use the dairy problems in the arith- 
metic and bookkeeping classes. Children who become interested in the 
business side of dairy farming will be a help and inspiration to their parents 
and will interest the parents in the school in a spirit of cooperation with 
the boys and girls and the teacher. 


No article of food is more appreciated at the table than good butter, 
yet no part of the meal is more difficult to procure. It is true that many 
farmers have taken advantage of the high prices offered for butter of 
finest quality, and are making a determined effort to provide conditions 
and utensils with which they may manufacture better butter; but the 
great majority of farmers in New York State do not make a tmifonn 
quality of good butter. 

This is a serious problem for the dairy farmer to meet. Millions of 
dollars are being lost annually because dairy butter is of poor quality. 
One can readily appreciate this by reading the market reports. From 
these we learn that creamery-made butter sells for several cents per 
pound more than dairy-made butter. Surely this should not be, when 
the creameryman manufactures butter from cream from many herds, 
cared for imder varied conditions more or less unsanitary, while the 
private dairyman has only the cream from one herd to care for, and 
should therefore have much better control over conditions that influence 
the quality of butter. 

The most common causes of bad butter are as follows: 

1. Unclean milk or cream. 

2. Keeping cream too long or at too high temperature before churning. 

3. Keeping cream in cellars or storerooms where strong-smelling vege- 
tables or foods are kept. 

4. Improper Vv-ashing of butter to remove the buttermilk. 

5. The use of too much salt. 

When cream is saved for several days before churning, it must be kept 
very cold or the butter will be strong or rancid in flavor. It is much 

Rural School Leaflet 871 

better to chum at least every two days ; even though the quantity is 
small, if mild, fine £avor is desired in the butter. 

There is a great opportunity for the farmer of New York State to 
obtain high prices for his butter if the quality is right. In order to have it 
right, everything surrounding the manufacturing process must be abso- 
ktely clean. The cream must be well cared for, and the butter must be 
put up neatly and be attractive. 'P'hen this is done, the consumer will 
have less difficulty in securing good, reliable butter for table use, and the 
producer will find a more ready sale. 

In Ihe pasture 

" 1 vonder iJuU WUson Flagg did not include the cow among his 'Picturesque Animals' 
.'or thai is where she belongs. She has not the classic beauty of the horse, but in picture- 
taking qualities she is fsr ahead of him. Her shaggy, loose-jointed body; her irregular, 
littcky outlines, like those of the landscape, — ■ the hollows and ridges, the slopes and promi- 
ttmes; her tossing horrts, her bushy tail, her swinging gait, her tranquil, ruminating habits, — 
0^ lend to make her art object upon zehich the artist eye loves to diedl. The artists are for- 
«w Puiiing her into pictures, too. In rural landscape scenes she is an important feature. 
Bthald her grazing in the pastures and on Ihe hillsides, or along banks of streams, or ruminal- 
i«( under wide-spreading trees, or standing belly-deep in the creek or pond, or lying upon 
lit smooth places in Ihe quiet summer afternoon, the day's grazing done, and -waiting to be 
'^tmmoned home to be milked; a/td again in the Imllght lying upon the level summit of the 
hiU or inhere Ihe sward is thickest and softest; or in winter a herd of Ihem filing along toward 
the spring to drink, or being ' foddered ' from the slack in the field upon Ike new snow, — 
tudy the cow is a picturesque animal, and all her goings and comings are pleasant to behold." 


8/2 Rural School Leaflet 

Layton S. Hawkins 
(State Education Department) 

We all know that food is necessary for the life 
of plants and animals. Plants make their own 
food from the materials that they get from the 
air and the soil. Animals cannot do this, but 
must use the food manufactured by plants. Some 
animals obtain this food directly from the plants, 
others from animals that have in turn lived on 
plants. Thus we see that all food really comes from the same source. 

(i) Name all the animals that you know use only plants for food; all 
that use only animals; all that use some of each. 

(a) Name two common domestic animals that now use both vegetable 
and meat food, but whose ancestors were exclusively flesh eaters. 

All foods are a mixture or combination of several substances, called 
nutrients. These nutrients are three in number: (i) proteins, or proteids; 
(2) carbohydrates; (3) fats, or oils. In addition to these nutrients nearly 
all foods contain some mineral matter, as salt, lime, and the like? You 
will remember Professor Rice told you last year that nearly nine tenths 
of the white of the egg is protein.* Carbohydrate is a term applied to 
starches and sugars. Starch in nearly pure form is found in the potato 
and in cornstarch. Unfortunately for our understanding of all these nutri- 
ents, they are not always found in so separate a form as is the protein in 
the egg or the starch in the potato. In some cases they are combined in 
such a way that only the chemist can separate them. 

Our diet or the ration of a cow means the total amount of food eaten 
in twenty-four hours. A balanced diet or ration is one in which the 
proper proportion of the above nutrients is maintained. (A well-balanced 
diet contains 10 to 15 per cent of the nutrients as protein, 25 to 40 per 
cent as fat, 40 to 60 per cent as carbohydrates. A well-balanced ration 
contains 12 to 20 per cent as protein, 3 to s per cent as fat, 80 to 90 per 
cent as carbohydrates [see page 75!.) Many of our common foods are 
also fed to animals. Look up tables that show the relative amount of 
the various nutrients in our common foods.f 

Prctein foods build up the muscular tissues. They form new tissues 
in ycnmg, growing, and developing animals and replace the tom-down and 

Rural School Leaflet 873 

worn-out tissues in the adult. Carbohydrates furnish energy that is 
usually soon expended in the form of motion. Fats furnish energy mostly 
in the form of heat. These are not absolute uses, but are the chief uses. 
Mineral matter builds bones and performs other functions. Water acts 
as a cleansing and transporting agent. Water also acts as a diluting 
agent which prevents too great concentration of nutrient. 

When more carbohydrate is eaten than is immediately used by the work 
of the body, the extra amount is stored as fat. This fat is used up in a 
time of need. Too much fat reduces the power of the muscles. Too 
much carbohydrate in proportion to the protein fed to a cow tends to 
produce fat instead of milk. 

The most important constituent of living matter is protein. One great 
difference between i>roteins and carbohydrates is that proteins contain an 
element called nitrogen and carbohydrates do not. A diet or ration con- 
taining no protein could not maintain life, as the tissues would gradually 
waste away and death from starvation would be the result. Fats and 
carbohydrates alone would not be stifiicient to keep an animal alive. 
Thus we find that whatever else is considered in the balancing of a diet 
or ration, the question of including protein of some kind in proper 
amounts must receive attention. 

Most of the food received into the body is in soUd form. Before this 
food can be taken up by the blood and distributed to the various parts 
of the body, it must be dissolved and so changed that the cells of the body 
can use it. The process of so changing the food is called digestion. The 
nxnith, stomach, and intestines are the places where these changes are 
made. Proper cooking of food assists in this work. 

(i) Compare the digestive process of the cow with your own. (See 
page 75.) 

(2) In what parts of the digestive S)rstem are the various nutrients 
acted upon? 

After the food is digested it is taken into the blood (some directly and 
some through the l3rmphatic system) and carried to all parts of the body. 
The various cells feed on this prepared food. They grow and develop. 
The blood also brings oxygen to these cells. The oxygen acts on the cells 
to free their energy in the form of heat or motion, much as the oxygen 
of the air acts on the coal or wood in the stove to free the energy of the 
wood cells in the form of heat. The blood then carries away the waste 
material. This waste material corresponds in a way to the gases that 
go up the chimney and the ashes that are removed from the stove. 

This process of buildii^ up and tearing down is constantly going on in 
all living things. Life is directly dependent on the keeping up of this 


8/4 Rural School Leaflet 


A. H. Wright 

The Goat, — The goat is closely related to the sheep, its horns rising froTn 
the forehead and curving backward, but not fonning a spiral as do those 
of the ram. It is covered with hair of varying length, and the male has 
a beard. The legs are strong, though not large, and are fitted for leaping 
and running. The tail is short, like that of the deer. Our Rocky Moun- 
tain goat is not really a goat, but belongs to the antelope group. It is 
twice the size of any true goat and is white, with long, shaggy hair. 

The goat plays a prominent part in family life in Europe and Asia, but 
in America there are relatively few of these animals. They are raised 
more extensively in the South and West. In this State there are perhaps 
not more than 2,000. 

There are many kinds of goats, chief among which are the Milch, the 
Angora, and the Cashmere. The Swiss farmers have a very high type 
of Milch goat, which is a source of considerable revenue to them. In the 
winter these goats are kept in shelters and fed, but in the early spring 
they are sent to grazing grounds. They browse over great stretches of 
land. When properly cared for and kept clean, their milk is excellent and 
very nutritious. The butter is inferior, but many particularly choice 
cheeses are made from their milk. There are almost none of these animals 
in America, although there is no reason why the raising of goats should 
not prove a profitable industry. 

The Angora goats first came from Angora, a city in Asia Minor 200 miles 
southeast of Constantinople. Their fleece is long, siiky, and curly. 
Most of the mohair for mohair, alpaca, and camers-hair goods is pro- 
duced by these goats. Their skins are rather delicate, being used mostly 
as rugs or robes or for trimmings. Morocco leather also is made from 
their skins. Many flocks of these goats are raised in this country. Besides 
their intrinsic worth, they are especially helpful in clearing out underbrush, 
being very fond of leaves and twigs as food. 

The Cashmere goats are raised mostly in Tibet. Their wool is long, 
silky, and straight. It is from this wool that the famous Cashmere shawls 
are made. It takes the wool from ten goats and the work of several persons 
for a year to produce one of the shawls. 

The common goat is of the " mongrel " t)rpe; it will live anywhere and 
on very little food. The milk is good, but small in quantity. It is a 
question whether this goat could be raised with profit on a commercial 

The Fox. — The common fox of this State is the red fox, although the 
gray fox occurs to a slight extent in the southeastern part. The pre- 

Rural School Leaflet 875 

dominant color of our common species is reddish, as the name implies; 
feet and ears are blackish; tip of tail, white. The ears are about three 
mches long. Three distinct color variations of the red fox are found, 
together with many intermediate forms. The cross-fox is like the red, 
but with a dark cross on the back of the neck. The silver fox is entirely . 
silver-gray. The black fox is blackish. 

In character the fox is bold to the point of recklessness, and very wild. 
He seems to scheme and lay plots to outwit an enemy and is very quick 
to learn to avoid danger. He apparently loves hunting, enjoying the 
excitement of the chase even though he does not catch anjrthing.' His 
sense of hearing is so keen that he depends largely on it in this sport. 
Reynard's weakness for poultry is a source of much trouble to farmers. 
He often carries away his booty with its neck between his teeth and the 
bird swung across his shoulder. 

These shrewd animals have established runways that seldom pass 
between houses less than one half mile apart, but that always cross streams 
over the bridges. The footprints of a fox show four toe pads of equal 
size, with distinct marks of the claws in front of them — differing from 
the cat, whose claws are concealed; the prints differ also in that the hind 
foot does not fall in the footprint of the forefoot as does that of the cat. 
Unlike the dog, the toes seldom drag, the feet are set in a straight line, 
and the tail occasionally brushes the snow. 

Foxes Uve in dens, which are usually abandoned woodchuck burrows 
in a sandy hillside, enlarged to suit the new occupant. The male seldom 
enters the den save to carry food to the cubs. He prefers to sleep on a 
flat rock or ledge in the open, occasionally choosing a hollow tree trunk. 

The bark of the fox is thin, querulous, and husky, with an occasional 
long wild screech included, the latter being heard in the spring when there 
are young to be protected. 

The gray fox is a wholly distinct species. He is smaller and of differe:it 
build, dull yellowish gray, and usually lacks the white tip on the tail. 
He is distinctly a creature of the forest, preferring to live in hollow legs 
or tree trunks, subsisting on the small creatures of the forest and at times 
on the fruits found there. 

The Skunk. — This animal is about two feet long. His t5rpical marking 
is his covering of long black hair, with a white patch on the back of the 
neck from which two stripes extend down the back and along the sides of the 
very large and bushy tail. There is a thin white stripe down the forehead. 
Some animals have much less white than others, and some have the two 
white stripes uniting to form a broad band down the back. 

The skunk prefers to live in clearings and pastures near houses, 
under one of the farm buildings or in some dry hole not far distant. 

876 Rural School Leaflet 

He travels mostly at night and so is seen only at dawn or early evening. 
He catches quantities of mice and insects, thus doing the farmer much 
more service than the loss that results from stealing a few eggs and chickens. 
He also delights in salamanders, frogs, and the eggs of birds that nest 
on or near the ground. 

The characteristic most closely associated with this animal is beyond 
doubt his " odoriferous gun." This comes from a fluid secreted by large 
glands just under the tail, with ducts ending in papilla that can be pro- 
truded and directed as the owner desires. Although armed with so wonder- 
ful and effective a weapon, the skunk is very conservative in its use, 
employing it only in defense and then giving fair warning by his actions 
and by raising his tail. With provocation, the spray can be thrown ten 
feet. At night it is slightly luminous. It is perhaps because of the 
effectiveness of this weapon that skunks have abandoned the agile ways 
of their brothers, the weasels and the minks, and have become fat, lazy, 
and slow in their movements. These characteristics are certainly seen 
in their tracks. In general, the track consists of a double line of foot- 
prints, which are about the size of those of the domestic cat and about half 
as far apart. The toe nails, however, form conspicuous and character- 
istic marks. When the animals hurry, the footsteps are often in groups 
of threes or oblique rows of fours. Skunks hibernate only in the severest 
months of the winter, coming out whenever the temperature allows, 
regardless of the amount of snow on the grotmd. 

The young are bom about the end of April or the first of May, four to 
six, or even ten, in a litter. They are about the size of a mouse, naked, 
and with their eyes and ears closed. They stay with the parents through 
the first winter even though full grown, so that eight or ten skunks of one 
family are frequently f otmd in one den. Each goes out for himself in the early 
springtime. Yoimg skunks are easily tamed, making very attractive and 
interesting pets. They are easily caught in a trap or by digging out a den. 

The flesh of the skunk is commonly eaten by Indians and trappers and 
is said to be white and of delicate flavor. 

"Sir Mephitis Mephitica, or^ in plain English, the skunk, has waked up from his 
six weeks* nap, and come out into society again. He is a nocturnal traoeler, very bold 
and impudent, coming quite up to the barn and outbuildings, and sometimes taking up his 
quarters for the season under the haymow. There is no such word as hurry in his dictionary, 
as you may see by his path upon the snow. He has a very sneaking, insinuatinf way, 
ana goes creeping about the fielas and woods, never once in a perceptible degree altertng his 
gait; and, if a fence crosses his course, steers for a break or opening to avoid climbing. He 
is too indolent even to dig his own hole^ but appropriates that of a woodchuck, or hunts 
out a crevice in the rocks, from which he extends his ramUings in all directions, preferring 
damp, thawy weather. He has very little discretion or cunning and holds a trap in utter 
contempt, stepping into it c^ soon cts beside it, relying implicitly for defense against ail 
forms of danger upon the unsavory punishment he is capable of inflicting. 


Rural School Leaflet 877 

The Muskrat, — The muskrat is two feet long, its color a rich dark 
brown above, grayish below, with the sides and belly tinged with rust color. 
The body is thickset, the legs short, the tail scaly, nearly naked, and 
flattened laterally. The fur is thick with woolly underfur. The skins 
supply a very good quality of fur. 

Muskrats live in water and on its banks, except in the early fall when they 
may wander several miles from their accustomed habitat. They are 
excellent swimmers and divers. They build elaborate homes and seldom 
travel more than 200 yards from them. In their travels the tail trail 
makes their tracks conspicuous. The footprints are arranged in a zigzag 
line, with the toes quite distinct. When the animals are alarmed, the 
footprints are in a pattern something like those of the rabbit. 

The homes of muskrats are of two kinds, huts and burrows. The huts 
are used in winter, the burrows at all times. The entrance to the burrow 
is below the water level and from this a path leads upward to the den, some 
distance inland and often very near the surface. Several galleries may 
lead away from this chamber and there may be several passages leading 
to it. It is by the caving in of these burrows that the damage is done to 
fields, dams, and levees. The muskrat hut is started in the water, where 
a small " haycock " of vegetation and mud is piled up. The top is well 
out of water and contains an air chamber, from which one or more 
pathways lead downward. This dome is btiilt largely of plant stems and 
roots that the animal wiU eat in winter. Dtuing the winter the muskrats 
are very active, swimming around, coming to the edge where there is air 
space to breathe, or, when the ice is close to water, merely rising to the 
surface, exhaling their bubble of air against the ice and then taking it 
again refreshed by contact with the freezing water. Throughout the year 
they live largely on marsh grasses and aquatic plants, but occasionally 
they eat fish and water mussels also. 

Although these animals are so diligently hunted and trapped, their 
number is maintained because they are so prolific. Five to nine young 
are bom at a time, and they are said to raise three litters a season, the 
young maturing very rapidly. 

The mink and the great homed owl are the worst natural enemies of 
the muskrat. 

" In ike faU of 1878 1 observed (hat the muskrats built unusually high and massive nests. 
Thebuilders worked only at night, and I could see each day that thevHjrk had visibly advanced. 
The houses were placed a little to one side of the main channel, and were constructed entirely 
of a species of coarse wild grass that grew all about. So far as I could see, from first to last 
utey were soltd masses of grass, 05 if the interior cavity or nest was to be excavated afterward, 
as doubtless it was. As they emerged from the pond they gradually assumed the shape of 
a miniature mountain, very bold and steep on the south side, and running down to a long 
gentle grade to the surface of the water on the north. One could see that the little architect 
hauled all his material uf this easy slope, and thrust it out boldly around the other side. 
Every mouthful was dUhneUy defined.". ^^^^ BURROUGHS 

878 Rural School Leaflet 

The Frog, — The kinds of frogs of New York State are five in number, 
smooth and moist of skin, and have no disks on their fingers or toes. 

The most abxmdant form is the leopard frog, whose upper parts may 
vary from bronze to bright green, with irregular scattered spots. Its 
under parts are white. It comes out of hibernation the last of March or 
the first of April. Almost immediately it migrates to swampy localities, 
where the eggs are laid in flattened, submerged, jelly masses (3,500 to 
4,500 eggs in a mass). These hatch in ten to twenty days, and ninety 
days after the eggs are laid — that is, in the middle of July — the tadpoles 
lose their tails, assume legs, and change to the adult form. 

The pickerel frog resembles the bronze-colored leopard frog, except that 
the spots are square and the tmder parts of the legs and belly are orange 
yellow. It appears in the spring about the middle of April. The eggs 
are deposited in globular submerged masses (2,000 to 3,000 eggs in a naass). 
The individual eggs have a decided yellow color. The tadpoles transform 
during the last days of July, about ninety to one hundred dajrs after the 
eggs are laid. 

The wood frog is the smallest of the five. In color it is either light or 
reddish brown above, with a darker brown streak or mask on either side 
of the head. Underneath it is a glistening white. It appears in early 
spring — the last of March or first of April — immediately begins to lay 
globular submerged masses of eggs (2,000 to 3,000 eggs in a mass), and 
hastens away to the woods again. The eggs hatch in twelve to twenty-four 
days. The tadpoles transform about ninety days after the eggs are laid. 

The green frog is slightly larger than the leopard frog. The forward 
upper parts are bright green, the posterior region brown or olive. The 
ear plate, or tympanum, is as large as the eye — in the male, larger. 
The under parts are white, with some marblings; in the male the throat 
is yellow. The green frog appears in the middle of April and begins 
spawning in the last of May. The spawning may extend into August. 
The egg mass (3,500 to 4,500 eggs) is laid among vegetation and is one 
flat, continuous film, less than one foot in diameter, on the surface of the 
water. The eggs hatch in fotur days. In July of the next year the tad- 
poles change to adults. 

The bullfrog is much larger than the green frog, but has not the two ridges 
down its back. It appears from hibernation about the middle of May. 
The eggs are laid from June i to August. They are deposited in a frothy 
film which floats on the water among brush or near the roots of upturned 
stumps. The film is over a foot in diameter. The tadpoles live as such 
for two years before they change in July to the adult form. 

"I know of no other animal capable of giving forth so much sound in proportion to its 
size as a frog" 


Rural School Leaflet 879 

The Editor 

'HE study cf economic entomology is im- 
portant in all farm communities. The 
interest is increased when the relation 
of insect life to plant and animal life is 
A good piece of work for the year would 
be to have the children try to find out which is the 
most injiuious insect in the neighborhood. In con- 
nection with language work, encourage them to write letters to the State 
College of Agriculture, to the Experiment Station at Geneva, and to the 
Department of Agriculture at Washington, in order to get all information 
possible regarding the insect they are studying. 

The work on insects given in the New York State Syllabus is in three 
groups: For special study, the potato beetle and the lady beetle. For 
recognition, the tent caterpillar, honeybee, ant, hornet, and spider, (Lessons 
on the honeybee, ant, and hornet were given last year, and a copy of the 
September leaflet for 191 1 will be sent to any teacher who did not receive 
one.) The third group includes one biting and one sucking insect, for 
which we have selected the cabbage butterfly and the plant louse. The 
latter is valuable for study this year, since the lady beetle is the insect 
given for special work and it destroys many aphids, or plant lice. This 
will give the teacher an opportunity to discuss a beneficial insect and an 
injurious insect at the same time. 


Glenn W. Herri ck 

The writer recalls the early days of the " potato bug " in New York 
State and the tedious method of knocking it off the vines into pans of 
kerosene. Its advent as a pest on potatoes caused a good deal of con- 
sternation and as much discussion as has the San Jos6 scale insect on fruit 
trees. This beetle migrated from its original home in Colorado, where 
it lived on a wild plant of the potato family, and gradually worked its 
way eastward from field to field of potatoes tmtil, in 1872, it had reached 
New York. Now it is probably the most familiar insect pest on the average 
farm. It is no longer seriously dreaded, although it still has to be fought. 
It not only destroys the vines and lessens the yield of tubers, but actually 
affects the quality of the potatoes. Where these beetles are abundant on 
the vines the potatoes are likely to be watery and of poor quality. 

88o Rural School Leaflet 

Appearance oj the beetle. — The adult insect is called a beetle because 
it has two hard, homy wing covers that close over and hide the true thin 
wings, the chief organs of flight. The beetle is a robust insect nearly half 
■' an inch long, and has a ground color of ocherous yellow, almost reddish 
yellow at times. Each wing cover is ornamented with five black lines 
runnine lenethwise. The thorax is marked 
spots, while the head is 
k three-cornered spot. 
the beetle consist of 
ipper pair being dark- 
ly. These enable the 
of leaves and steins, 
liich it chews and 

Story of its life. — In 
,e fall of the year the 
lult beetles burrow into 
e groimd, where they 
iss the winter. They 
usually go below the 
surface eight or ten 
inches, but sometimes 
they are found several 
feet underground. 

Occasionally in- 

\ dividuals hide 

Y" away beneath piles 

of rubbish. In the 

spring the beetles 

work their way out 

of the ground very 

early and during 

warm days make 

PoUUo stalk Kiihheellealwork: a, beelU;b, grab, or "slug"; c,«us long flights, so that 

they are well dis- 
tributed over the fields and ready for the potato plants as soon as they push 
through the soil. After feeding a few days, the mother beetles begin to de- 
posit their orange-colored eggs in clusters on the leaves. The eggs hatch in 
a week or ten days, depending on the temperature, and the youi^ grubs 
begin at once to eat the leaves. The grubs have soft, red bodies, with 
two rows of dark spots along each side. They also have biting mouth- 
parts and are always apparently very hungry. They eat most of the 

Rural School Leaflet 88i 

time, grow very fast, and become ftill-grown in two to three weeks. When 
matiire they go to the ground and burrow beneath the surface, where 
each one makes a snug cell in which it soon changes to a pupa. The pupa 
remains in its cell for two weeks or longer and then transforms into the 
adult beetle. These beetles come out of tire ground and lay eggs for 
another generation, which usually is the last one. 

Natural enemies, — Most of us have no idea now often we are aided in 
our fight against insect pests by our friends the birds, toads, ladybird 
beetles, flies, wasp-like parasites, and other helpers in the struggle. The 
enemies of the Colorado potato beetle are many and we are certainly 
indebted to all of them for the eggs, grubs, and beetles that they destroy. 
Perhaps the most eflSdent enemies of the potato beetles are the ladybird 
beetles. At least eight different kinds of ladybirds attack and destroy 
the potato beetle in some of its stages. We should become acquainted 
with these ladybirds so that we may protect them if possible, and cer- 
tainly not destroy them. Both the adult ladybirds and their larvae feed 
on the eggs and grubs of the potato beetle and destroy great numbers 
of them. 

There are also several kinds of rather large, dark-colored beetles, known 
as ground beetles, which prey on the potato beetle and its grubs. 

A certain fly, called a tachina fly, lays its eggs on the grubs. The eggs 
hatch and the maggots bore through the skin of the grub and live inside 
its body, finally killing it. It is said that the tachina flies are sometimes 
so abundant in fields of potatoes that their buzzing sounds like a swarm 
of bees. These flies must aid us greatly by killing many of the potato 
beetle grubs. 

Toads and snakes devoiur many of the potato beetles and help greatly 
in the fight. Birds, too, join in the good work, espedally the rose-breasted 
grosbeak and the bobwhite, or quail. Robins, crows, nighthawks, cuckoos, 
and other birds also destroy potato beetles. 

Methods of control. — Since both the beetles and the grubs have biting 
mouth-parts, they are best destroyed by spraying the potatoes with an 
arsenical poison. The substance most commonly used is pans green, a 
very strong poison, and one that is likely to bum the leaves unless qxiick- 
lime is added to it. It should be used at the rate of i pound to loo gal- 
lons of water, with two or three pounds of good quicklime carefully slaked 
and added to the water. 

Potatoes are subject to the disease known as blight, and most potato 
growers spray their plants with a ftmgicide known as bordeaux mixture 
to control this disease. It is not necessary, however, to make separate 
sprayings for the blight and for the potato beetle, since by combining 
the pans green with the bordeaux mixture, i pound to loo gallons, both 

882 Rural School Leaflet 

objects may be accomplished. In this case, because the bordeaux mixture 
is largely composed of lime, it will not be necessary to add more of this 

Some potato growers prefer to apply the paris green dry by mixing it 
thoroughly with lo to 20 parts dry flour or fine air-slaked lime. Others 
actually dust the pure poison on the plants in the early morning while 
the dew is on the leaves. The dust is best applied by means of a pow- 
der gim or "dust-spray" machine. In case the pure paris green is used, 
only a small amount of it should be dusted on the plants because it is 
likely to bum and kill the leaves. 

The first spraying should be made as soon as the eggs begin to hatch 
and the young grubs are seen on the plants. In severe cases two appli- 
cations, a week or ten days apart, may be necessary. 

Arsenate of lead is also a much-used poison for biting insects and is 
often applied to control the potato beetle. It sticks to the plants much 
better than does paris green, but, since it is a weak poison, more of it 
has to be used. The best results will be obtained by using it at the rate 
of 5 or 6 poimds to 100 gallons of water or of bordeaux mixture. 


What color are the potato beetles? How many black lines are there 
along the back of each one? Examine the mouth of a beetle and see 
whether the hard, black biting jaws can be found. How many are there? 
How many wings does each beetle seem to have? What is the difference 
between these wings? The top ones are called wing covers and are prob- 
ably not true wings. Watch the beetles flying and see which wings are 
used for flight. 

Where are the eggs mostly laid ? How many eggs in one bunch ? What 
color are the eggs? Find out, if possible, how long it is from the time the 
eggs are laid until they hatch. Beetles may be kept on plants grown 
in the house. A lantern globe should be placed over the plant and a 
piece of muslin tied over the top. 

Describe the grubs, or " slugs " as they are often called. What color 
are they? Do they have any markings on their bodies? What kind of 
mouth parts do they have? How do they injure the plants? 

Take one of the beetles in the hand and squeeze it slightly. Does it 
give out a fluid? What color is the fluid? Does it have an odor? Is 
the odor pleasant? The liquid issues from the hind edge of the thorax 
and the front parts of the wing covers. It is probably distasteful to 
birds and may aid in protecting the beetles from their enemies. The 
grubs eject a similar fluid. 

Rural School Leaflet 883 


Anna Botsporo Coustock 

IS who do not know about the 
I brothers of the fields have an 
that all insects are injurious to our 
m interests. This, however, is a 
injust view; there are many insects 
leir whole lives doing us favors, even 
show no gratitude. Some of these 
I insects belong to the family of 
;, as these small beetles are called, 
tcept one or two members of this 
ry friendly indeed to the gardener, 
the fruit grower, and the farmer; for instead of feeding on plants, they 
feed on the plant lice and the scale insects that infest plants. 

The ladybirds, or ladybugs, are small beetles that look like pills of various 
dzcs cut in half with legs attached to the flat side. Some species are 
brownish red with black spots; some are black with reddish or yellowish 
spots. Throughout the land, whenever a country child sees one of these 
ladybird beetles, he addresses it thus: 

" Ladybird, Ladybird, fly away home, 
Your house is on fire, your children are burning.'-' 

But Ladybird is not at all frightened at this piece of news, because she 
does not know where her children are, and I am afraid she would not 
blow one of them if she met it. She performed her last duty to her 
family when she laid a cluster of yellow eggs on the underside of a leaf of 
some plant infested with plant lice or scale insects; and from every one 
of these eggs hatched a little creature that is very different in appearance 
from its mother. It is a long, rather flat, velvety creature, covered with 
warts and short spines and black or brownish black in color, ornamented 
perhaps with some bright-colored spots. It moves around briskly on 
six stiff little legs, one pair to each of the three segments of the body next 
to the head. The first thing this little creature does is to hunt for a stupid 
plant louse or scale insect and promptly seize it with strong jaws and 
chew it with great gusto, not leaving even a leg to tell the tale. A great 
many of these insects must share a like fate before the larva ladybird 
grows enough so that its skin is too tight for comfort. When this occurs 
the old skin is shed and a new skin takes its place, giving the greedy young- 
■Ser plenty of room, so that it starts on a new crusade against the plant 

884 Rural School Leaflet 

lice and then repeats the process. At last, when it is perhaps half an inch 
long, some day it hangs itself up and sheds its old spiny skin and changes 
into a queer little spotted pupa. Here it hangs, still and helpless, for 
some days, and then the pupa skin bursts, and out comes a little hemi- 
spherical ladybird which may soon be ready to lay more eggs. Or, if 
too late in the season for this, she may seek a cozy nook in which to pass 
the winter. We often find her in the ctutains about our windows and we 
should be very careful not to harm her; instead, we should cherish her 

and let-her out when spring comes, so that 
she can go on helping us. The help the 
ladybirds give us is aH the more valuable 
because both plant lice and scale insects 
have mouth parts in the form of a 
Larva, pupa, and adult of a species sucking tube, which is pushed down into 

^ ^ the stem of the plant, thus reaching the sap 

and suckirig it up, injuring the plant. Spraying the plants does not 
inconvenience these insects at all, because they never get a taste of the 
poison applied to the outside of the plant. 

If we look at a ladybird carefully we can see that she has attached to 
her head a pair of short, club-like antennae. Behind the head is the 
thorax covered with a shield, which is broader toward the rear and is 
ornamented in various patterns. The head and thorax together occupy 
scarcely a quarter of the length of the insect, the remainder consisting 
of the half -globular body encased in polished wing-covers. Below these 
wing covers is a long pair of dark wings, which are folded crosswise when 
at rest. 

The ladybird is a good flyer as well as a rapid runner. One of the 
greatest achievements of economic entomologists was the introduction 
on the Pacific Coast of a ladybird from Australia, called the Vedalia, 
which preys on the cottony-cushion scale insect, a species of insect intro- 
duced from Australia also and very injurious to orange and lemon trees. 
Within a few years the introduced ladybirds had completely exterminated 
this pest. 


Method, — The ladybird beetles are very common in the autumn and 
may then be brought to the schoolroom and passed around in phials for 
the children to observe. As many species as possible should be collected. 
The ladybird larvae may be found on almost any plant infested with plant 
lice. A plant with the insects on it may be brought into the schoolroom 
and studied. 

Rural School Leaflet 885 

Observations for the pupils, — i. How large is the ladybird? What is 
its shape? 

2. Describe the colors of yotir ladybird. How many kinds have you 

3. Can you see the ladybird's head and antennae? Can you see, back 
of the head, the thorax covered with a shield? How is this ornamented? 

4. What are the colors of the wing covers? How many spots are there 
on them? Describe the position of the wing covers when the ladybird 
is flying. Where does the ladybird keep her true wings when at rest? 
Describe the wings. 

5. Note the legs and feet and describe them. To what part of the 
body are the legs attached? Is the ladybird a good runner? 

6. Describe how a ladybird plays possum when disturbed? Of what 
use is this to the insect? 

7. Describe sl young ladybird. Does it look like its mother? What is 
its shape? Is it polished like its mother, or is it warty and velvety? 

8. How does it act when eating? Can you see how it uses its jaws 
when eating? Describe its legs. Is there a claw at the end of each foot? 

9. Describe the action of the ladybird larvae in attacking and eating 
plant lice or scale insects. 

10. Describe how a ladybird larva grows by shedding its skin. 

11. Feed the larva by placing it on fresh plants covered with plant 
lice, and note its growth. What happens when it changes into a pupa? 
How does it look when in the pupa state? What happens when the pupa 
skin bursts? 

12. Where do the ladybirds spend the winter? Why should we take 
good care of them? 


Anna Botsford Comstock 

The moth of the tent caterpillar is a canny mother and does her best 
to protect her eggs from their enemies and from the vicissitudes of winter. 
This is an especially wise proceeding on her part, for she lays her eggs in 
the summer, and there they must stay safe and soimd until the coming 
spring. She selects some apple twig and on it she lays her beautiful 
white eggs, each shaped like a thimble; she arranges them in a mass that 
encircles the twig, and weaves around them a net of dark, firm cement 
that holds them fast in place. Then she covers the whole mass with 
a waterproof varnish, which protects the eggs from dampness and at the 
same time makes the egg mass look like a swollen bit of the twig, so as 

886 Rural School Leaflet 

to deceive hungry birds. In fact, few birds, except the chickadees, find 
these e^s. This busy midget makes it his business to carefully examine 
twigs in his search for insect eggs, and so he has discovered 
this mother-moth's egg basket. 

From these e^s hatch tiny caterpillars with large 

heads. The fiist thii^ they do is to have breakfast from 

apple buds or new leaves; then they climb down the twig, 

the whole family together, to the nearest fork of the branch 

that offers a convenient support for their home, and there 

EtesCenlareedi they begin to spin their web, or tent. The silk gland is 

within the body of the caterpillar, but it has its opening near 

the lower lip, so that the caterpillars seem to spin silk from their mouths; 

the spiders, on the contrary, have their spinnerets on the rear end of the 

body. The web of the tent caterpillar is at first a little triangular affair, 

consisting of irregular sheets of silk between which the tiny caterpillars 

can be protected from the rain, just as cozily as we are in our tents when 

we are out camping. There they stay during the nights and on dark and 

stormy days; only on pleasant days do the caterpillars go out to get their 

food, which consists of the leaves. 

And wherever he goes each little caterpillar spins a thread of silk so 
that he has no trouble in finding his way back home. Each caterpillar 
grows for a time until his stiff, homy skin is too tight for comfort. He 
then retires into the web and sheds the old skin, and afterward goes back 
to his business of eating in a new elastic skin that gives him plenty of 
room; but this, too, hardens and in turn must be shed, for 
this is the way all young insects grow. Bach time the new 
skin may be a little different in color from the old one. 

The tent caterpillars are social insects and always live 
together in peace and harmony. As they grow they enlarge 
their tent until it is sometimes two feet or more in length. 
Finally, when fully grown the whole band scatters and 
each for hipiself finds a place in which to pass the pupa 
state. At this time any one who is unprejudiced must 
admit that the tent caterpillars have beautiful colors. 
They are velvety brown, spotted with purple and yellow, 
and have a most ornamental fringe of "whiskers" along 
each side of the body. They have six true legs, one pair 
to each of the three segments of the body behind the 
head. Each of these legs has a sharp, shining claw at the £„ ,„om 
tip. These true legs are used often for holding the leaf 
in place while the caterpillar eats; meanwhile, he holds himself to the 
branch by four pairs of fleshy legs with hooks on them, which extend 

Rlh.\l School Leaflet 887 

down from the sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth segments, counting from 
the head. And, lest he fail off, he has on the last segment of the body 
a daspii^ foot, called the prop leg. On each side 
of each segment, except the first, there may be seen a 
breathing pore, or spiracle, through which air is drawn 
into the insect's body to purify the blood. 

Our fully grown, uneasy caterpillar finally finds 
snug quarters on the underside of some board or stone, 
and there it spins a thick cocoon, shaped like a slender 
jug without a handle. The silk of the cocoon is white 
and with it is mixed a yellowish white powder. Once 
mthin the cocoon the caterpillar sheds its skin, and it 
now appears as an oblong, smooth object, very little 
like a caterpillar in shape. This is its pupa state, and 
during this time it develops within itself its wings and 

\-arious other adult oi^ans. In about three weeks 

the pupa skin bursts open and the insect crawls 

from the cocoon, a pretty moth with dull yellowish 

or reddish brown wings and with two whitish stripes 

across each front wing. The adult moths usually 

appear the last of June or the first of Jidy and soon 

afterward the mother moth lays her eggs. 
There are several ways of protecting our orchards 

from the ravages of this caterpillar. A common way 

is by destroying the webs with a torch. It is neces- 
sary to apply the torch on dark or stormy days, so 

that the little inmates may be destroyed with their 

tent. But nowadays we trust to spraying. Trt 

spray as soon as the apples are out of 

for the codling moth and the apple scab, and this spray settling on the 

leaves usually kills the apple tent-caterpillars very early in their career, 


Method. — This is one of the most valuable and interesting lessons for 
the spring term. The pupils should search for the egg masses during the 
Mnier or early spring, while the boughs are bare. The picture will show 
them what to look for. These egg masses may be brought to the school 
and left out of doors so they will not hatch too early. In April bring in 
tmgs from apple or pear trees, place them in water, and place the twigs 
with the eggs among them. After the worms hatch, fresh apple leaves 
should be given them. If they seem inclined to wander, confine them in 
a box made of mosquito netting tacked to a frame. Meanwhile the 

888 Rural School Leaflet 

pupils should hunt the orchards for those banning nests. If one is 
found near by it should be studied and the caterpillars allowed to develop 
naturally so that the 
pupils may become 
thoroughly familiar mth 
their habits and methods 
of growth. 

Observations for the 
pupils. — I. Why do we 
not readily see the eggs 
of the tent caterpillar? 
Of what use is this pro- 
C,c^cfa.„ppk-t,«u^.m,psi« tective covering to the 


2. Describe the egg mass and where it is found. Is it varnished out- 
side? Of what use is this? Remove some of the varnish and examine 
the eggs. How do they look? How are they made fast to the twig? 

3. What hatches from the eggs? How many caterpillars come from 
one egg mass? Describe one of the little caterpillars. 

4. What do the little caterpillars begin very soon to do? What sort 
of a place do they select for making their silken tent? From what part 
of the body do they spin their silk ? How does this differ from the method 
of the spider? Describe how the tent is enlarged. 

5- Observe closely, and if possible describe, how a caterpillar sheds 
its skin. Why does it do this? Is the new skin likely to be of different 
colors and markings from the old ? Note this carefully. 

6. Observe in some orchard at 
what time of day and during 
what sort of weather the cater- 
pillars remain in their tent. Of 
what use is this knowledge to 

7. At what time of day and 

under what conditions of weather 

do the caterpillars go out of the 

tent to feed ? Describe how they 

destroy the leaves. How does 

this injure the tree? w ,1 * ,1 .^, , , •■ -„ 

„ ^ , .„ Moth of the apt^-tree tent-cater ptUar 

8. Do the caterpillars all hve 

together while they are growing up? Do they still remain together 
after they are fully grown? Describe a caterpillar that is fully grown. 

Rural School Leaflet 889 

giving the number of its segments, its colors, and markup, the number of 
its legs, and the appearance of the breathing pores. 

9. Why does the fiilly grown caterpillar leave the tree and crawl down 
to find a place to hide? What does it do in its hiding place? 

10. Describe the cocoon. Where was it spun? Cut open a cocoon and 
describe the pupa. What happens to the insect during its pupa state? 
Collect all the cocoons you can find and put them in a box, so that you 
can secure the moths when they issue. Describe one of these moths. 

1 1 . How can we protect our orchards from these caterpillars ? How do 
the chickadees help us in this work? 

12. Are these tent caterpillars more common some years than others? 
Did you notice many of their white tents the past summer? Watch for 
ihcm next spring and see whether they are common again. On what 
kinds of trees and shrubs do you find these tents? Are there more on 
wild cherry than on any other plant? 

TeiU vf Hf aptU-tree Unt-folerp-llar 

Rural School Leaflet 

Anna Botsford Comstock 

he opinion of some persons -who are not in the 

abit of counting what they see, the spider is an 

isect. This is quite as absurd as calling a rabbit a 

bird; for any one not blind can see that the 

spider has eight legs and the insect only six, and 

that the spider has only two parts to its body. 

while the insect has three — the head, thoras. 

;n; the spider has its head and thorax joined. More 

liders never have wings. Spiders have two pairs of 

r to the jaws of insects, and in most cases they 

„„^ instead of up and down as do our jaws, The 

first pair of jaws is called the mandibles and the second pair, the maxillte. 
Each of the inner jaws, or maxillie, bears a large feeler, called the 
palpus. In some spiders these palpi are long, resembling legs, while in 
the males the tip of the palpus is knob-like in form. 

The eyes of spiders are not hke the large compound eyes of insects. 
They are single, each shining like a little gem, and are usually four in 
number; however, there may be but two, or there may be six. 

The most interesting of the spider's organs arc its spinnerets. These 
are tiny oi^ans at the tip of the rear end of the body, and on each spin- 
neret are many tiny tubes, sometimes as many as two hundred and fifty, 
each tube capable of spinning a strand of alk. The silken thread of the 
spider is indeed most delicate, and yet each single thread is made up of 
several strands. 

The spider's silk is of various kinds and is used ioc 
various purposes, as follows: 

I. The silk is used to make a protecting sac for the 
eggs. These sacs vary greatly in appearance One is jug- 
shaped and as large as a marble, and is suspended by 
silk in the top of weeds; this is the sac of the large 
yellow-and-black spider that makes its orb web in the 
bushes in fields. Some spiders make globular egg sacs 
and hang them on lines of strong silk in bushes; others 
build soft, yellow, downy sacs under stones or boards 
or in other protected places; while a very common 
spider of our fields, which does not make a web at all, 
spins a shining egg sac attached to stones. This sac is flat, circular, and 
silvery in color and is not so large as a ten-cent piece. In all spiders' 
egg-sacs there are placed many eggs, and in the case of some observed 

Rural School Leaflet 891 

the stronger spiderlings within the sac devour their weaker brothers and 
sisters — a fate which the latter seem to take calmly, as if it were a 
perfectly natural proceeding. Thus, from a nest containing originally 
500, perhaps not more than 40 or 50 spiders will emerge . 

Egg sac of a large orb weaver 

2. Spiders use sUk as a means of getting about in the air. If we dis- 
turb a spider's web the spider will drop to the ground, extending as it 
goes a line that keeps it from falling; and as soon as all is well; it climbs 
back up its rope ladder and returns to the net. But if a spider wishes to 
make a bridge from one point to another, it spins a thread that floats 
away on the breeze ; the thread is sticky and as soon as it touches something 

892 Rural School Leaflet 

it sticks fast, and the spider pulls in the sladc, making the line tifht, 
fastens it, and thus has a bridge along which it can pass at will. 

But the ycning spiders have a more wonderful way of traveling than this: 
After one of these Uttle creatures is large enough to get about, it cHmbs 
to some elevated place, such as the tip of a grass blade, lifts the end (rf 
its body, with the spinnerets high in the air, and spins out a thread irtiidi 
the breeze catches and carries upward. When the thread is long enough 

Wdt of Ota gnus spider 

to support the tiny spiderling, it lets go its hold and saib off attached to 
its silken balloon. Thus we see young spiders are scattered far and wide, 
as are dandelion seeds or milkweed seeds, carried by silken balloons; but 
the spider's balloon is likely to be just one long thread. Often these threads 
become attached to grass and weeds, and thus on autumn mornings, 
when the spiderlings are ballooning, the fields may be seen covered with 
these threads of silk. 

3. Some spiders use silk to hne their nests and to maks tubes, within 
which theyhve. In this way the trap door spider lines its burrow with 
silk and carefully lines the hinges of its trapdoor with the same useful 

RtJBAL School Leaflet 89;^ 

4. Many spiders use silk to make snares in which they catch the crea- 
tures on which they feed. These snares occur in many forms. A few are 
as follows: the cobwebs in the comers of rooms near the ceilings, each 

Filmy dome 

consisting of ft sheet of alk supported by many threads; the grass spider 
weaves a sheet of silk out on the grass and constructs a little tube at one 
ade, in which it hides; another spider builds a filmy dome, a very delicate 
sheet of silk shaped like a half-bowl inverted, which it supports by lines 
attached to shrubs and bushes; but the most wond^ul of all these snares 

894 Rural School Leaflet 

are the orb webs, the most perfect structures made by living creatures, 
except by the hand of man. Each species constructs its own kind of 
orb web, but the general plan is 
similar. The spider first constructs 
the framework of the supporting 
lines; the outer part of this frame- 
work is irregular and holds the 
web in place, but the central part 
is very regular, being constructed 
like a wheel with many lines radi- 
ating from the center. All of the 
threads of the framework are dry 
and will not adhere to anything 
that touches them, nor will they 
stretch. But after the wheel 
framework is constructed, the spider 
places on the radiating lines a 
spiral thread, which is sticky and 

_ . , „. . elastic so that it will adhere to and 

Diagram of an orb web 

entangle any insect touching it. 
Many of the orb weavers spin a zigzag ribbon across the center of 
their webs to make them stronger. Some species reside at the 
center of the web, while others have a retreat near the edge of the 
web. But, in either case, the resting spider has in its claws one 
or more lines connected with the web. and through them receives warning 
when an insect is entrapped and jars the net. One 
of the most interesting observations to be made in 
the field is to watch a spider construct an orb web. 
This may be seen easily in the morning or late 
in the afternoon on summer days. 


The web weavers.— These have been described just 
above and there are a large number of species that 
construct the snares. These include the cobweb 
weavers, in the comers of ceilings or cellars ; the fun- 
nel-web weavers, which spin their sheets of web on ^^ garden ^<der; . 

, , , , weaver. The black-and- 

the grass; the curled-thread weavers, which Spin ir- gold spider that mutw 

regular webs over weeds and flowers, especiaUv the ""^ f^f f^ ^1"^ ^>"- 
, . ,..,., , , , , pended »« the goldenrod 

goldenrod and wild plants ; and the orb-web weavers. 

Th£ crab spiders. — These spin no webs, but lie in wait for their prey. 

TTiey are crab-like in appearance and move backward as readily as forward. 

Rural School Leaflet 


A crab spider 

A jumping 

They live chiefly on plants and fences; some of the species conceal them- 
selves in flowers, where they lie in wait for the visiting insects. These 

spiders are colored like the flower in which 
they hide; they are yellow when in the 
goldenrod, and white when in the white 

The running spiders. — These are large, 
dark-colored, hairy spiders often found under 
stones and logs or boards. They run very 
swiftly and thus overcome and capture their prey. They spin no webs, 
but the mother spider makes a very beautiful globular sac in which she 
places her eggs, and she often carries this egg sac with her, attaching it to 
herself by means of her spinnerets. 

The jumping spiders, — These spiders are of medium size. They make 
no webs, but spin nests in which they hide in the winter or when laying 
eggs. They have short, stout legs, are often gray and black, but some- 
limes have bright colors. They are remarkable for their powers of jump- 
ing. They move sidewise or backward with great ease and can jump a 
long distance. One of these jumping spiders, " dressed in a suit of pepper 
and salt," we often find on a windowpane, and if you put the point of a 
lead pencil within an inch of his face, you are likely to see a remarkably 
high jump. He regards the moving pencil as a fly and it is his business 
on the windowpane to catch flies by jumping and seizing them, as a cat 
jumps after a mouse. 

Much has been said about the bloodthirstiness of the spider; but spiders, 
like the rest of us, are obliged to eat in order to live, and their ways of 
securing their prey are no crueler than our methods of procuring chicken 
or lamb for our tables. To one who has watched the spiders carefully 
it would seem that, after all, their chief characteristic is patience. They 
spin their webs and then sit and wait until some unwary insect is entangled, 
and whole days may elapse before a meal is thus obtained. 


Method. — Talk with the pupils about the different kinds of spiders and 

ask them to observe 
not desirable that 
the spiders or 
though none of the 
York State are 
handle. All of them 

A running spider carrying hzr egg sac 

their webs. It is 
the children handle 
collect them, al- 
spiders i n New 
dangerous to 
when they bite — 

which they never do unless they are forced to in self-defense — leave some 
venom in the wound which might occasion some pain, but usually not so 

896 Rural School Leaflet 

much as that inflicted by a bee sting. However, it is not necessary to 
handle these creatures in order to study them. In nature-study we are 
more interested in what they do than in how they look. 
Observations for the pupils. — 

1. How many diflEerent kinds of spider webs can you find.^ Study a 
cobweb in the comer of the room. Is the web a sheet of silk, or is it a 
mass of crisscrossed tangled threads? What is the purpose of this web? 
Where does the spider hide? Describe how it acts if a fly falls into the 

2 . Examine one of the funnel webs out on the grass. What is its general 
shape? Is it made of a sheet of silk? Is there a tube leading off at one 
side? What is in this tube? Is there a back door to this tube? Of what 
use is this? 

3. Study an orb web. With a pencil touch the lines of the framework. 
Do they stick fast to the pencil point? Touch the spiral thread?. Do 
they stick fast? What is the use of this sticky, elastic thread? Is there 
a zigzag ribbon of silk at the center of the web ? What is this for ? Where 
does the owner of the web stay? How does it know that an insect is 
caught in its web? If possible, describe how a spider spins the orb web. 

4. In the autumn look carefully in the low bushes or in the tops of 
weeds or among the dead branches of young hemlocks for the filmy dome 
web. Why is it called a fibny dome? How large is the dome? How is 
it suspended? Where does the spider rest within it? 

5. How do little spiders go traveling? Describe the spider's balloon. 

6. Note the spider hidden in the goldenrod or trillium or nMlkweed. 
Is it the color of the flower? How does this help it to get its prey? Does 
this spider spin a web? 

7. Lift up boards and stones. Do you see large, hairy spiders under 
these? Do these spiders spin a web? How do they catch their prey? 

8. Note on the bark of trees or on fences or on the windowpane, gray 
and black, rather chunky, spiders. Place the tip of a pencil in front of 
one of these about an inch away and move it toward the spider. What 
will the spider do? Why does it do this? How does it get its prey? 

9. Collect all of the spiders' egg sacs that you can find and study how 
these are made. Where are they placed and how protected? 

Editor's Note. — We have included the study of the spider in the 
regular insect work since it is so included in the State Syllabus, 
doubtless for the purpose of calling attention to the common error of call- 
ing the spider an insect. It will be well for teachers to emphasize this 
fact and the points of difference between spiders and insects given on 
page 98. 

Rural School Leaflet 


(The larva has bitii^ mouth-parts) 

Glenn W. Herrick 

The oonunon green cabbage worm is one of the serious pests of cabbages 
in this country. It is the caterpillar of the white butterfly so often seen 
flutterii^ about in numbers over a field of 
tbese vegetables. This butterfly is an Old 
World insect and was probably imported 
among shipments of cabbages sent from 
Europe. It was first noticed in Canada 
in i860 and by 1865 it had reached the 
Slate of Maine. From thenoe it has 
spread over the whole United States and 
has become a much more serious pest than 
our own native cabbage butterfly. 

This cabbage pest furnishes a good 
example of one way in which we are in 
constant danger of getting new insect 
enemies. Moreover, it shows how well a 
new pest brought from another country 
may thrive under the new conditions 
found here. 

AppearofKe of the insect. — The parent 
butterfly has two pairs of large, strong, 
white wings. Each of the front wings has 
a black patch in the outer comer; those of the mother butterfly bear 
two black spots in addition, while those of the father insect bear but one 
black spot. The undersides of the wings are sulfur or straw color. 
The body of the butterfly is long and slender, and dark in color. 
Two long, slender feelers or antennae project from the head. Each 
antenna ends in a swollen knob. 

On the lower side of the head of the butterfly is a long, slender, thread- 
like projection coiled up like a tiny watch spring. This is the sucking 
lube of the nxmth. When uncoiled it is half an inch in length. 

The caterpillar is velvety green in color and about one and one fourth 
inches in length when full grown. There is a faint yellow stripe down 
".he middle of the back and a row of yellow spots along each side of the 
body. The caterpillar eats out holes in the leaves of the cabbages and 
where abundant practically devours the leaves. 

89S Rlral School LEArLET 

Story of its life. — The butterflies appear early in the spring and the 
mother insect begins to fly about among the cabbages. She flits here 
and there, resting for a moment now and then on a cabbage leaf. If 
we examine the place carefully where she has rested, we shall find a long, 

small, pale yellow egg 
stuck to the leaf. In 
about one week the 
egg hatches and the 
tiny green " worm " 
appears. The cater- 
pillars eat raveiKJusly 
and grow very fast. 
They. riddle the outer 
leaves of the plant 
and many of them 
crawl down among the 
tender leaves of the 
Parti oS cabbate leaf with egV at A . aUerpUlart at B, and j^^^ j^^^jf jj^^^ ^^ , 
chrysalis at C , . . " i 

teed and cause much 

injury by soiling the tender white leaves. In about two weeks they 
become full-grown and then change to pupse. The pupa forms 
a chr>'sa]is, which may vary in color depending somewhat on the 
color of the object to which it is attached. The chrysalid is attached 
by a small band of silk around the middle and by a small mass of silk at 
the pointed or posterior end. The chrysalids may be found attached to 
the undersides of cabbage leaves, boards, or palings of a fence near by, 
or to other convenient objects. During the summer the chrysalid stage 
lasts one to two weeks. At the end of this time the chrysalid breaks 
open on the back near the larger end and the butterfly gradually works 
its way out. After the butterfly has drawn out all of its legs and is entirely 
free from the shell of the chrysalis, it rests quietly while its wings gradually 
expand and dry and then it flies away. 

The whole life cycle, from the laying of the egg to the appearance of 
the butterfly, is passed in twenty-two days to five weeks. In New York 
the cabbage butterfly finds time during the summer season for at least 
three broods. Farther south, where the summers are longer, there must 
be four or five generations each season. 

The winter is passed in the chrysalid stage. - The last chrysalids formed 
in the fall, instead of bursting open and giving forth a butterfly, remain 
unchanged imtil warm weather of the following spring. 

Natural enemies. — The green caterpillars are subject to the attacks 
of certain tiny, wasp-like, parasitic insects that kill many of them and aid 

RuKAL School Leaflet 899 

greatly in controlling this cabbage pest. Very often one of the dead 
green caterpillars is found attached to a cabbage leaf and partially covered 
by many small, white objects, usually considered e^s by those who do 
not know. As a matter of fact, these are the cocoons of the tiny para- 
sites tliat have lived within the body of the caterpillar and killed it. When 
the parasites are full-grown they leave the caterpillar and spin their small 
white cocoons on the outside, from which the small, dark-colored, wasp- 
like parasites emerge in a few days ready to parasitize other " cabbage 
worms." Whenever a lot of these white cocoons are seen about a green 
caterpillar they should not be destroyed, but should be allowed to remain 
undisturbed so that the parasites may emerge to work on other " worms." 

Methods of control. — This cabbage pest is best controlled by spraying 
the plants with one of the arsenicals, pans green or arsenate of lead. There 
is no danger in spraying cabbages with a poison up to the time they are 
half-grown, and even later. A cabbage is only a gigantic bud and grows 
from the inside outward as does any other bud. The outside leaves 
r.e\-er fold up about the head, hence there is little danger of enclosing 
the poison within the cabbage. 

If paris green is used it should be applied at the rate of i pound to 1 50 
gallons of water, or sifted on dry, in the latter case being thoroughly 
irixed with flour at the rate of i pound to 2 s pounds of flour. This should 
be applied in the morning while the dew is yet on the cabbage leaves. 

Arsenate of lead may be applied at the rate of ai pounds to 50 gallons 
of water. 

The first applications of poison should be made when the " worms " 
fim appear, while the cabbages are young. Other applications should 
follow as needed. 

Watch the butterflies in the garden 
and describe their manner of flying. 
Do ihey soar like a bird and do they 
fly long distances at a time? When 
one alights on a [cabbage leaf see, if 
[Hjisible, what she does. See whether 
a tiny egg can be found sticking to 
iho leaf, 

UTiere on the cabbages are the , . , ^^ „ „ .,. , , , 
.„ / J3 Ti J A dead cabbaie worm vitik a duster of 

3-een caterpiUars found? How do the cotoons of the parasiu that kUUd it 
-hey injure the leaves? What kind 

"I mouth parts do the "worms" have? What color are they ? Do the 
bodies have any colored lines or spots? How can the caterpillars be killed? 

goo RiRAL School Leaflet 

Find some of the chrysalids. How are they attached to the leaf or 
board? Describe their color and shape. Draw one of the chrysalids.: 
Watch one of them and see how the butterfly gets out of the case. 

How many wings has the butterfly? What is the ground color of the 
wings above and below, and what and where are the markings? 

How many antenna: has the butterfly? What is the shape and ler^ 
of each one? Draw one of the antenna. Find the tiny watch spring oa 
the underside of the head. Uncoil it by passing a pin through the center 
of the coil and straighten it out. How long is it? This tube constitutes 
the mouth parts of the butterfly and it forms a sucking tube. With it, 
the butterfly can suck up nectar &om flowers. 

(Sucking insects) 
Glenn W. Hbrkick 
The cabbage aphis, commonly known as the " cabbage louse," came to 
us from Europe. It was probably brought across the sea on cabbages 
imported for food. Now it is widely dis- 
tributed all over the United States and is a 
most serious pest on cabbages. Moreo\ier, 
it also feeds on turnips, cauliflower, brussels 
sprouts, kohl-rabi, and other plants of the 
mustard family. 

The life history. — If, late in the fall, we 
were to examine carefully leaves of cabbages 
that had been infested with this aphis, we 
should almost surely find some of the dark 
brown eggs of this little pest (Fig. i). Some- 
times the eg^ are laid in great numbers on 
leaves, both on the upper and imder sides. 
In the fall of 1910 we found as m£my as 341 
on the imderside of a single cabbage leaf- 
The eggs seem to have a thick, heavy covering and they remain on the 
old cabbage leaves throughout the winter, exposed to all the vicissitudes 
of a winter season. In the spring the eggs hatch and the young lice 
find a living for a time, at least, by sucking the juices from the tender 
leaves of the sprouts sent out by the old stump (Fig. 2). In about two 
weeks another generation of aphids is borne ahve by the mother aphids 
and in the course of two more weeks a third generation appears. This 
rate of increase continues during the whole summer season; fw genera- 
tion after generation is produced as long as the food supply lasts and 

Pia I . — Eggs of cabbage aphis 

Rural School Leaflet 901 

the weather is favorable. By taking this cabbage aphis into the warm 

greenhouse during the winter we have bred as many as thirty 

generations in one 3'ear. 

In Fig. 3 is shown a mother 

aphis with a small brood 

of young ones on a cab- 
bage leaf. The mother 

aphis is just starting the 

colony, but it will increase 

until perhaps the whole leaf 

is covered with aphids so 

closely packed together that 

one could not put a finger 

on the leaf without touch- 
ing several of them. 
Finally, late in the 

autumn, the true shinii^ 

black eggs (Fig. i) are 

again laid on the leaves, 

thus completing a very in- Fig, 2.— Sprouts on a cabbage stump in spring 

teresting life history. 
One interesting phase of Uie life of these aphids, and also of other species 
of plant lice, is the sudden 
appearance of individuals 
with wii^. The first gen- 
eration of lice hatched from 
the eggs on the cabbage 
sprouts in the spring are all 
without wings. Indeed, the 
individuals of the second 
generation are wingless, so 
far as has been observed; but 
in the third and following 
generations there appear many 
individuals that possess wings. 
This is really a very remark- 
able thing, and scientists have 
been wondering and guessing 
Pig. ^.-liether aphis with ailony of young apkids for many years as to why these 
winged lioe appear and what 
Quses them to appear. Certain it is, that these winged aphids fly away 
toother cabbages or other food plants and there start new colonies. Per- 

902 Rural School Leaflet 

haps the winged lice are produced for the purpose of spreading the aphids 
and of finding new, fresh food so that the race will not die and be lost 
altogether. Observations seem to show that whenever a plant becomes very 
much crowded or begins to wither and die so that the lice have difficulty 
in obtaining food, individuals with wings are promptly produced, although 
all of the lice on the plant up to that time were absolutely wingless and 
incapable of flight. The winged ones, of course, can fly to other fresh 
plants, start new colonies, and thus preserve the species although the 
wingless ones left behind on the old plant all perish from star\''ation. 

Injury to the plant. — The cabbage aphis, like all other aphids, has a 
tiny beak, or proboscis, with which it pierces the leaves of the cabbage 
and through which the juices of the plant are sucked into the mouth of 
the insect. It is this constant drain on the plant caused by thousands 
of tiny beaks sucking out the juices, that produces the injury. The leaves 
remain small, become deformed and rolled up, and finally wither and per- 
haps die. The whole plant remains stunted, fails to head, and so becomes 
worthless. Often, as a result of the injury, the plants are attacked with 
the bacteria of decay and actually rot in the field. We have known whole 
fields of cabbages destroyed by this pest, and large portions of other 
fields rendered worthless for market. 



There are many kinds, or species, of aphids and they occur on many 
different plants. During some seasons, apple trees are badly infested 
with plant lice that curl the leaves, stunt the new growth of the branches, 
and cause small, knotty apples. The shining d^k brown eggs of these 
aphids are laid on the twigs and branches in the fall, where they may be 
foimd at any time before the first of April. In the spring these eggs 
hatch and the young gieen lice may be found all over the swelling buds. 

Currant bushes, rose bushes; peach trees, cherry trees, elm trees, and 
other plants are often badly infested with aphids. Most of these aphids 
are green in color, but some, like those on the cherry, are black, while 
others are grayish or sometimes covered with a downy, cottony material. 


Plant lice have the rather peculiar and interesting habit of secreting 
a sweet liquid commonly known as honeydew. Often the flagstones in 
sidewalks are wet beneath elm and maple trees from the drops of honey- 
dew that have fallen down from aphids on the leaves. Ants are ver\' 
fond of this honeydew and carry it away to their nests for food. It is 
seldom that one finds lice on a plant without finding them attended by 

Rural School Leaflet 903 

many ants in quest of the honeydew. The ants obtain the sweet material 
in an interesting way, and the whole process can be seen by patient, careful 
watching. An individual ant walks 
up to an aphid and strokes the latter 
with its antennje, or "feelers," to 
which the aphid responds by giving 
out a. drop of the honeydew. This 
action may be repeated with 
three or four of the aphids until 
ihe ant has all that it desires, 
when it hurries down the stem of 
the plant and away to its nest 
(rilh its load of sweet provender. 
In return for these supplies of 
delectable food, the ants protect 

the aphids from their enemies and ^10.4.— Syrpkusfl^enlargedaT^l natural 
sometimes actually build cover- 
ings, or " sheds," over the aphids. More remarkable still, sometimes the 
ants carry the eggs of the aphids into their nests in the fall and care for 
them most solicitously through the winter until they hatch in the spring; 
then the ants take the young aphids and carry them out tenderly, placing 
them on favorite food plants where they can thrive and produce honey- 
dew again. 

On the other hand, aphids have their enemies as well as their friends, 
and their enemies are legion. One of the worst enemies of aphids, and 
at the same time one of the most effec- 
tive forces in keeping plant Uce under 
control, is the ladybird beetle. At least 
eight different kinds of ladybirds prey on 
plant lice andaid in holding them in check. 
In a badly infested field of cabbages one 
is almost sure to find many specimens of 
the convergent ladybird, the thirteen- and 
fifteen-spotted ladybirds, and other kinds, 
all doing valiant work in destroying the 
cabbage hce. 

Then there are the syrphus flies (Fig. 4) 

that lay their conspicuous white eggs 

?ic. 5.—E£es of syrphus fiy (Fig. s) right among the colonies of 

aphids. When the eggs of the syrphus 

flies hatch, the larvae find themselves in the midst of living aphids, which 

prove very acceptable as food. One larva of a syrphus fly will devour 

904 Rural School Leaflet 

many plant lice before it becomes full-grown. A syrphus fly is shown 
in Fig. 4. It is somewhat larger than a house fly and has yellowish 
bands running across the abdomen. 

Plant lice are also subject to the attacks of several small, blackish, 
four-winged, fly-like insects (Fig, 6) that sting the aphids by laying their 
eggs inside the bodies of the lice. The eggs hatch and the tiny parasite 
lives inside of the body of the aphid, finally causing the latter's death. 
When the parasite becomes grown and is ready to emerge from the body 
of the aphid, it cuts a neat round door in the back of the louse and crawls 
out, ready in a short time to attack another victim. In Fig. 7 are shown 

Fig. 6. — Two panuiUs 0/ the cabbage aphis 

aphids that have been attacked by one of these parasites and have the 
tiny doors cut in the top of their bodies. 


Method. — Plant lice are very common in summer on many plants, 
usually on cabbages, roses, apple trees, and the like. Young cabbage 
plants will grow well in a window of the schoolroom and the Uce may be 
transferred to the plants and watched day by day. Their movements 
and habits will prove very interesting. The cabbage lice are covered 
with a whitish powdery material and do not seem to secrete much honey- 
dew. If the secretion of honeydew is to be observed, plant hce from 
elm or maple trees, or from other plants, should be collected. 

Observations far the pupils. — 

1. How lai^ is a plant louse? What is its color and shape? ,How 
many legs has it? 

2. Has it any antemue, or " feelers"? How many antenme has it? 

Rural Schooi- Leaflet 905 

3. Do all of the plant lice have wings? How many wings do some of 
the plant lice have? Draw a wing of an aphid. 

4. See if the tiny beak of an aphid can be found. It is carried on the 
underside of the body between the bases of the legs. How long is the 
beak? Note the beaks of the lice sticking into the cabbage leaf, 

5. Ezamine cabbage leaves in summer or in fall for the swollen bodies 
of aphids with round doois cut in their backs. These have been killed 
by tiny parasites. Can the tiny bladf fly-like parasites be seen flying 
about the cabbages? 

6. See whether ladybugs can be found amoi^ the lice. Try to find a 
s>Tphus fly and see whether the white egg can be located. The syrphus 
ffies will be flying about it in the cabbage field and may look to you like 

■ Pig. 7.^A phids ikat have been kUled by parasiUs 

Editor's Note. — As this leaflet goes to press there has come to our atten- 
tion an interesting fact in connection with the insect work. It appears 
that during the past spring and summer the apple-tree tent-caterpillars 
have been unusually numerous. A great many letters that we received 
from boys and girls mentioned this fact, and on consulting the Depart- 
ment of Entomology we were told that this pest is especially prevalent 
this year. In consequence, and unless the parasites that prey upon the 
insect have been numerous enough to hold it in check, there should be an 
excellent opportunity to find and study the eggs of the tent caterpillar this 
tall and winter. Have the children gather and keep them, as is suggested 
on page 95. The study of the methods of controlling the caterpillars will 
not only have an added interest but a direct practical application next 
sprir^. The question of the removal of breeding places, such as old 
hedges of wild cherry trees, might also be considered. 


9o6 Rural School Leaflet 

Anna Botspord Comstock 

Many of our cultivated plants have interesting histories and the 
potato is of this number. It was originally a native of the Andes 
Mountains in Chile and Peru, although different species have been 
found irregularly as far north as Mexico and Colorado. It was 
cultivated successfully here before America was discovered, and was 
taken to Spain from Peru in the sixteenth century. Sir Francis 
Drake and Sir Walter Raleigh both carried it to England about 
1586, but it did not come into use as a food plant until 1772, 
when there was a general failure of grain crops in western Europe 
and potatoes were planted in an attempt to avert famine. At this 
time there were but two varieties, one white and one red; now there 
are several hundred listed varieties. 

The Europeans have a standard for excellence in potatoes which is 
different from oiu^ in America. Here we like a fairly large, mealy potato, 
grown on light, loamy soil. The Europeans prefer small, fine-grained 
potatoes that are harder and less mealy, such as grow on rich, moist, 
loamy soil. The Germans declare that the potatoes we serve on the table 
are fit only to feed to cattle. 

As a plant the potato is interesting because it is so very forehanded, 
being able to reproduce itself in two ways. The white potato that we 
eat is not a root storehouse, as is the sweet potato; it is merely a stem 
tuber, a storehouse of food buried underground in order to nourish the 
stems of next year's growth. How do we know it is an underground 
stem enlarged? The proof is that the potato has buds on it, which we 
call the eyes; and these buds are arranged in a spiral, as the buds and 
leaves are arranged on the stems of the plant above ground; while the 
sweet potato, which has a root made into a storehouse, has no buds on it. 

It is well worth while to " look a potato in the eye," although most 
persons never think of doing this. The pupil of the eye is the little tip 
of the bud, which imder favorable circumstances will grow into a stem. 
The ** eyebrow " consists of a scale, which represents a leaf. Note that 
on the potato stem above ground there is a leaf just below each sprouting 
bud, and this arrangement is exactly the same on the potato tuber. 

The roots of the potato come from the main stem and not from the tuber. 
They lie below the tuber, as any one knows who has pulled up a potato 
plant during the time of digging. The use of the tuber to the wild potato 
plant was to keep it alive during the dry season in its South American 

Rural School Leaflet 907 

home, a time 'when the plant itself must wither and die; and what, though 
it die, ancc below the ground, fiUed with food and drink (the tuber consists 
of 78 per cent water and 18 per cent starch), is its food storehouse with 
plenty of buds on it, which will be thus nourished and started on a vigorous 
growth as soon as the season is ^ain propitious. 

It is astonishing bow much food for plant growth there is in a single 
potato tuber. I once found a sprout that had grown from a potato bin 
along the comer of the cellar floor and then climbed the wall to the cellar 
window, a distance of fifteen feet. I remember looking at this sprout with 
something like awe; it had so longed for light that it had made all that 

Underground pari of potato plant in mellow soil 

long journey to reach the life-giving sunshine ; it looked pale and aniemic 
except at the point where it pushed against the windowpane, and that 
was healthily green. The mother potato was very much withered, having 
given up her substance to the sprout. Ever after, a potato always seemed 
to me a motherly creature, holding herself ready to help her growing 
children until she was withered and old. It was always a mystery to 
me, that she should know just how to select those eyes that would grow, 
and thus not waste her substance on too many children but give those that 
she did send out a better start. 

Some persons merely cut up a seed potato and plant each eye by itself; 
but most persons think that this does not give the shoot the food that it 
should have to nourish it until the roots furnish the food supply. The 
usual practice is to plant a half or a quarter of the tuber instead. In 

9o8 Rural School Leaflet 

thus preparing his seed the fanner makes cuttings of the potato, although 
he does not realize it. 

But beside this underground storehouse the potato produces seed also, 
when grown under natural conditions. When I was a child, among my 
treasures were potato balls — ^the little greenish yellow or purplish balls 
that ripen from the flowers and are about the size of an ordinary marble. 
They consist of many seeds in a juicy pulp, something like a compact 
little tomato. But of late years it is only occasionally that these seed 
balls are produced in our potato fields. New varieties are started, 
however, by cross-pollinating the flowers and growing the seeds thus 

The potato blossom is very pretty. It is a five-pointed star of white or 
pale purple. The lobes of the corolla are ruffled at the edges, but smooth 
and greenish at the base; at the center is a brilliant yellow pjTamid, 
consisting of five large anthers pressed closely together. At the center 
of this pyramid protrudes the green style of the pistil, quite beyond the 
tip of the anther cone. There are five long, slender sepal lobes to the 
calyx, which is sticky and hairy like the stem, being covered with short 
white hairs. 

Those blossoms that are near the tip of the stem open first, and after- 
ward those near the main stem open. The buds droop until ready 
to blossom, when they rise to show their pretty faces to the world and 
attract the visiting insects. 

lesson for the pupils 

Method. — This lesson should be given as early in September as pos- 
sible. The pupils should have access to a potato field in order to make 
the studies. The study of the tuber itself may be made in the school- 

Observations for the pupils. — i. What is a potato? What is there about 
a potato to make you think it is an enlarged stem? Do you think that 
the potato stem was enlarged to provide food for us or for the next 
year's potato plant? 

2. Examine a potato. Has it a stem at both ends? With what is 
this stem connected? Does the potato lie in the ground above or below 
the roots of the plant? Are the roots ever attached to the potato tubers? 

3. How does the potato tuber differ from that of the sweet potato? 
From that of the crocus? From a beet or a turnip? What is the 
difference between an undergroimd stem and a root? 

4. Examine carefully the eye of a potato. Of what does it consist? 
Describe the ** eyebrow.*' Do you know what this little scale represents? 
Are the " eyebrows " on the underside of the eye, or are they nearer the 

Rural School Leaflet 909 

tip of the potato than the eye? The potato is a thickened stem, and if 
we stand it upright like an erect stem would the " eyebrows " be above 
or below the eyes? Are there leaves on the potato stem just below each 
bud? Can you see how the little scale forming the " eyebrow " corre- 
sponds to the leaf in the axil to which a potato grows? 

5. Find a long potato, place pins in each of the eyes, and connect the 
pins spirally with a string. How does this show that the buds on the 
potato, which is an underground stem, are arranged just as are the buds 
on the stem of the potato above ground? 

6. Plant a whole potato in a pot and keep it warm and watered and 
in the light. After a time examine it. Do the buds in all of the eyes 
start to grow? Do those toward the base or the tip of the potato grow? 
How do the shoots look? 

7. Cut out a single eye with a section of the potato attached, and plant 
it. After the shoot appears pull it up. Describe where the root came 

8. What becomes of the seed potato as the plant grows? Why do we 
have to sprout potatoes that we keep in the cellar? If the sprouts begin 
to grow in the cellar, do they grow toward the light? Why? 

9. How long does it take a potato crop to grow? On what kind of 
soil does it grow best? How many bushels grew in the United States in 
one year, as shown by the last census? 

10. How many potatoes grow on an acre in your locality? What is 
the highest rate per acre on record? 

11. Describe the leaves of the potato plant. How many stems come 
from the same root? 

12. Describe the flower of the potato vine. If you have ever seen the 
potato seed-baUs, describe them. Of what use are the seed balls? 

13. Write an essay on the history of the potato, paying particular 
attention to the part this plant has played in the history of Europe. 


A. W. Gilbert 

The successful growth of potatoes, as of any other crop, is based on 
certain laws that must be obeyed. The oversight of any one factor may 
mean failtire. The potato is a plant that does not seem to have the power 
to adapt itself successfully to adverse conditions. 

Sail, — The best soil for potatoes is a sandy loam, well drained but 
supplied with an ample amount of water. If the soil is not good, it must 
be improved by means of plowing, cultivating, fertilizing, and the like. 

The more perfect the conditions surrounding the potato plant, the 
better work it will do. The first thing to find out is whether the soil 

gio RuRAi. School Leaflet 

contains the material necessary for the best results. Most soils contain 
the necessary ingredients in greater or less amount for plant growth. 
For example, all soils contain an adequate amount of iron, which is needed 
for the production of the green substances in plants; but most soils do not 
have enough available nitrc^en, phosphoric acid, and potash for the 
best plant growth. The lack of one or more of these, together with lack 
of water, generally causes small crops. 

The first step, therefore, if one would have a successful potato crop, is 
to consider the soil. If the soil does 
not contain the necessary ingredients, 
they must be supplied either by the 
use of commercial fertilizer or stable 
manure. Plant food in the form of 
commercial fertilizer is expensive, 
the nitrogen costing twenty-two and 
one half cents per pound, the phos- 
phoric acid fotir and one half cents 
per poimd, and the potash five cents. 
Therefore it is essential to learn how 
to make the best use of any of the 
materials already in the soil. Good 
cultivation is valuable because it 
admits phnty of air into the soil and 
prevents the loss of water by evapora- 
tion from the top of the soil. It also 
aids beneficial soil bacteria, allowing 
them to cor.vert the soil nitrogen into 
an available form for the plants to 
use; and it keeps in check all harmful 
bacteria. This valuable nitrogen, costing over four times as much per 
pound as the other foods of the plant, may also be added to soils by the 
bacteria that grow on the roots of legumes, such as clover, alfalfa, peas, 
beans, and the like. Hence, for economy, a crop such as cIo^«r may 
well precede a crop of potatoes. In fact, most of the best crops of 
potatoes are grown on a clover sod, abounding with bunches, or tubercles, 
in which these bacteria live. 

Fertilization. — No specific information can be given in regard to the 
kind or qtiantity of fertilizer for a potato crop. This will vary with the 
fertiUty and nature of the soil. 

If the potato crop has been preceded by a crop of clover, only a small 
application of nitrogen may be necessary and this should be in an ea£ly 
available (soluble) fonn. A small quantity of nitrate of soda will supply 

Rural School Leaflet 911 

this nitrogen in the best way. The amotint of phosphoric acid and potash 
will depend on the natural fertility of the soil. A fertilizer analyzing 3 
to 4 per cent of nitrogen, 6 to 8 per cent of phosphoric acid, and 9 to 10 
per cent of potash may be considered an average for most soils. The 
amount of this mixture per acre will depend again on many conditions; 
perhaps 600 to 900 potmds may be considered an average. 

If the ingredients of this fertilizer are bought separately, they should 
be mixed thoroughly before applying. There should be a thin layer of 
dirt over the fertilizer so as to prevent the seed from being burned or injured. 
If large quantities of fertilizer are applied to the acre, two applications 
may be made instead of one. 

In order to produce the best jrields of potatoes, the ground should be 
prepared several years in advance; that is, a careful rotation of crops 
should have been followed so as to get the land in good tilth. A soil is 
thus made friable by plowing and harrowing and by the growth of roots 
for several years. In this length of time the soil will be rendered mellow 
by constant tillage and the addition of stable manure or other organic 
matter, and it should have good water-holding capacity and aeration. 

The best crop to immediately precede the potato is clover. It leaves 
the land well filled with roots and, being a nitrogen-gathering crop, the 
roots will retain an abundance of this valuable element of plant food. 

Plowing. — The plowing should be done carefully. This may be either 
spring or fall work, except in hilly fields which may wash if plowed in the 
fall. Remember that the object of plowing is to loosen the soil so that 
the subsequent operation of harrowing may pulverize it, thus increasing 
its water-holding power and allowing the free circulation of air among the 
soil particles. Deep plowing is desirable, although if the ground has never 
been plowed very deeply this should be accomplished gradually and not 
all in one year. If very deep plowing follow shallow plowing, too much 
subsoil is brought to the surface at once and the crop suffers. 

Plowing should be followed by harrowing, to be carried on until the soil 
is thoroughly pulverized. The kind of harrow to use will depend some- 
what on the soil. In general, a disk or cutaway harrow is preferable, 
because if the work is thoroughly done such a harrow cuts the soil into 
fine particles. The use of modem machinery is very desirable in com- 
mercial potato culture. It saves expensive hand labor and does the work 

Marking the field. — This is the next operation if the potatoes are to be 
planted by hand. It is often better to mark the field both ways; the seed 
pieces dropped at the intersection of the lines will thus form straight rows, 
peraiitting easy cultivation in both directions. Great care should be taken 
to have the rows straight, insuring ease of cultivation and of spraying. 

912 Rural School Leaflet 

Seed. — Another matter of prime importance is the seed, A good crop 

of potatoes or of any other plant cannot be produced from poor seed. 
We must have good seed, as well as favorable 
conditions in which it is to grow. All plants 
are the result of two factors — environment and 
heredity. One is as important as the other 
and neither can be called all-important with- 
out the other. 

All that surrounds the plant — soil, plant 

food, cUmate, and care — must be right. Also, 

the plant must come from good ancestors, 

ance it derives its producing power from its 

parents and grandparents. It is a waste of 

time and money to prepare and enrich a soil, 

and plant in that soil potatoes that do not 

come from high-yielding strains. Every tuber 

^u'uii^ifp^nTti^\mdl ^^^ '^ planted should have come from a hill of 

luberfrom A than the large potatoes that gave a good yield. /( is much 

' "" ''''"" better to plant medium or even small tubers from 

high-yielding kills than to plant a large tuber from a low-yielding kill. 

The character of the whole hill determines its value for seed. In the fall, 

many hills should be dug by hand and the tubers from the best of these 

hills saved for seed. 

It is generally considered the best practice to use for seed the tubers 

that are of good size and shape and have been stored so that they have 

remained dormant. For the best results the seed should be plump and 

unsprouted. The tubers should be cut into about four pieces, each havii^ 

several good eyes accompanied by a generous 

quantity of tuber. They should be planted 

immediately after cutting, as the seed 

pieces tend to bleed — that is, to exude 

water very rapidly, which injures them. 
Planting. — The seed pieces should be 

planted in most soils at a depth of four 

inches, covered carefully, and the soil made 

compact on top. Only one piece should be 

dropped in each hill. If the planting is 

done by the best machinery, the operations 

of opening the furrow, dropping the fer- 
tilizer and the seed, and covering it again are done in one operation. In 

this way time and labor are saved and the work on the whole is very 


Rural School Leaflet 913 

If the seed is planted by hand several distinct operations are necessary. 
First, plow a furrow about 4J inches deep, scatter some fertilizer in the 
bottom of the furrow near the hills, cover this with a little soil, and drop 
the seed jriece on top. Next, fill the soil into the trench over the seed 
piece and fiim it by pressure with the foot. The top of the hills or rows 
may be left slightly ridged. 

CuUivatian. — Good cultivation gives air to the soil in the best way and 
prevents the evaporation of water which comes from beneath, and it also 
kills the weeds that do so much harm to plants. Weeds injure the crop 
in many ways : by removing water and plant food that the potatoes need ; 
by shading the ground; and, probably most serious of all, by excreting 
from their roots a poison that is injurious to the potato plants in a posi- 
tive way. 

In a few days after planting, when the sprouts have started but before 
they have come through the top of the ground, the farmer should go 
over the field with a weeder crosswise of the rows. This is a very 
essential operation, as it kills the littla weeds when they are less diflScult 
to kill and it levels the field in preparation for future operations. 

Cultivation should be continued at regular intervals to kill the weeds 
and preserve the soil mulch until the potatoes are in blossom. After 
that it will do more harm than good, because it tends to break off the small 
feeding roots of the potato plant which are near the surface of the 
ground at this time of the year. 

Hilling. — The first cultivation should be very shallow and merely 
scratch the top of the groimd, but the last cultivation should throw the 
dirt up arotind the plants so as to prevent the yoimg tubers from being 
scorched by the sun. Hilling also serves to remove many weeds and to 
cover up others. 

Digging. — After the crop is thoroughly ripe and before there is danger 
of freezing, the tubers should be dug, allowed to dry by lying on top of 
the ground for part of a day, and stored in the cellar. At least a part 
of every field should be dug by hand for the purpose of finding the high- 
^Helding hills from which seed will be chosen for next year's planting. 
In large fields the elevator diggers operated by horses are foimd to save 
time and expense. The machine is drawn along the row and the sharp 
plow in front lifts tubers and soil, the latter drops through the bars in 
the movable carrier, while the tubers are carried over and thrown in a row 
back of the machine. 

Storage. — Potatoes should be stored in a cool place, away from the 
light and where they will not freeze. The temperature should be low 
enough so that they will remain dormant, that is, will not sprout. All 
potatoes that are to be used for seed should be especially well kept. 

914 Rural School Leaflet 


Daniel Dean 

(A practical farmer) 

The potato was first found by white men in the high mountains of Peru. 
It thrives better in cool than in warm climates. In our South it is grown 
mostly in early spring or late fall in order to avoid the heat of summer. 
In Europe larger crops are raised than in this country because the climate 
is more favorable. In New York State the largest crops are grown when 
the seasons are cooler than usual. Extreme heat for a few days in summer 
greatly reduces the vitality of the plants and size of the crop. 

Potatoes need a large amount of water. About 80 pounds of water 
must be transpired from the leaves for each pound of tubers grown. This 
is especially needed at the time the tubers are forming in the soil. The 
largest crops are usually obtained in New York State (except on Long 
Island) by planting about Jime i, as usually the fall rains then come at 
about the right period in the growth of the crop. On the other hand, 
too much rain in July and August may cause conditions favorable to the 
spread of the late blight disease. This sometimes kills the tops and rots 
the tubers in a few days. The terrible famine in Ireland in 1846 was 
caused by the late blight rotting the potatoes, which constituted the prin- 
cipal food of the people. 

More potatoes are usually grown in New York than in any other State. 
The average money return per acre is higher for this crop than for any 
other commonly raised in New York; also, it responds more profitably to 
extra care than do most crops. 

On the other hand, success in potato growing depends on attention to 
a nimiber of details, neglect of any one of which may ruin the crop or at 
least make it unprofitable. Among these are the proper kind of soil, 
good seed of the right variety, proper cultivation, prevention of damage 
by insects and diseases, and skill in marketing. 

One great necessity with most New York soils is to secure an abundance 
of hiunus. As we know, soil is mostly made up of small particles of rock. 
One of its most essential ingredients, however, is humus — the organic 
remains of plants that have lived on it. This organic matter decays 
easily under cultivation and furnishes readily available food to the grow- 
ing crop. Soils full of humus, such as newly cleared, forest land and our 
western prairies when first cultivated, are among the richest in the world. 
We should, therefore, grow the potato in connection with other crops 
that will supply plenty of humus. This is most easily obtained by means 
of heavy sods, especially of clover, by plowing under in the fall the straw 
of grain crops, and by the use of barnyard manure. If straw is allowed 

Rural School Leaflet 915 

to rot in stacks, or meadows are mowed until they become thin, the 
conditions will not be favorable for potatoes. 

Humus not only supplies food for the plants, but is also very important 
as a means of holding water in the soil for their use. Water dissolves the 
elements in the soil which are used by the plants, and holds those elements 
in solution. It is taken in by the plant roots and the water transpired 
from the leaves, leaving the plant food behind. Humus in the soil greatly 
increases its productivity. 

Since the ix)tato is so easily affected by adverse conditions, it may be 
helped by the use of fertilizers. By this means it receives plant food in 
easily available form, and the crop is kept in healthy condition when 
otherwise the plants might be stunted or even ruined. Consequently 
the best growers, particularly those of Aroostook County, Maine, and of 
Long Island, tise 1,000 to 2,000 poimds of fertilizer per acre. 

Fall plowing is often of great benefit in preparing the soil for potatoes, 
particularly if straw or other humus-naaking naaterial is plowed under. 
This rots by spring and is in better shape for the use of the crops. On 
most sods a second plowing in spring, with a small amount of harrowing, 
is better than dependence on the harrow alone for spring fitting. Small 
applications of fertilizer may be applied in the row to give the plant a 
start. Large amounts of fertilizer are of more value if put evenly through 
the soil with a grain drill and are not so likely to injure the sprouts. 

Potatoes should be planted as deep as the soil and climate will permit, 
from two to six inches. In sandy soils it is best to plant deep and cultivate 
nearly level. If the soil holds water strongly or if much rain falls, as in 
Maine, it is best to plant shallow and ridge up the plants in cultivation. 

The question of planting hills in checks, or of planting closer in drills, 
depends on the fertility of the soil and the ntmiber of weeds likely to grow. 
Some poor soils will not grow the tubers large enough if the hills are close 
together. In such cases hills are better than drills. Rich soils will grow 
larger crops if the plants are closer together in drills. Weeds are harder 
to kill in drills than in hills. 

Large seed pieces increase the size of the crop over small ones. On most 
farms, lo to 20 bushels of seed per acre planted in drills, or 8 to 10 bushels 
per acre in hills, will be the mbost profitable amount to use. If the seed 
is too small the plant may not get a good start; if too large, the increase 
in crop does not pay for the increased cost of seed. In seasons when 
seed is high, such as 1912, small pieces may be used and increased care 
given the crop. When seed is cheap, large seed is often profitable. 

DiflEerent varieties vary greatly in their adaptability to different soils. 
One of the most profitable practices in potato growing is testing for the 
best variety for a particular soil. Many new seedling varieties are being 

9i6 Rural School Leaflet 

produced every year and are often sold at high prices. It must be remem- 
bered that our standard varieties are the ones that have proved best out 
of thousands. Bliss Tritmiph, Early Rose, and Irish Cobbler are the 
best early varieties. For late, Green Motmtain and Carmen No. i do 
best on Long Island, Rural New Yorker No. 2 in the counties near Pemisyl- 
vania, and Sir Walter Raleigh in the northern part of the State. Gold 
Coin is very successful in many sections. For trials it is best to get several 
of the varieties that grow well in the vicinity. Plant in adjoining long 
rows, measure or weigh products carefully, and repeat for two or more 
years in order to find the best 3delders. So-called ** bUght-proof " varieties 
should be avoided, as they are usually late in maturing and all yet tried 
are undesirable in some particulars. 

Round or oblong and smooth white potatoes of good quality sell best, 
so late varieties for the main crop should have these qualities. Some of 
the best early varieties are red. ^ 

Every one knows how different hills vary in 3deld from almost nothing 
to several poimds. Sometimes this may be due to better soil or to larger 
seed pieces; other hills may have been injured in some way; but often the 
high or the low yield is due to the natural ability of the hill to produce 
well. Separating these high-3delding hills from the rest pays better for 
the amoimt of work necessary than does anything else in potato growing. 
This must be done when digging. The hills should be dug by hand, keep- 
ing each product separate, and the best saved. The next year the best 
ones are planted in a special plot. The key to success by this method 
lies in the fact that using large niunbers of hills to start with gives a much 
better chance of finding the best strains than if selection is made from 
a few hills only. 

Many of the hills selected as best the first year are good merely because 
they had more fertile spots of soil or had in some way a better opportunity 
to yield. In the second and succeeding years the seed from such hills 
will drop bajdc to its normal product, leaving as high yielders only those 
hills that are such because of their natural superiority. 

If a more complicated method is desired, after the poorer hills have been 
eliminated the hills may be bagged separately and an equal weight of seed 
from each, perhaps two pounds, cut into an equal ntmiber of seed pieces 
and planted in short rows. The products of these rows may be kept in 
separate crates for planting the next year. Any one who does this will 
be stirprised to see how the progeny will resemble the parent hill in number, 
shape, size, color, and tendency to diseases. 

Cultivation after planting has for its principal objects killing the weeds, 
saving the water in the soil by preventing evaporation, and making plant 
food available. Cultivation between the rows should be deep at first, 

Rural School Leaflet 917 

but shallow later so as to prevent injury to the roots of the plants. The 
weeder is a valuable tool to kill weeds in the row. It must be used before 
they get a start. 

The original potato plant, when wild, blossomed before the tubers set. 
Now under cultivation both processes overlap. This usually comes in 
a period of hot weather and at a time when late blight is most active, 
and is the danger period in the life of the potato. If many roots are cut, 
the crop receives a shock from which it never fully recovers and it is 
prevented from making the yield that it might make. The whole profit 
on a crop may be lost by late hiUing in dry weather. 

Potatoes are subject to the attacks of several enemies, the worst of 
which is the late blight and rot. This disease is carried through the winter 
in the tuber and passes into the soil after planting. 

When the soil is wet 'the spores pass from the seeds to the surface of 
the soil and come in contact with the leaves, in which they produce the 
disease. In damp, muggy weather the entire crop may be killed in a 
few days. The spores later fall from the leaves to the ground and, if the 
soil is very wet, may attack and rot the tubers. Dry weather checks 
the progress of the disease. Spraying with bordeatix mixture, made of 
sulfate of copper, lime, and water, is almost always profitable. The 
copper in the bordeaux kills the blight germs when they touch the 
leaf that is covered with it. The spray should be applied early in order 
to be on the leaf ahead of the blight. 

The time to spray is just before a rain if possible. The blight spreads 
only in wet weather. The growth of the plant constantly forks new leaves. 
The first rainstorm is the time these most need protection. 

We never know what season blight will come. The gain from spraying 
in one year when blight occurs will pay for several yesirs' spraying. Spray- 
ing with bordeaux mixtiue seems to have a tonic effect on the potato even 
when no blight is present. It also reduces the damage from several of 
the less important potato diseases. 

Potatoes are subject to the attacks of several insect pests. Probably 
the one that does the most damage is the black flea-beetle, which pierces 
many small round holes in the leaves. It does not eat poisons but bor- 
deaux helps reduce the damage. The common potato bug is best killed 
with paris green or arsenate of lead. When the bordeaux also is used, 
the paris green cannot bum the leaves, sticks better, and is spread more 
evenly on the leaves, so that much less is needed. 

Hand sprayers are used for small areas, barrel pumps and horse-power 
sprayers for the larger areas. 'In aU cases the plants should be well covered 
at each spraying. The higher the pressure, the finer the spray and the 
better the results. 

qi8 Rural School Leaflet 

The scab is another disease that hurts the sale of potatoes. To prevent 
it, soak the seed ior two hours in a solution of a pint of formalin in thirty 
gallons of water, and then plant on clean ground. 

Care must be taken not to dig potatoes for winter stor^;e until the tops 
have been dead ten days or more. BHght germs from the leaves may rot 
the tubers, especially in wet weather. 

Potatoes in storage should be kept cool and dry, particularly if intended 
for seed. Loss from shrinkage, rot, and loss of vitality of the seed is 
least if the temperature can be kept just above freezing. 

M. F. Bahrus 
As has already been shown, the potato is one of the most important 
plants grown in the State. 
Whatever affects its vigor or 
destroys its growth, reduces 
the yield and therefore is of 
exceeding interest to us.* In 
this article are presented the 
stories of the downy mildew and 
the scab, the two most common 
and destructive .diseases of the 


History. — The downy mildew 
originated in South America, 
the home of the potato, and 
probably was early associated 
with that plant. It did not 
attract general attention until 
1845, when the potato crop in 
England, Ireland, Scotland, and 
other countries of western 
F<,uuo W "/-rc/rf by the dcumy miUew Europe, and also in the northern 
Umted States, was nearly or 
entirely destroyed by its ravages. This destruction of the potato crop 

ii pluit tbe (oUowina nwy be mentioned: Airly bSighl. ■ dlseaM ■ 
dW U'lhl and rol, lAectuig tt- ' -■ — ■" ■-->—■ "- 

tlic tuben ; tiab and batttrial rot, kfiscUog tlia tubcn only. 

owny ■■.''^"f; Of (alt mtM and roj, affeeting the leava, itemi. Md tubem; Fui. 

I, ■ffecUns tha atera uh) imaing ■ 

Rural School Leaflet gig 

brought about the Irish famine of 1846. Much was written about the 

disease at that time and its cause was correctly determined. Other 

epidemics have occurred at intervals since. The loss from this disease 

in New York State alone during the three years from 1903 to 1905 is 

estimated at $40,000,000. The disease is now to be found in all humid 

climates where potatoes 

are grown, but the I 

fungus that causes the ' -i 

disease does not thrive j ■ _ j 

well except in temperate 


Symptoms. — On the 
leaves the first s^ns of 
disease are leaf spots 
havii^ a water-soaked 
appearance. This is par- 
ticularly noticeable when 
the affected leaf is held 
to the light. Later this 
spot blackens and dries, 
but often a water-soaked 
area at the margin 
indicates the continued 
activity of the fui^us. 
These spots have an 
indefinite margin and 
areone half inch or more 
in diameter, sometimes 
involving the entire leaf 
and leaf stem. On the 
underside of the spot 

may be noticed a moldy „ .,.„,,,, 

. , , , Potato Fine ktu«d by Ike dirwny mildew 

or mildewy growth. ,.,. ^ „ , „ „, 

. J b (Aiter Ceiwv« Bui. Mt, Plate X) 

This may serve to 

distinguish the downy mildew from other spot diseases of the 


On the stems, watery spots develop which later tarn brown or black 
and become dry. The foliage beyond the affected area then dies from 
lack of moisture. 

On the tubers, the lesions when first noticeable are small discolored 
spots not so large as the end of one's finger. If the skin of the tuber is 
scraped away at this point, a reddish brown color, characteristic of the 

920 Rural School Leaflet 

bUght rot, is observable. These spots are sometimes sunken, forming 
little pits. Later, and often during storage, the lesion extends over the 
surface of the tuber or two or more lesions unite to form a large, sunken, 
discolored area. Bacteria sometimes enter the tuber through these 
lesions and produce a soft, slimy rot with a bad odor, which is quite 
different from the typical blight rot. 

The cause of the downy mildew. — The doWny mildew of potatoes is 
caused by one of the lower fungi, known to botanists as Phytophthora 
infestans. This fungus lives 
over winter in the form of 
very minute vegetative 
root-like strands, called a 
mycelium, within the tissues 
of the diseased tubers. If 
the storage room is moder- 
ately warm and moist the 
mycelium continues to 
grow, obtainii^ food from 
the celb of the potato and 
extending the rotten spots 
as it grows. 

When a diseased potato 

is planted, the mycelium 

produces the fruiting stalks 

of the fungus on the cut 

Section through a part of a diieoitd poMo Uaf shfw- surface. These are small 

(n^ the spore stalks, vitlh spores attached, extending 

dcwit through the breathing pores of the leaf branched Stalks that extend 

out into the spaces between 
the soil particles and bear at their extremities a small pear-shaped spore 
corresponding to the seed in higher plants. When the spore is fully formed 
it is pushed to one side by another branch extending out from the end of 
the first one and producii^ at its extremity another spore. In this way 
a single stalk may produce as many as fifty spores; and es several hun- 
dred stalks may be found on the cut surface of a single diseased potato, it 
is easily seen that thousands of spores may be produced under fairly 
warm, moist conditions. 

The spore germinates in the soil by the production of several swarm 
spores — animal-like bodies destitute of cell walls. These move about 
in the soil water and when the soil is saturated probably make their way 
to the surface, where they come in contact with the lower leaves of the 
potato plant that are often found resting on the surface of the soil after 
a rainstorm. The swarm spore soon germinates by sending out a slender 
tube, called the germ tube. This tube secretes an enzyme that dissolves 

Rural School Leaflet 


A germinaiing swarm 
spore showing germ 
tube entering leaf 

enough of the leaf surface to allow the passage of the germ tube within. 
It makes its way between the leaf cells where it branches in several direc- 
tions, forming the mycelium. Other enzymes are 
secreted that kill the protoplasm of the leaf 
cells, and the nutritive cell sap contained within 
passes into the spaces between the cells where it is 
absorbed by the mycelitim. Little side branches 
(haustoria) also extend directly into the cells and 
absorb the nutritive substances found there. As 
cell after cell is invaded in this manner, they 
present a watery appearance which later turns brown and dry upon the 
death of the cells. Usually only the lower leaves of a few plants here 
and there show these spots, so that they are easily overlooked and a 
casual observer would say there was no blight present. No real loss 
has occurred and if the weather continues dry thereafter there will be 
no further development of the disease. But if another storm period 
occurs a few weeks later, these spots serve as source^ of infection from 
which spores are produced by the millions and distributed by wind or 
other agencies to neighboring plants. 

These spores are produced on the extremities of fruiting stalks identical 
with those formed on the cut surface of the potato. They are produced 
by the mycelitun within the leaf and extend through the underside of the 
diseased area of the leaf. They are usually produced diuing rainy or 
moist weather extending over a period 
of several days. The spores borne on 
them are short-Uved under air-dry con- 
ditions, and must soon germinate and 
gain entrance to the host plant if 
they are to reproduce the fungus. 
They may be blown to healthy leaves, 
but if moisture is not present within 
twenty-four hours they will die. If 
moisture is present, however, they ^ 

will germinate within an hour and ^^ 

produce swarm spores, which in their 

turn germinate by the production of j^^^^ f^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^y-^ are shown four 

an infection tube. This enters the stages in the formation of the swarm 
1 r • ^t- • 1 J -i. spores. The way in which the swarm 

leaf m the manner previously descnb- ^^^^ germinate is shown above 
ed and a spot is developed. (After u. s. Dept. Agr.) - 

Many of the spores fall to the ground 
and germinate there. The swarm spores make their way through the soil 
to the surface of the yoimg tubers, which they likewise penetrate, and a 

922 Rural School Leaflet 

decayed spot is produced at this point. If the spores of the fungus 
come in contact with the potatoes at digging time, subsequent infection 
will take place. When the vines are infected it is wise to wait until after 
they are entirely dead before digging. Infection before or at the time of 
di^Ki'^S is responsible for much of the rot that occurs in cellars later. 

Weather conditions largely determine whether this disease will be 
destructive in any year. Common observation has shown this to be so 
true that many people believe that rainy weather during the summer is 
the cause of the disease. You can see, however, that the disease would 
not occur in rainy seasons if the fundus were absent; nor would it be 
destructive should the season be dry, even though the fungus were present. 
Rainy periods during the growing season are favorable for the develop- 
ment of parasitic fungi, as for higher plants, and it is during such seasons 
that fungous diseases are most common. 

Control. — From our study of the life history of the parasite it is evident 
that there are two methods open for the control of this disease; namely, 
to keep the fungus causing it from getting a start, and to protect healthy 
vines from infection. Since the disease starts from affected tubers, it 
would seem that we might treat such tubers in some way so that the myce- 
liuni of the fungus would be killed, or we might exclude those tubers alto- 
gether. Treatment of seed tubers to destroy this fungus has not been 
very successful, because a method severe enough to kill the mycelium has 

Rural School Leaflet 923 

also killed the eyes, or undeveloped sprouts, of the potato. A treatment 
with hot air has been recommended, but this is not convenient for most 
farmers. Certainly, diseased tubers should not be planted. One should 
obtain seed tubers from fields that were free from the disease, or should 
carefully sort out and discard all tubers showii^ any rot. Even then, some 
of the fungus may slip through and the disease in the field start from this. 
If one were perfectly sure that all tubers planted by him were free from 
this disease and that there were no neighboring fields within a half mile 
from which the spores of this fungus could be carried, he need not fear 
that the disease would develop in the vines of his potatoes; but since one 
cannot be sure of these conditions, it is wise to protect all the vines from 
infection. This can be done successfully by spraying them thoroughly 
with bordeaux mixture several times during the season. This mixtiu« 
dries on the vines and is not washed off easily by rains. When the ger- 
miimting swarm spore secretes the enzyme that dissolves the cuticle of the 
leaf, some of the copper in the bordeaux mixture, if present, is released 
from its combination with the lime and, penetrating the young infection 
tube, destroys it before it has been able to enter the leaf. In order, there- 
fore, to protect all parts of the vine it is necessary to have all parts covered 
by the mixttire. The potato vine grows throughout the summer and the 
new growth made after one spraying should also be protected by a second 
application, and so on throughout the summer. 

A fidd of potatoes of which one ram that vias not sprayed teas entirely killed by the 
downy mildew 

(Attn OtDtn Bui. 104. PUM XV} 

9^4 Rural School Leaflet 

We have learned that infection takes place during rainy or foggy 
weather because it is during such weather that the spores are produced, 
are scattered, and germinate. Therefore it is important to make the 
application before the rainy period comes. Such periods are forecasted 
by the Weather Bureau, and by studjdng the daily weather map one may 
soon learn to forecast storms. 

In general, it may be said that five to seven applications should be made, 
depending on weather conditions, making the first when the plants are 
six to eight inches high. When potato beetles are troublesome, paris 
green should be added at the rate of i pound to 50 gallons of the mixture. 
Other poisons, such as arsenate of lead, arsenite of soda, or arsenite of 
lime, may be used in place of paris green if desired. Experience with 
lime-sulfur in place of bordeaux mixture has not been entirely satisfactory. 
In order to do thorough work, high pressiu^ and nozzles producing a fine 
mist or fog of the mixture are necessary. 

Preparation of bordeaux mixture, — Bordeaux mixtiu'e is made by mixing 
a dilute solution of copper sulfate* (blue vitriol) with a dilute solution of 
lime. The mixture may be made of different strengths by using different 
amounts of the copper sulfate and lime to a given amount of water. A 
mixture made by using three pounds of copper sulfate and three potmds 
of lime to fifty gallons of water is probably strong enough to control this 
fungus; but because of the stimulating action of bordeaux mixture on the 
potato plant, a strength of five poimds each of copper sulfate and of lime 
to fifty gallons of water is usually recommended, and this is indicated by 
the formula 5-5-50. To make bordeaux mixture of any strength, proceed 
as follows: 

Make a stock solution of copper sulfate by dissolving 45 pounds 
of copper sulfate in 45 gallons of water. A gallon of the solution wil] 
then contain one pound of copper sulfate. If the crystals placed in a 
gunny sack are suspended so as to be just immersed, they will dissolve 
in the course of three or four hours. 

Make a stock solution of lime by placing about a bushel of good 
stone lime in another barrel and slake by adding water slowly, being 
careful not to " drown '* the lime. When all has become pulverized by 
the slaking, add water to make a paste, after which enough more may 
be added to make 45 gallons. This should not be allowed to dry out. 
Hydrated Ume that does not require slaking may be used in place of 
stone lime, but air-slaked lime should never be used. 

Fill the sprayer about three fourths full of water. If a 5-5-50 solution 
is desired, 5 gallons of copper sulfate stock solution should be added to 
this water for every 50 gallons of mixture to be made. Stir until the solu- 
tion is well diluted, and add 5 gallons of the stock solution of milk of lime. 

Rural School Leaflet 925 

■While the solution of lime is being added to the dilute copper sulfate solu- 
tion in the sprayer tank, the material in the tank should be stirred 
constantly. The sky-blue bordeaux mixture will result. 

The mixture should now be tested with a few drops of a solution of 
potasdum ferrocyanide. This is made by dissolving crystals of potas- 
sium ferrocyanide in soft water. Five cents' worth of crystals dissolved 
in a pint of water will provide enough of the solution to last throughout 
ihe season. Should a brown-colored precipitate result when a few drops 
of this solution are added to the bordeaux mixture, it would indicate that 
more limewater is needed to neutralize the copper sulfate solution. When 
sufficient lime is added no precipitate will be formed by the potassium 
ferrocyanide solution. Bordeaux mixture not properly neutralized will 
bum the foliage of plants when applied to it. 


This disease is characterized by a roughened, brown, corky area on the 
surface of the tuber. While these affected areas extend but shghtly below 

Potato tubers badly affected with scab 

the skin, the appearance presented by scabby potatoes renders them less 
valuable than smooth ones. The yield also from fields where the tubers 
are badly scabbed is inferior. So that it is desirable, from the grower's 
pcnnt of view, to grow clean potatoes. 

Potato scab is common throughout the United States and Europe where 
potatoes are grown. The surface of a tuber may be roughened by worms 
and grubs, but this is imlike the scab. In Europe several organisms are 

926 Rural School Leaflet 

supposed to cause this disease, but in this country a fungus named Oospara 
scabies has proved to be the cause. It is almost impossible to find this 
fungus on scabby potatoes that have been stored for some time, but if one 
examines closely such potatoes as they are dug he will notice a film quickly 
disappearing, composed of a grayish hair-like growth. While it is next to 
impossible to find evidence of this fungus on scabby potatoes that have 
been stored, nevertheless it persists until they are planted and may then 
spread to the young tubers as' they are formed. 

The fungus also seems able to persist in the soil for a year or more. 
Even healthy tubers planted on such land will produce scabby ones if con- 
ditions favor the fungus. 

It has been noticed that an alkaline condition of the soil is favorable 
for the development of this fungus. Lime, wood ashes, and often manure 
tend to make the soil alkaline. The statement often made by farmers 
that wood ashes make potatoes scabby is explained in this way. The 
scab, however, is caused by a fungus, and no matter how alkaline the soil 
may be the tubers will not be scabby unless this fungus is present. 

There are, then, two conditions to be observed in guarding against this 
disease: plant clean tubers in healthy land. If tubers absolutely free from 
scab cannot be obtained, the cleanest should be selected and these treated 
by soaking them for two hours in a solution of formalin made by diluting 
I pound of commercial formalin (40 per cent formaldehyde) with 30 gallons 
of water. The treatment should be made before the tubers are cut and 
preferably just before they are planted, as there is then less danger of 
subsequent infection. A convenient way is to immerse a sack of tubers 
to be treated in a barrel of the solution. 

The treated tubers must be planted on land that has not been in pota- 
toes for the past two years, preferably after a clover sod, and in soil that 
is not alkaline. It is wise to practice a rotation of crops in which potatoes 
come once in three or four years. Potatoes, oats, meadow, potatoes, 
might be such a rotation. When it is necessary to apply lime in order 
to grow clover, the application should be made in the fall after the potatoes 
are harvested. By the time the land is planted again to potatoes, the 
alkalinity will be greatly reduced and the fungus, if present, will have 
died out. 

In order to insure the potato crop against these two and against other 
diseases we must, then: (i) reject all diseased tubers; (2) treat selected 
seed with formalin; (3) plant treated seed on land free from organisms 
that infest potatoes; (4) spray the potatoes thoroughly during the 
growing season. Even then they may become affected with some dis- 
ease, but the chances are good that they will not. One cannot afford 
to grow potatoes at all if he cannot afford to take these precautions. 

Rural School Leaflet 927 



In the Northern States potatoes can be stored for several months after 
they have been dug, and each year the farmer who raises potatoes to sell 
is confronted with the question, Shall I sell from the field or hold for a 
higher price? In answering this question wisely, two things must be 
considered : first, what is the price likely to be several months after digging ? 
second, how much will it cost to store the potatoes? 

The price of potatoes fluctuates more widely than that of most general 
farm products. These fluctuations in price are the result of variations 
in supply. The tendency is for people to use about the same quantity 
of potatoes the year rotmd; but when there are not enough to supply the 
usual quantity, the price goes up and some constuners use less. When 
there are more potatoes than are usually eaten, the price drops so as to 
encourage people to use them more freely. The quantity of potatoes 
consumed in the United States is increasing year by year as the population 
increases; at present we use on the average about 325,000,000 bushels 
each year, or about 3.5 bushels per individual. When the total production 
is less than normal the price tends to be higher than the average, and vice 

Thus we can predict, to a certain extent, the price of potatoes if we know 
the acreage planted and the probable yield. . The Crop Reporter gives 
this information. This is a report published monthly by the Bureau of 
Statistics, United States Department of Agriculture, and can be obtained 
free by any one. It gives the acreage, condition, yields, and prices of 
the different crops, and also the ntunber and value of different kinds of 
live stock on farms. These figures are obtained from a great many farmers 
all over the country. Also, a shortage of the potato crop in Europe tends 
to hold the price up in this country by cutting down the importation. 

If we decide in the fall that the price will go up, the next question is, 
Will the advance be sufficient to pay for holding? The cost of storing 
is greater than many persons realize. It includes shrinkage of the potatoes, 
interest on the money that is tied up, cost of the extra work of handling 
the potatoes, use of the storage cellar or building, and risk of loss by fire. 
Most of these items do not necessitate a direct cash expenditure and for 
that reason are often overlooked, but they are, nevertheless, actual cost 

Potatoes shrink in two ways: they lose in weight, and some of them rot 
and must be thrown out. So the place in which they are stored and their 
condition in the fall have much to do with the amoimt of shrinkage. The 
storage place should be cool and moist and the potatoes should be free 

028 Rural School Leaflet 

from scab and blight diseases. When stored in cool cellars, the shrinkage 
is usually 5 to lo per cent. Sometimes it has been as high as 20 per cent, 
and when rot is bad the shrinkage sometimes amounts to 50 per cent. 
. But under good conditions we should expect a shrinkage of about 8 per 
cent. For every 100 bushels of potatoes stored in the fall, we should 
then count on having only 92 bushels in the spring. If potatoes are worth 
50 cents in the fall the shrinkage will cost four cents per bushel. 

A farmer ^rtio sells his potatoes in the fall can use the money to pay a 
note and thus save the interest that it bears. Or he can invest the money 
and receive interest for it. Or, better still, he can buy some good stock. 
Anjrway, he can use the money; but the farmer who stores his crop loses 
the use of it. So another item of cost in holding potatoes is interest on 
the money tied up. The interest on 50-cent potatoes for six months at 
5 per cent would be a cent and a quarter per bushel. 

One of the big items of cost is the extra work. This includes putting 
the potatoes into the storage pit or cellar, sorting them again, and taking 
them out of storage. The cost of this varies with conditions. Figures 
given by a ntunber of growers who frequently hold the crop average f our 
cents per bushel. 

The tise of the storage cellar or building is another expense. This 
should be included because the money invested in such buildings should 
bear interest, and the buildings depreciate every year. About 10 per cent 
of the value of the buildings, or that part used for storage, is what it costs 
each year. This would amount to a fraction of a cent to two cents per 
bushel — let us say, on an average, one cent per bushel. 

Fire insurance would ordinarily cost less than a cent per bushel. 

Assuming the potatoes to be worth 50 cents in the fall and adding 
these items together, we have 


Shrinkage . 4 . 00 

Interest 1.25 

Bxtra labor 4.00 

Use of buildings i .00 

Fire instu'ance .12 

Total 10.37 I 

These figures agree with estimates given by farmers, a number of whom j 
have said that an advance of 10 cents in price per bushel just about covers 

the cost of holding. Thus, in order to make a profit on the holding, it ' 

would be necessary to receive more than this amoimt. ' 

In a bulletin from the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, the I 

writer expresses the opinion that 50 cents for potatoes direct from the I 

Rural School Leaflet 929 

field is as good as 70 cents in the spring. A member of the Long Island 
Potato Exchange considers a 20-cent advance on 60-cent potatoes necessary 
to make holding profitable to the grower. 

Several potato growers who have watched the markets for many years 
have said that in the long run it pays better to sell directly from the field 
than to hold. This is probably true, and if one were to choose between 
holding and selling in the fall as a regular practice, the latter is what he 
should do. 

But it is also true that in some years it would pay the farmer to hold 
his crop. By learning what the total potato crop in the United States 
will be and the condition of the European crops, he can tell what the price 
is likely to be. If it seems that potatoes will advance more than enough 
to pay the cost of holding, it wotild be advisable to hold. If the advance 
is only a little greater than the cost, it would be better to sell in the fall. 


E. F. McDonald 

(State Education Department) 

The question of the rural school garden is one that presents difficulties 
and many methods have been suggested as to the best manner of procedure. 
It is believed, at the start, that good results can be gained by limiting the 
scope of the work to the t3rpe plant of the current year. Boys and girls 
will gain more of general and particular value through the study of soil 
preparation, seed selection, growth, spraying, and care demanded by the 
potato plant than through more diversified study. Hence, it is recom- 
mended, where there is an opportiuiity, that a potato plot be maintained 
and that simple experiments be conducted to make clear, by field 
demonstration, the facts contained in the regular articles on potato 
culture appearing in the leaflet. 

The plot need not be large; an area twenty feet square, or even less, 
would be sufficient for the object intended. Certain rows should be 
sprayed once, others twice and three times, and also check rows left. 
During school days the plot can easily be kept in excellent condition by 
the pupils under the direction of the teacher, and during vacation the 
trustee should appropriate a small amount of money to one of the pupils 
to give it proper care; or the crop might be sold for the benefit of the 
person who has taken care of it during the vacation. 

Under the direction of the district superintendent, a town or district 
exhibit could be held, prizes awarded, and interest thus created for future 
^ork along similar lines. 

930 Rural School Leaflet 

The Editor 
Perhaps no one of the nature-study lessons for this year offers more 
opportunity for interesting work than the recognition of plants. It sug- 

— L 1^ informal discussions that often bring 

e most valuable nature interest, 
fiildren enjoy the wild flowers. In 
them to recognize a few each year we 
rtunity to discuss the preservation of 
flora, which is a most important lesson. 
sing how many persons carelessly uproot 
our rarest plants, or thoughtlessly 
x shrubs and trees as they walk along 
ghways. Respect for wild life should 
part of every child's education. 

It would be a good plan to place on 

the blackboard a list of plants for study 

this year, and find how many thechild- 

I ren know. Ask for descriptions, and 

then proceed to suggest observations 

add to their knowledge of the plants al- 

own. Send them on a quest for the un- 

Mies and ask them to gather but one or 

Black-eyed Susan ^^^ specimens of the flowers that are scarce. 

The specific differences in plants become very interesting to boys and 

girts. Send the class out to look for a trillium that is different &tnn the 

first one brought to school in sprii^. Have them note differences in the 

habit of the plant, in the blossom, or in the leaf. Have as many sped* 

mens as possible of' the lily family brought to school. Note any points 

of similarity in the plants of near kin. 

Probably all of our boys and girls know a willow tree, but very few know 
what a targe number of different kinds can be found in this State. Encour- 
age the pupils to search for the willows that differ in any way. Learning 
to note the differences in plants nearly related tends to develop accuracy 
of observation, so essential in all life work. 

The black medick, one of the plants to be recognized this year, is a familiar 
weed but is not known to all children by name. Should the teacher find 
one of the plants near the schoolhouse, it would be well to send the bov's 
and girls to see it ; or better still, to describe the plant some day before 
school closes and have the boys and girls search for it and report on their 
success the following morning. Such a lesson will take but a few minutes, 

Rural School Leaflet 931 

j-et it may result in much development for the pupils, as: (i) Interest 
in the description of a plant, (a) Actual observation of plants to find 
the one described. (3) The exercise will give opportunity for a good oral 
language lesson, (4) Interest will be awakened when the pupils learn 
the relation of this weed to some of the useful plants in the same family, 

I. T. Francis 

Dw marsh marigold. — This plant belongs to the crowfoot family. The 
stems are hollow, smooth, ascending, with undivided leaves. The flowers 
have no petals, but the yellow petal-like sepals give 
them a bright yellow color. The plant grows 
about one foot high and is found in swamps and 
wet meadows. Frequently it is called cowsUp and 
meadow buttercup. 

Among the plants in the crowfoot family are 
the columbine, buttercup, larkspur, goldthread, 
nrgitt's bower, anemone, hepadca, or Uverleaf, 
and meadow rue. 

The triUium. — The triUium, or wake-robin, is a 
low, snaooth, unbranched herb, growing from a 
short scarred rootstock. The plant has a large 
terminal flower, below which are three leaves 
arranged in a circle around the stem. The leaves 
are broad and netted-vedned. The flower has 

three white, pink, purple, or greenish petals and >, . • ,, 

, ,, . . ... Marsh marieold 

three green sepals that persist until the many- 
seeded berry ripens- The trilUum grows in rich woods and blossoms 
in early spring. 

The triUium is a member of the lily family, and has among its Idn the 
hyacinth, lily 0/ the valley, Solomon's seal, asparagus, lily, tulip, onion, 
and garlic. 

The black medick. — This plant, sometimes called nonesuch, is a 
trailii^, clover-like plant with three separate leaflets that are toothed. 
The small yellow flowers are in heads or very short spikes. The pods 
are small, curved, one-seeded, and black when ripe. It is a common 
plant along roadsides and waste places. It was introduced from Europe. 

The family to which the black medick belongs is the pulse family. 
Some of its kin are the alfalfa, bean, pea, sweet clover, and clover. 

The pitcher plant. — The pitcher plant, or sidesaddle flower, belongs to 
a group of marsh plants that have pitcher-like leafstalks, in the cavity 

932 Rural School Leaflet 

of which a fluid {with properties approaching those of gastric juice) is 
secreted. The tube is hairy within, with downward-pointing, stiff hairs. 
The single nodding flowers are borne on a leafless or nearly leafless stem, 
arising from an underground part of the plant. The flower has five 
sepals and Ave petals. 

This plant belongs to the pitcher plant family and has but few near 

kin. In bogs of Virginia and southward there is a flower called " trumpet," 

which is the only relative of the pitcher plant in our part of the country. 

The willow. — The willows are trees or shrubs that have buds with a 

-'--'- -.cale. The leaves are mostly long luid pointed. 

JT glandular-toothed. Usually the branches are 

ender. The willows are dioecious, that is, the 

wers are borne on one tree and the pistillate 

ther. As many as 51 different species are listed 

nical works. 

: more common willows are as follows: 
villow, or osier, the twigs of which are used for 
-k. It has lance<linear, entire, slender-pointed 
o 6 inches long and satiny white underneath. 
The black willow has a rough bark and 
narrow-lanceolate, taper-pointed leaves, often 
downy when young, green and smooth when 
older, except the short petiole and midrib. It 
grows on the banks of streams and lakes. 
The crack willow, orbrittle willow, has smooth 
Piuher plant leaves from the first, green on both sides or 

only slightly paler beneath. The tree is tall 
and slender. The twigs are very brittle at the base, easily breaking 
away and growing into new plants when set in the ground. This tree 
is planted for shade and ornament. 

The weeping willmu is a large tree with rough gray bark and slender, 
green, elongated, drooping twigs. The leaves are at first silky, but quickly 
become smooth. This tree is planted for ornament, and has spread along 
river banks and lake shores. 

The white willow is a large tree, the leaves of which are ashy gray or 
silky white on both sides except when old. It is variable and often mixed 
with crack willow. The forms with yellow twigs are cultivated. 

Some twenty species of willow are found growing wild in the North- 
eastern and North Central States, but it is diflicult even for botanists to 
identify them. 

The willows belong to the willow family, in which we find but one other 
kind of plant, the poplars, or aspens. 

Rural School Leaflet 933 

TJte partridge berry. — The partridge berry, sqtiawberry, or twinberry 
is a pretty trailing evergreen herb common in dry woods, especially under 
evergreen coniferous trees. The leaves are small, round-ovate, very smooth 
and glossy, bright green, sometimes with whitish lines, short-petioled. 
The flowers axe attractive and sweet-scented. The fruit is edible. It is 
scarlet (rarely white), remaining over winter. 

The partridge belongs to the madder family. Here we find the bed- 
straw, btUtonbush, bluets, and btUtonweed. 

The cherry. — The cherry is closely related to the peach and plum, and 
like them it has a fleshy fruit with a hard stone. It usually grows to be 
a good-sized tree, but some species are only shrubs. The flowers, usually 
white, vary from small to large and are borne sometimes in clusters of a 
few flowers springing from one point or as a number of blossoms on an 
elongated axis. There are five petals and five sepals. The inner layer 
of bark is tisually somewhat bitter. The fruit varies froni yellow or red 
to black or purplish black. 

The sweet, or mazzard cherry, and the sour, or morello cherry, are rather 
commonly cultivated in orchards and gardens. The flowers of both are 
large, but the fruit of the mazzard is sweet and juicy, while that of the 
morello is sotu: and acid. The sweet cherry tree has a pyramidal form 
and reddish brown bark, while the tree of the sour cherry has a lower and 
rounder head and gray bark. 

The wild black, or rum cherry is a very widespread and hardy tree. The 
leaves are rather long and have sharp teeth along the margin. The fruit 
is small and ptirplish black. The small white flowers are borne in graceful 
dusters on a long axis. 

The chokecherry is also a rather common wild tree. The inner bark has 
a rank, disagreeable odor, and the fruit, which is red turning to dark 
crimson, is rather bitter. 

The wild red, bird, fire, or pin cherry springs up somewhat commonly in 
rocky woods, and especially in places in which the forest has been recently 
cleared. The fruit is light red, very small, and sour. The flowers are 
borne many in a cluster. 

The daisy. — The daisy belongs to the composite family, as do also the 
Ikisile, aster t chrysanthemum, goldenrod, and dandelion. What we call the 
daisy flower is really a cluster of a great many flowers borne close together 
on a head. The corolla of the flowers in the outer circle of the cluster is 
developed into a long, white, strap-like part, called a ray, giving the 
whole head the appearance of one flower, and the circle of green bracts 
about the cluster seems to correspond to the calyx of a single flower. 

There are a number of species of this family that are called daisies. 
The oxeye, or white daisy, sometimes called whiteweed, is one of the com- 

934 Rural School Leaflet 

tnon weeds of our pastures and meadows in the summer. There axe 
twenty to thirty white spreading ra)rs, surroimding a bright yellow disk. 
The leaves at the base of the plant are oblong and coarsely toothed. The 
stem leaves are clasping and the upper ones are smaller and almost entii 

The yellow daisy, or Black-eyed SusoHy has a large flower head with 
to twenty yellow rays and a purple-brown disk. The heads are 
than in the white daisy and the stems are often simple, or branched 
the base. The leaves are nearly entire, the upper ones oblong or 
shaped. This is a common weed of the fields in some localities, 
in dry soils. 

The anemone. — The anemone is an erect perennial herb with 
that proceed from the root or base of the stem near the ground, azid 
or three opposite or whorled stem leaves constituting an involucre 
distance below the flower cluster. The sepals axe few or ni 
colored, and petal-like. The petals are wanting. 

The tall anemone grows in woods and meadows. The plant is hairy and 
grows two to three feet high. 

The wood anemone, or windflower, is low, has a simple stem, and grows 
from a thick, thread-shaped rootstalk. The sepals, four to seven in rtum* 
ber, are white, pink, blue, or ptu^jle. 

The anemone belongs to the crowfoot family and has for near kin the 
virgin's bower, marsh marigold, larkspur, columbine, hepatica, meadow rue, 
and buttercup, 

**As whispers for a moment rest 

Upon the brink of sound, 
Here fragrant breezes blossom-drest. 
Half visible are found. ' ' 



The orchard trees are whiter 
For the bright May sun is shining. 

And the blossoms show 

Like a drift of snow 
From a cloud with a rosy lining." 


" They are all in the lily bed cuddled together-^ 

Purple, yelhw<ap, and the baby-blue; 
Haw they ever got there you must ask the 
April weather. 
The morning and evening winds, the sunshine 
and the dew.'* 


RuKAL School Leaflet 935 

J. L. Stone 

) has been defined as " a plant out of 
place." Professor Roberts, as a result 
of some experiments in the thickness 
of seeding com, once said, " The worst 
weed in com is com." A more com- 
mon conception, and one that is more 
satisfactory in this connection, is: "A 

a plant injurious to agriculture and to 

growii^ in crops caiise great reduction 
and consequent loss to farmers. It has 
mated that the loss from injury by weeds 
nited States is not far from $100,000,000 

affect crops injuriously in a number of 
hey rob the crop of plant foods that other- 
Id be available for a more perfect develop- 
it. They often draw heavily on the soil 
, robbing the crop of its much-needed 
This is especially harmful in some cases, 
plants growing among the weeds cannot 
eaves normally. In the leaves the plant 
elaborated, and from them the water in 
. was taken up is evaporated. If the 
•e dwarfed and stunted for want of light 
ue to the crowding of weeds, they cannot 
! sufficient plant food for the nomial de- 
it of the crop. In many instances the 
tually crowd out part or all of the crop 
Some weed seeds are difficult or impossible to separate from the cereal 
grains, and the grains are depreciated in commercial value because of the 
presence of these weed seeds. 

It is not the purpose of this lesson to go into the methods of eradicatii^ 
certain pernicious weeds after they are established in the soil, but to sug- 
gest preventive measures regarding weeds in general. 

A given amount of effort will do more toward the suppression of weeds 
if directed against the production of their seeds in the vicinity, or the 
introduction of them from elsewhere, than it can do by fighting them after 

936 Rural School Leaflet 

they are established in the fields. It is a case in which " a stitch in time 

saves nine." 

The chief sotirce of supply of weed seeds in any locality lies in the badly 
tilled fields, the neglected areas, and the unkept roadsides. Fields that 
are tilled as thoroughly as they should be for the sake of the crops growing 
on them usually do not produce much weed seed. This statement will 
not hold in the case of cereal crops growing on land infested with mustard, 
chess, and the like. Thorough cultivation of the land, cleanii^ up of the 
hedgerows, and mowing of the fence comers and roadsides, are among the 
first steps to be taken in the suppression of weeds. 

The sowing of impure seed is an important source of weed perpetuation. 
In oats we are likely to find mustard, Canada thistle, and ragweed; wheat 
or rye may carry chess or cockle; grass and clover seed may carry a lai^e 
variety of pernicious weed seeds, such as the daisy, wild carrot, and 

There is no excuse for sowing impure seeds. Pure seeds can be obtained. 
Impure seeds should be either cleaned or rejected. In the case of grass 
and clover seeds the experiment stations will examine and report on the 
purity of samples, or, better still, the farmers may supply themselves witli 
a hand lens and a seed bulletin and they will soon be able to test seeds for 

Probably the most dangerous means of weed distribution at the present 
time is in the mill and brewery by-products that are sold for stock food. 
The grain screenings, containing large ntunbers of weed seed, are added 
to these by-products in many cases. Users of such feeds should examine 
them critically and reject them if they contain live weed seeds. There 
should be effective laws to prevent the selling of seeds or feeds infested 
with pernicious weed seeds. 

Stable manure is always a fruitful means of weed dissemination unless 
great care is taken to keep weed seeds out of it, or unless the manure is 
thoroughly composted before being applied to the land. City manure is 
even more likely to introduce troublesome weeds than country manure, 
but city manure is rarely purchased except for farms on which the tillage 
is fairly thorough, thus holding the weeds in check. 

Itinerant threshing machines, when allowed to come on a farm without 
having been cleaned out thoroughly, often bring certain weed seeds from 
an infested farm to one heretofore free from the kind brought in. It is 
well to insist that the machines be thoroughly cleaned before coming 
on the farm. 

Hay and straw used for packing often carry weed seeds long distances 
to localities not infested with them. It is well to bum such material in 
order to avoid this danger. 

Rural School Leaflet 937 

Paul J. White 

Purslane, or " pusley."— This weed is very common, especially in the 
rich smls of gardens. It is a sprawling plant, growing flat on the ground. 
The leaves are thick, fleshy, and dark green in color; the stems are reddish; 
the blossonis are small and yellow, are about one fourth inch across, and 
appear at the ends of the prostrate branches about the first of July. The 
plant continues to blossom and ripen seeds until frost. 

Purslane is closely related to our common garden portulaca ; in fact, it 
is sometimes called wild portulaca. It is one of the common weeds that 
have been introduced from abroad, and is a native of the tropics. This 
weed is not entirely devoid of good qualities. The writer well remembers 
gathering it for pigs in the early 
days of Kansas. It was also 
used for greens by the early 

It is very difficult to destroy 
purslane. Like most plants having 
thick, fleshy leaves, it dies hard. 
Plants that are cut off with the 
hoe may live for weeks and even 
ripen seeds. Also, they some- 
times take root again if the 
ground is loose and moist. If 

the plants have begun to blossom, Funlaru {"pusUy") 

it is safer to cut them with 
a sharp hoe and remove them from the garden. 

Bindweed. — One of the very worst weeds in the State is'the^bindweed. 
It is not so common as some other weeds, but when it gets into a field or 
garden it is next to impossible to get it out. 

Bindweed is sometimes called wild morning-glory. The pink blossoms 
are smaller than those of the cultivated momii^-glory. The weed has 
a twining habit and when it is abundant it winds around other plants and 
smothers them. It increases both by seeds and by underground stems. 
The smallest part of the creeping root is suflScient to start a new plant. 

This pest appears most often in rich fields and gardens. It will spread 
in a circle from a single plant until the whole garden is infested. Many 
wa>-s of destroying it have been tried, the most of which have been tmsuc- 
cessful. The only sure way to destroy it is to cut the plants off as fast 
as they appear. Any kind of plant may be killed if it is not permitted 

938 Rural School Leaflet 

to send stems or leaves above ground. In cultivating a field containing 

bindweed, one should be careful to avoid drawing pieces of tlie roots 
from place to place on the tools. The weed may be 
widely spread in this way. 

Pigweed, or redroot. — Nearly every boy and girl 
knows this weed. It probably takes its name &om 
the fact that it is so much relished by pigs. Ilie 
weed lives only one year, yet it produces an enor- 
mous number of small, shiny, black seeds. It may 
be distinguished from almost all other weeds by its 
rosy pink root, somewhat resembling a beet. The 
garden cockscomb is a near relative of pigweed; the 
seeds of the two plants are much alike. 

Pigweed is very persistent in cornfields and in 
other cultivated crops. It is almost sure to appear 
after the last cultivation of com. It grows tall and 
rank, taking from the soil moisture and plant food 
that are needed by useful plants. The only way to 
' control it is by persistent cultivation and hoeii^. 

The straggling weeds may be removed by hand pulling, 

Canada thistle. — This plant is too well known to need description. It 

spreads by means of seeds carried 

by the wind or sown with clovers, 

grasses, or oats. A cultivated crop 

that is carefully tilled helps to de- 
stroy it. It can be destroyed by 

mowii^ twice a year, in June and 

August. It should not be allowed 

to blossom. If the plants are not 

too numerous they may be cut off 

below the surface of the ground and 

a spoonful of salt put on the fresh 

cut. If persisted in as often as 

they appear, this method is usually 


Wild carrot. — Wild carrots do 

not spread from the roots, but they 

produce a great number of seeds. 

These seeds have been known to live 

in the ground several years before 

FipDttd, or redroot 

growing; therefore the plants must be repeatedly pulled or cut off. They 
are not troublesome in plowed land, but are common in old meadows. 

RcHAL School Leaflet y39 


IN 1912-1913 

E. G. Montgomery 

1. OATS 

Oats are the most extenavely cultivated cereal in New York State. 
The value of the crop, as compared with other cereal crops, is shown by 
the following statistics for igio: 

Crops Vsliw 

Oats $19,000,000 

Com 16,000,000 

Wheat 10,000,000 

Barley 1,500,000 

There are only four States with an oat crop 
more valuable than that of New York, 
namely, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and 

About 4.3 acres out of every 100 are 
devoted to oats in New York. The average 
vield is 31,3 bushels and the average value is 
$13.44 per acre. The part of the State show- 
ing the highest production of oats is com- „ 

■ J ■ ^iT *■ I. J ■ ^i. ^u 7ic. I.— True panule 

pnsed m the counties bordering on the south 

shore of Lake Ontario, while the east half of the State produces very 

little oats. 

It would be interesting to find how your own neighborhood compares 
with other parts of the State in oat production. Find by inquiry what 
percentage of the land in your district is devoted to oat culture, and its 
average yield and value. 

Kinds oj oats. — When the shape of head {or panicle) is considered 
there are two kinds of oats, known as the true panicle (Fig. i ) and the 
side panicle (Fig. a). The oat grain is also of several colors, as white 
oats, black oats, red oats, yellow oats, and gray oats. 

There are several kinds of oat spikelets, as shown in Fig. 3 . Some have 
only one grain and others have three. In some varieties a long awn is 
borne on each grain. How many kinds of oat spikelets can you find? 

Oat grains vary also in shape, certain varieties having long, slender 
grains, while in others the grains are short and plump. There are 400 
lands of oats. How many kinds can you find growing in your neighbor- 

940 Rural School Leaflet 

Parts of grain. — The oat grain can be separated into two parts, known 
as the hull and the kernel. (See Fig. 4.) The whole is called a grain. 
The hull has no food value, but the kernel is very 
nutritious. In making oatmeal the hull is first 
removed and only the kernel is milled. Oats con- 
stitute a valuable food for young growing animals 
or for horses at hard labor, but they are not used 
in fattening stock. 

Food value. — The food value of the oat grain 

depends on the percentage of hull to kernel. 

About 3 s per cent of a good oat is hull, but a poor 

, oat grown in a bad season or on poor soil may 

have as high as 40 per cent hull. (Determine the 

percentage of hull in a sample of oats by first 

weighing a small sample and then removing 

the hull and weighing again.) 

Fic. a.— Side panicle Manner of growth. — Oats usually produce more 

than one head from a single seed. As the farmers 

say, the oats " stool," that is, branch at the ground and send up 

several stems from each seed. When sown thiddy, not more than two 

heads are produced from a seed; but if the seeding is thin and the soil 

rich, as many as five heads may be produced from a single seed. 

Examine oat plants on various kinds of soil and see how many heads 
are produced to each seed. 

Editor's note. — The oat crop in New York State is so important that 
the teacher should take opportunity to discuss it whenever interest is 
shown. A few test questions that can be answered from the foreg<»ng 
text will probably lead the girls and boys to think about the subject. 
Place the questions on the 
blackboard and have the older 
pupils consult farmers in the 
neighborhood and reference 
books, before answering the 

Let one of the pupils place 
on the blackboard drawings 
iiom the illustrations (Figs. 
I and 2), and find out how 

many o£ the class have ever ^ 3._5pifaio, 

noticed that some oats have 

true-panicled heads and some side-panicled heads. App)oint a com- 
mittee of older boys to gather material for the study of oats next year. 
This will lead to observational work. 

Rural School Leaflet 


Questions, — In which States do we find oats most extensively grown? 

How does New York stand in the production of oats? What is the value 

in dollars of the oat crop of New York State? In 

what p>arts of the State do we find the most 

extensive oat fields? What percentage of the 

land in your district is devoted to oat culture? 

How many kinds of oats are there? How many 

kinds can you find in your neighborhood next 

Who grows oats most extensively iii your 

district? Is the crop sold or used at home? If 

oats are not grown on some of the farms in your 

neighborhood, can you find out why? What 

effect has the kind of soil on the growing of oats? Do oats require 

a large or small amount of moisture? 

Fig. 4. — Oat grain, a, 
Kernel; 6, huU 


The hay crop is the most valuable single crop produced in New York 
State. Its annual value is about $70,000,000. Altogether there is about 
five million acres of hay in the State, and about four million acres of this 
hay is timothy, or timothy and clover mixed; so we see that timothy is 

the most valuable of all the crops in New York. 
The name " timothy " comes from Timothy 
Hansen, of Maryland, who is said to have in- 
troduced the seed from England in 1720. 
Timothy is sometimes called Herd's grass, after 
John Herd, who is said to have found it growing 
wild about 1700. 

Why do we cultivate timothy? There are 
about 1,380 species of grasses, either wild or 
cultivated, growing in the United States, yet 
" only a few of these are cultivated to any extent. 
How many cultivated grasses can you name or 
collect? How many tmcultivated grasses can 
you find growing wild? 

A grass, in order to be cultivated, must have 

two important qualities: first, it must produce 

seed in abundance; and second, it must yield 

a large quantity of good forage. 

Many of our native wild grasses are excellent in every way, but produce 

such a small quantity of seed that it cannot be procured at a sufficiently 

low cost to sow meadows. A few other grasses yield plenty of seed, but 

Head of timothy 


RuKAi. School Leaflet 

the forage is coarse and does not make good feed for cows and horses. 
We 6nd that there are only a' few grasses that produce both good seed an<l 
good forage. 

Grasses are known as " bunch " grasses or " sod " grasses. Timothy 
is a sod-forming grass, because each bunch tends to spread every season 
until bunches near one another intermingle and form a sod. 

Have you ever seen the corms on a timothy plant? A corm is similar 
to a very small potato and grows underground. 
If you dig up a timothy plant in the fall, a 
large number of corms will be found; they are 
swollen parts of the underground stem. These 
corms give rise to new plants and are an im- 
portant means by which the timothy plant 
propagates itself from year to year. In fact, 
the old timothy plants and roots appear to die 
out more or less every year, and if it were 
not for these corms there is some doubt as to 
whether a timothy meadow would last for 
more than a year or two. 

How loi^ does a timothy meadow last? 
When the farmer cuts timothy for hay 
he has two points to consider: first, he must 
not cut it when too green or when in blos- 
som, or it will make dusty hay; also, the crop 
increases about one fourth in weight from 
the time it is in bloom until it is ripe, so that 
he does not secure so large a. yield when the 
hay is cut in blossom. On the other hand, 
ripe hay is not relished by animals; also, allowii^ the hay to ripen 
exhausts the roots and weakens the sod for another crop. The proper 
time to cut is about 7 to lo days after blossoming, when the seed is in 
the " dough " stage but not ripe. 

A neighborhood study of timothy.^ By inquiry find out what proportion 
of all the land in your school district is in hay; in cultivated crops; in 
pasture ; in forest. 

How much of the hay land is pure timothy? How much is timothy and 

clover mixed ? 

How much hay per acre is produced in your district? 

Improving timothy sods. — The average yield of timothy in New York State 

is I.I ton per acre. Compare this with the yield in your neighborhood. 

A heavy dressing of maniue has often doubled the yield of old 

meadows. At the Cornell University farm an old meadow yielding 

Timolky plant 

Rural School Leaflet 943 

I J ton of hay was made to yield 3 tons by applying the following 
fertilizer per acre: 

200 pounds sodium nitrate 

100 pounds acid phosphate 
50 pounds kainit 
This is a good fertilizer for most old timothy meadows. 


Alsike clover seems to have first come into extensive cultivation in 
Sweden, in the village of Syke, or Alsike. It was introduced into France 
about 1800 and into England 30 years later, and probably into America 
about the same i)eriod. It has not been in extensive cultivation for a 
great length of time; the contrary is true of red clover and white clover, 
both of which have been ctiltivated at least 2,000 years. 

It would be interesting to fmd out how long alsike has been cultivated 
in your neighborhood. 

A study of the plant. — In Jtme it is possible to find full-grown plants 
of white, alsike, and red clover. If you cannot study the plants at this time, 
they should be collected and dried, or, better, preserved in a formalin 

On comparing the three clovers it will be found that the alsike has leaves 
resembling those of the white clover, but the general appearance and the 
stem are more like those of the red clover. Alsike also has smooth stems, 
as has white clover, but the blossom has more red than does that of white 
clover and it is larger. In fact, the blossom appears to be about halfway 
between white clover and red clover. Alsike is supposed to be the 
result of a cross between these two clovers, and it really does partake 
somewhat of the characteristics of each. 

The alsike clover, however, has one quality that the red and the white 
do not have, and this is quite important to know. Red clover and white 
clover will not grow on many soils,* which are said to be ** acid," until 
large quantities of lime are added to " sweeten " the soil. The alsike 
will grow on acid soil, and is found growing well in many places where 
red clover cannot be grown. Redtop grass also will grow on the same 
kinds of soil that are suited to alsike, so we often sow redtop and alsike 
clover together for meadow or pasture. 

Uses for alsike clover. — Alsike clover is a valuable feed, either as hay 
or pasture; but since it does not yield so heavy a crop as does red clover 
for hay, and is not so long-lived as white clover for pastiu^, the alsike 

* A go<)d way to keep green material for future study is to preserve it in a formalin solution. Make 
the folutton by »*^f!«"g two ounces of formalin (costing lo cents) to one gallon of water. Keep the solution 
m elan fruit jars. At any time when it is desired to preserve green material, merely place it m the solution 
■ad leave it there. The material will keep fresh and green for several months, or even years. 

944 Rural School Leaflet 

is not generally sown on land where these other clovers do well. However, 
where the soil will not grow red or white clover without lime, it will often 
grow alsike very well. Alsike is especially useful on wet pasture, and, 
on the whole, it is a really valuablu plant. 

Field studies. — It would be well to make a field survey of the waste 
lands and roadsides in your neighborhood in early June, when the alsike 
is in blossom and most easily recognized, in order to find on what kinds 
of soil it seems to be growing wild. 

Find out by inquiry whether there is any land in the neighborhood on 
which some one has tried to grow red clover and failed. Has he tried 
alsike clover, and, if so, with what success? 

Learn to identify alsike clover before it blossoms, when in blossom, 
and when the heads are ripe. 

Does alsike clover spread by the stems, creeping over the ground? Do 
white clover and red clover spread in the same way? 

Dig up a plant of alsike and see whether you can find any tubercles 
on the roots? 

Get a packet of alsike clover from a seedsman and learn to identify the 
seed alone or when mixed with other seeds. 

" Again I sf.e the clover bloom, 

A nd tBode in grasses tush and nveet; 
Again has vanislud all my gloom 
With daisies smiling at my feet." 


Rural School Leaflet 


John Bentley, Jr. 

i. our forests 

THE forests and woodlands of our State are valuable 

not only as a source of wood and lumber, but also 

because of the beneficial effects they have on 

the supply of water. Nearly all of our large 

streams and rivers rise in the mountains or hills 

of the State, which were originally covered with a 

dense growth of timber. The groimd was covered 

with leaves, and the trees broke the fall of the 

rain so that, instead of rushing down the hill, 

the water soaked into the groimd and reappeared 

farther down as springs. Thus the flow of the water 

was kept regular and even, and because of this the 

water was clear. After the forests were cut 

V down the leaf litter was washed away or 

destroyed, and soon the heavy rains began to 

make gulley^ in the land; so that sometimes the 

streams were high and at other times low, and after 

heavy rains they were frequently muddy. 

The contrast is very marked between streams that 
come from moimtains covered with timber and those 
that flow for a long time through treeless regions. 
Those persons who have crossed the States of Montana, Nebraska, 
Kansas, or Wyoming know that the rivers in those sections are all very 
muddy; while the rivers in the States of New York, Pennsylvania, and 
West Virginia, and in other Eastern States in which thiere are many 
mountains covered with timber, are comparatively clear and clean. This 
is because the forests hold the soil in place and prevent it from being 
washed away by the heavy rains. 

It is important, therefore, to preserve the woodlands and timber at the 
headwaters of our streams and rivers, and if we desire good, pure, clear 
water for drinking purposes we must see that the springs and small streams 
which form the source of our water supplies are protected by a good growth 
of timber. 

In the development of this country a great deal of timber has been 
destroyed. Many times some careless hunter or traveler, passing through 
the woods, has left a camp fire burning and the wind has come up and 
blown the fire into a mass of leaves and dry sticks, setting the woods on 
fire. This fire, perhaps small at first, grew to be a destructive forest fire, 


946 Rural School Leaflet 

burning many acres; and not only destroying the timber, but burning stU 
the leiif mold on the ground so that many years must elapse before trees 
can grow well. Railroad locomotives send out a great many sparks, 
which in dry weather frequently start small fires that soon develop into 
large ones. In this way much timber has been biuned every year. Mr. 
Graves, the Forester for the United States Government, makes the state- 
ment that since 1870 fifty million acres have been burned over by forest 
fires, resulting in a loss of fifty million dollars each year. 

Another cause of damage is insects. Beetles bore into the trees and 
kill them, or caterpillars eat the leaves off the trees and cause them gradu - 
ally to die ; so that between the fires, the insects, and the lumbermen, the 
woodlands and forests of our country have disappeared very rapidly. It 
is necessary for us to begin immediately to take care of our forests, and 
this can be done in two ways: first, by protecting them against fire and 
using them wisely without waste or destruction; and second, by planting 
new trees or sowing seed in places where trees will grow but where there 
are no old trees to furnish seed for new growth. Even in small communi- 
ties much can be done toward helping to save our forests if each one will 
do his part. Boys and girls should be taught the danger of leaving a fire 
unguarded; it should always be extinguished before they leave the woods. 
They should also be taught to protect the young trees that are coming 
up, so that these will not be trampled on or uprooted. A most valuable 
nature-study lesson would be to teach the pupils to gather some seed and 
sow it in treeless places. They will then be doing something that in years 
to come will contribute greatly toward the welfare and prosperity of the 

Last year we studied the white pine, which is one of the most important 
of all the coniferous, or cone-bearing, trees native 
to this country. This year we have for spedai 
study the locust tree, which is one of the broad- 
leaved trees. We have already learned that the 
cone-bearing trees furnish a very large proportion 
V of the timber used m our country, and that the 
jf hardwoods, or broad-leaved trees, are perhaps not 
so generally useful. For certain purposes, however, 
the carpenter or the builder frequently has to turn 
to the hardwoods for what he wants, either for 
hardness or durability or for the beautiful grain 
" and satin-like finish of which hardwoods are capable. 
We all know that a handsome piece of mahogany or 
curly birch or bird's-eye maple is much better suited to the mnlring of 

A common locust tree in winter 

948 Rural School Leaflet 

fine furniture and the interior finishing of a house than is the spruce or 
pine. Each class of trees has its own uses : the pines, spruces, ajid firs are 
especially useful in construction work and framework, for i«rhich such 
qualities as strength, medium weight, and durabihty are required. The 
hardwoods are chosen for finishing and trimming, as well as for furniture 
and cabinet making, for which beauty and elegance are wanted in addition 
to strength. 

Unfortunately, not all hardwoods are etjually attractive, even when 
carefully worked and smoothly polished. In order to be handsome and 
useful for furniture or interior finish, a wood must possess a certain degree 
of hardness, so that it will take a fine polish; and in addition to this, it 
should have a rich color, or a well-marked grain, or both. White oak, 
sycamore, mahogany, birch, red gum, black cherry, and maple when it 
has a " curly " or a " bird's-eye " grain, are all much used for furniture 
or interior finish and for panel work; while beech, chestnut, elm, basswood, 
hickory, locust, and a great many others are not so much used for these 
purposes, but are nevertheless very useful for special piuposes becatise 
of the toughness or hardness of their wood. The locust, which we are 
to study at this time, is especially useful for posts, poles, ship timbers, 
or any other purpose that demands toughness and strength combined with 
durability in contact with moisture. Many woods will decay rapidly 
when they are subjected to the moisture in the ground or to the ordinary 
changes in the weather. A good quality of the locust, however, is its 
durability, especially when in contact with the soil or exposed to the 
weather. Some of the great railroad companies, which use each year 
many thousands of railroad ties, have recognized the durability of the locust 
and are growing and cultivating locust trees on their own land to supply 
ties, posts, and poles. 

In what way does a locust tree differ from other common trees that 
we see around us? How can we recognize a locust tree when we see it? 
In the first place, we should know that the locust is one of a family of 
plants which is very useful to man — the pulse family. This family includes 
nniany plants whose fruit or seeds are edible and supply food for man and 
beast. Peas, beans, and lentils are used by man as food, and they are 
very valuable foods indeed because they are so rich in proteids. The 
locust tree, true to the characteristics of its family, bears fruit con- 
sisting of a ntunber of dark» orange-brown seeds, .about 3--16 of an inch 
long and usually with irregular darker markings, enclosed in a reddish 
brown pod 3 to 4 inches long. The presence of the pods, which persist 
from the time they ripen in the fall until early spring, is one of the dis- 
tinguishing characteristics of the locust. In the spring the tree may be 
recognized and identified by its foliage and flowers. The leaves are 8 to 

Rural School Leaflet 949 

1 4 inches long, with 7 to iq leaflets, making what the botanists call a com- 
pound leaf — that is, a large leaf composed of several smaller leaflets all 
growing from the same stem. The leaflets are § to J inch broad, about 
li inch long, and generally have a perfectly smooth edge. They are a 
dull dark green above while the under surface is paler, and in the fall they 
ttrni to a clear yellow. The flowers, which appear late in May or about 
the first of June, are borne in loose, drooping clusters; they are creamy 
white and very fragrant. A locust tree in full bloom is indeed a very 
beautiful sight. 

A koney locust tree in muter 

Where the soil is good the locust tree grows very rapidly when young. 
It puts out many roots in all directions, which seek the moisture in the 
soil. Frequently they are so close to the surface of the ground that a 
number of shoots are sent up. These soon grow and make a thicket o£ 
young locust trees. These young trees are very attractive, but they 
use up a great deal of the moisture in the ground. If, therefore, the old 
tree is to grow to a good size, it is well to cut the sprouts each year and to 
keep the ground near the parent tree clear. When a number of locust 
trees are growing together and are all of about the same age, as in a 
plantation, there will not be so many sprouts. 

The young locust tree grows very rapidly, and at the same time the 
wood that it produces is hard, strong, and heavy, and is usually a pale 
yellonish brown in color. Because it is so durable it is useful as posts, 

('D Rural School Leaflet 


railroad ties, or any other land of timber that is exposed to changes in the 
weather and dampness in the soil. 

The locust tree has an enemy that often destroys it — the locust borer 
(Cyllene robiniai), an insect that does its destructive work in the form of a 
grub. It bores holes in the trunk and branches, keeps the tree from 
growing as it should when in a healthy condition, and may destroy it. 
In September the beetles — which are about three fourths of an inch long 
and of a velvety black color with bright golden-yellow markings — gather 
in large numbers- on the bark of the locust trees and lay their small white 
eggs in the crevices of the bark, in clusters of seven or eight. These eggs 
soon hatch into little grubs, or worms, of a yellowish color, about three 
fourths of an inch long. They bore into the bark and work industriously, 
mining through the softer tissues of the wood until winter overtakes 
them. They then rest until the warm weather of spring revives them, 
when they begin work in April or May even more vigorously. They 
extend their burrows into the wood of the tree, sending out chips and 
sawdust, by which their work is often detected. The grubs become full- 
grown about the middle of July, at which time they go through the meta- 
morphosis common to beetles and emerge early in September as beetles. 

After a few seasons of this kind of work the tree is doomed. It ceases 
to make normal growth; it is covered with great scars and wounds, and, 
like the unprofitable fig tree of the Scriptures, is fit only to be cut down 
and burned. The sooner it is burned, the better, for if done while the 
grubs are in it they are killed and prevented from extending the injury 
to some other tree. 

Nothing is known to prevent the destruction of the black locust by the 
locust borer. About the only thing that can be done is to watch the 
plantation closely, and if it is found that one or two trees have been 
attacked it is better to cut these down and bum them immediately, so as 
to prevent the insects from attacking other trees in the plantation. This 
seems like a somewhat rigorous meastue, but after the insects have once 
made inroads into a tree it is practically impossible to get them out without 
destroying the tree. 

If the locust tree is cared for and protected against these borers, it 
should soon become large enough for fence posts. 

Observations for the pupils 

1. Did you ever see a locust tree as large as an elm? as a maple? 
Is the bark smooth and gray, like that of the beech tree, or is it rough, 
and dark in color? 

2. Note whether the bark on the branches has prickles on it. Are they 
stout and strong, or can they be easily broken off? Did you ever see a 

Rural School Leaflet 951 

locust tree blown over by the wind? Do you think good strong roots 
wotdd hold a tree in position against hard winds and storms? 

3. What do the flowers of the locust tree resemble? Notice the leaflets 
of the locust on a bright, sunny day, aad then on a still night; notice how 
they have folded together; or in cloudy, cold, or rainy weather, see how 
the leaflets behave. It is one of the habits of members of the pidse family 
to fold their leaves together at night. If there are pods on the tree, 
how many seeds are in the pods? How are they fastened to the pods? 

4. In winter notice how the winter buds, which contain the be- 
ginnings of next summer's leaves, are protected by being depressed and 
covered with a scale-like covering, the inside of which is lined with a woolly 
growth. The tree makes all this careful preparation against cold weather, 
which might injure the tender leaves in the buds. 

5. If you can find a locust tree that has been cut down and sawed into 
logs, count the rings of growth on the end of one of the logs. How many 
rings are there from the center to the edge? Does the tree show a 
rapid growth? 

6. If a tree is injured, sap will flow from the wound. If the locust 
tree that you are observing has been damaged by the borers, notice how 
the sap has run. Be careful not to cause trees needless wounds by 
chopping into them or by severely bruising the inner bark. 

7. The purpose of the bark is to protect the growing part of the tree, 
which is just under the bark. How thick is the bark on the locust tree? 
The sap carries water and plant foods from the roots to the leaves and 
from the leaves to the growing parts of the tree. That is why it is so 
important to keep the bark from being injured, for if the bark is cut or 
bruised or bored into by insects the tree loses sap and is weakened. 

8. Compare the blossoms on the locust tree with the blossoms of the 
common sweet pea of the garden. Compare the fruit with the pea or 
the bean, grown in a garden. 

9. Take some of the seeds of the locust and soak them in hot water 
(not boiling, but about 135 to 150° F.) for several hours. Do this for three 
or four successive days, or until the seeds swell, taking care not to let them 
dry out at any time. Plant them in soil in a box that can be kept in a 
warm, suimy place, and compare them with seeds sown at the same time 
but not previously soaked in hot water. Give them water each day in 
order to keep the soil moist. See how many days it takes for the soaked 
seeds to germinate. Have the seeds that were not soaked begim to show 
signs ot germinating? How do you account for the success of locust trees 
ir growing from seed in nature? 

10. The presence of nodules on the roots of legumes is a family char- 
acteristic. Look on the fibrous roots of yoimg locust trees and see whether 
you can find nodules. 

Rural School Leaflet 


The following characteristics will be helpful in recognizing the trees 
that are to be studied this year: 

Spruce, fir, and tamarack. — Norway spnice, which is 
not native to this country but is extensively planted 
as an ornamental tree in parks and on lawns, grows 
to a height of 70 to 80 feet and can be distinguished 
from the firs, which it resembles closely, by its four- 
sided needles and by its long, light brownish yellow 
cones. The needles of the balsam fir are flat and have 
a tight gray streak on the underside. The cone is dark 
purple when young, turning dark brown after it is 
^ fully ripe and has shed its seeds. The bark of the 

spruce is a reddish giay in color, while the bark of the 
balsam fir is a light gray and frequently has smell bhsters on it which con- 
tain the fluid resin, used in the arts under the name of Canada balsam. 
The larch tree, or tamarack, can 
be distinguished from the spruce 
and fir by its needle-like leaves, 
which grow in clusters of ten or 
more and which fall off at the 
end of the growing season just as 
do the leaves of the broad-leaved 
trees. In the summer time the 

tamarack has a sparse, fringe-like BaUam fir 

foliage that gives very little shade. 

Flowers of the tamarack. — About the time that the leaves are coming 
out, in early May, the flowers of the tamarack are very beautiful and are 
I worthy of close inspection. The 
male, or staininate, flowers have 
many yellowish anthers on short 
stalks, arranged spirally. The 
female, or pistillate, flowers are 
composed of many rose-red scales, 
also arranged spirally, and are 
accompanied by rose-colored bracts 

^ . , I with long green tips. When the 

Tamarack, or larch ^ 

cones are present on the tree 

they give it a warmth of color that harmonizes very beautifully with the 

feathery foliage, which is also unfolding at the same time. 

Rural School Le.\flet 953 

Horse-chestnut. — The horse-chestnut belongs to a family that has some 

species native to the Southern and Western States. The buckeye of Ohio 

belongs here. The European species is the 

one most commonly planted in this part 

of the coimtry. The horse-chestnut can 

I be distinguished from other trees by its 

\ compoimd leaves, which have seven leaf- 

lets growing from a common point rather 
than distributed along the central stem 
as in the locust. The flowers are very 
■ beautiful in the spring, and the large 
nut, which ripens in the fall, is well 
known to every boy and girl. 
J Alder. — The alder is a member of the 

X birch family and its leaves resemble those 

of the birches somewhat, but are more 

Horse-chestnut rounded at the end. A very noticeable 

feattare of the alder is the presence of the 

catkins (staminate flowers), which are formed in the late summer but 

which remain in a dormant condition until the following spring. The 

pistillate flowers are formed in the spring, and after being fertilized 

develop into a cone-like fruit. 
The alders that rural teachers in New York State are most likely to find 

in their work are Alnus incana and Alnus rugosa. Another alder that is 

frequently planted and found in cultivation is the European black alder, 

Alnus vulgaris. This has been reported 

as escaped from cultivation in some 

places, and might therefore be found 

in unexpected places. In contrast to 

the native alders that have been men- 
tioned, the European black alder has a 

distinctly tree-like habit of growth, and 

under favorable conditions would reach 

a height of 50 feet or more. The writer 

believes that rural teachers would 

always be able to distinguish this form 

of tree from our common alders by its 

habit of larger growth. 
Elm. — The ebn tree is one of the 

largest and most graceful of the trees 

native to New York State. It fre- 
quently branches a short distance from the ground and forms a large 

spreading crown, the shade from which covers a great deal of the space 

954 Rural School Leaflet 

about it. The leaves are placed obliquely on the stem. The base of the 

leaf is unequal, that is, one side is longer than the other. The flowers 

appear early in the spring, before the leaves, 

and the fruit or seed, which is winged on 

the margin, ripens as the leaves appear. 

The wings have sharp points and are curved 

at the apex so as to make a sort of notch. 

Poplar. — The poplar is one of the most 

yridely distributed trees in this country, 

ranging from the Atlantic to the Pacific 

^^ Coast and all through the northern tier of 

States. The leaves are smooth, dark green 

above and grayish green beneath. The stem of the leaf, called the 

petiole, is flattened so that the slightest wind causes the leaves to 

rustle and shake, and because of this the tree is called in many places 

the "quaking aspen." 


The tree nursery. — The fact that the raising of trees in a nursery occupies 
one to three years, and that much of the work can be performed during 
the time the schools are in session, makes this kind of work very desirable 
for schools. Besides, a tree is of permanent value. After being raised 
from seed and cared for in the school garden, it can be set out to grow in 
some place where it is needed. It then becomes not only an object lesson, 
but a thing of beauty and of permanent value, reflecting honor and credit 
on those who have been thoughtful enough to plant it and care for it. 

The work of starting a school-garden nursery should be begun only on 
a small scale, so as not to become too large to handle later on when the 
trees need more attention. If each pupil has a share and an interest in 
raising but one or two trees apiece, 
the pleasure derived from this 
work will be just as great as if he 
tried to raise a hundred or a 
thousand; and think of the large 
nupiber of trees that would be set 
out, even if only one or two are 
planted each year by each pupil! 

The first thing necessary to start 
a tree nursery is to have some p, 

seed, and the next is to have a 

suitable place in which to sow it. Let us begin with a very few kinds 
of trees and see whether we can be successful with these ; perhaps we can 

Rural School Leaflet 955 

attempt later to raise the more difficult kinds. The seeds that are easiest 
to gather are those of the oaks, the nuiples, the locust, the ash, the 
hickories, and the beech. 

The soft maple matures its seed in the spring, from the first to the middle 
of June. The hard maple, and all of the other trees mentioned, mature 
their seeds in the fall and must be gathered in the fall. In practically 
all cases, tree seeds must be gathered chiefly by hand. Certain classes 
of them, such as locust seeds, acorns, and hickory nuts, which fall readily 
with the wind and frost, may be gathered from the grotmd after they have 
fallen. The seeds of the hard maple and the ash should be picked from 
the tree or collected from the ground as soon as they fall. 

Storing the seeds. — The hulls of soed^ such as walnuts and hickory nuts 
:an be dried and removed, and the r.wXts spread out to dry in a cool, 
airy place. Acorns from those kinds of oaks whose acorns are difficult 
to remove from their cups may be left in storage with the cups attached. 
The seeds will keep better if allowed to dry slightly, so as to avoid molding. 
The interval between collecting and storing for winter may be used to 
dry the seeds. 

The best way to keep seeds is to store them in bags hung in a dry cellar, 
or to ** stratify " them in sand in a pit out of doors. This pit should be 
situated on raised ground, so as to insure good drainage, and it is often 
desirable to provide protection against mice and squirrels by means of 
wire netting or boards. Cover the bottom with a layer of clean sand, 
two or three inches deep. On this spread a layer of nuts, and then 
another layer of sand, until all the seeds are stored. The whole should 
be covered with earth to a depth of four to six inches. A mulch of 
leaves and hay spread on top, and then boards or stones to keep from 
washing, may be an advantage. The freezing that takes place during the 
winter will not injure the seeds, but rather will assist in opening the hard 
shells, thus making germination easier in the spring. 

Preparing the seed bed. — In the spring preparations should be made for 
sowing the seeds in seed beds. The size of the plat of grotind needed will 
depend, of course, on the amount of seed to be sown and the number of 
pupils who are to sow the seed and maintain the beds. Level or gently 
sloping ground is preferred to steep grotmd, in order to prevent washing. 
Ground that has been under cultivation for a year or more is better than 
fresh ground, if you are sure that it is free from cutworms and is in good 
condition. A loose sandy loam is preferable to a clay, and it is most impor- 
tant that the soil should be rich, mellow, porous, and well drained. The 
ground should be spaded deeply, worked over, and thoroughly pulverized 
by raking and harrowing until all clods, stones, and rubbish have been 

956 Rural School Leaflet 

As a rtile, the seeds of the broad-leaved trees should be planted in rows 
about 1 2 to 1 8 inches apart. This will allow plenty of room for cultivation 
after the seedlings have begun to come up. A square rod of ground will 
accommodate ii rows i8 inches apart, and each row should be able to 
grow successftilly about 50 seedlings, making a capacity of 550 trees for 
the plat. This, of course, is for hardwoods, and it is recommended that 
the children experiment with them in preference to the conifers, which are 
much more liable to disease and more difficult to raise. 

Time of planting. — Early spring is usually the best time to plant tree 
seeds, except those of species such as the silver maple, red maple, white 
elm, and any others that mature in the late spring. It would be diflficult 
to keep t!:cse seeds over the summer, and consequently they should be 
planted as soon as they mature. White oak acorns should be planted 
in the fall. If they are kept over winter only a few of them will germi- 
nate, and such as do germinate will be slow in getting started; but, as 
a general rule, the sowing of most tree seeds should be done as early in 
the spring as the ground can be worked. 

Nuts and acorns of good quality may be planted two or three inches 
apart in the row, while smaller seeds, such as those of the maples, ashes, 
and ehns, should be spaced about a half inch or an inch apart. The depth 
of planting should never be greater than twice the average diameter of 
the seeds. It is better that they should be planted a little too shallow than 
too deep, because if planted too deep the sprout is often tumble to push 
its way through the soil. 

Cultivation. — Care must be taken to see that weeds are frequently 
removed, and the more attention and cultivation that can be given through- 
out the summer, the better will be the results at the end of the growing 
season. If rains do not furnish enough moisture, the beds should be watered 
once or twice a week. A mere sprinkling of water will not do. Whenever 
the moisture fails, a liberal watering should be given; and in order to pre- 
vent too rapid evaporation, watering either in the early morning or late 
in the afternoon is the best. 

After the first season it may be desirable to protect the trees during 
the winter by a mulch of straw or leaves, which should be six inches to a 
foot in depth and held in place by poles or slats to prevent the wind from 
blowing it away. 

Transplanting. — When the trees are one year old, all except the \^vy 
slowest-growing are ready to be transplanted from the seed bed to a trans- 
plant bed, or to a small plantation where they can still have some care 
and attention. During this second year, they should have more room for 
the development of both root and crown. The protection afforded by 
older trees is often of great value; therefore, if possible, the transplant 

Rural School Leaflet 957 

bed may be partially shaded by a row or grove of older trees. Spring 
is tisually the best season of the year in which to transplant trees. Care 
shotild be taken to see that they are transplanted before the growing season 
begins, in order not to interrupt the spring growth. In removing the 
seedlings from the seed bed, great care is necessary to secure all the root- 
lets of the seedling. It is best to put a spade into the soil five or six inches 
to one side of the young tree and pry it up, bringing with it considerable 
of the earth about the rootlets. In this way the tree may be removed 
without danger of destroying too many of the small roots. 

Some trees, such as the hickories and the oaks, have a large taproot. 
This may be reduced by cutting off about one third. The top of the seed- 
lings should be trimmed back until it is approximately the same size as 
the root system. During the course of transplanting the young seedlings 
from the seed bed to the transplant bed, great care must be taken to pro- 
tect the rootlets from the action of sun and wind. It is best to select 
a cloudy or damp day, and even then the use of wet burlap or other coarse 
cloth in which to wrap the roots is strongly advised. The transplant 
bed, or bed in which the one-year-old seedlings are to be temporarily set 
out, should be prepared in the same manner as described for the seed 
bed. The trees, however, should be spaced more widely. The rows may 
be made two to three feet apart, and the trees spaced about one foot apart 
in the row. This allows of easy cultivation. If the grotmd is very dry 
when the transplanting is done, it would be well to dig the hole in which 
the tree is to be set and fill it with water some time beforehand, in order 
to be sure that the soil aroimd the roots is moist. A mulch of two to three 
inches in depth, composed of loose, fine dirt, or a mixttu-e of dirt and leaves, 
may be left around the tree in order to conserve the moisture after the 
tree is transplanted. 

The trees will be ready for final planting at the end of the second year. 
Especially the trees with large taproots, such as the hickories and the 
oaks, should be set out at the end of the second year, otherwise the labor 
involved in transplanting is difficult and expensive. The planting should 
be done in a manner to conform with the object of the plantation. If the 
purpose is to beautify the ground around the home, it will be better to 
group the trees in favorable position rather than to plant in formal rows. 
If it is desired to fill up gaps in the woodlot, the larger openings may be 
used in which to plant the trees. If, however, the purpose of the planta- 
tion is for a windbreak or some similar use, it may be advisable to plant 
in either double or triple rows. 

Editor's note. — Should any teacher in New York State obtain results 
in propagating trees in the school garden, we should like to know 
about it. 

958 Rural School Leaflet 

H. B. Knapp 


cultivated cherry is not a native of this country; it came 

m southeastern Europe, where many of our fruits 

ginated. There are many species of the cherry growing 

d in the United States. A few of these give promise of 

ng useful and valuable some day, but as yet they do 

t compare with those from the Old World, 

rhis fruit is steadily growing in importance. There are 

eady a large nimiber of cherry orchards in western New 

York and in other sections of the United States. The 

fruit is tised chiefly for canning, and is a very delicious fruit for this 


Cherries may be divided into two groups — the sweet and the sour. 
The trees differ greatly in appearance and in habits of growth. The sweet 
cherries are large, vigorous, upright-growing trees with reddish brown 
bark, which separates in rings. The flowers appear at the same time as 
the leaves. The sour cherries are low-growing trees with spreading, bushy 
heads, much resembling in size and shape the head of the peach tree. 
The flowers appear before the leaves. It is the sour cherry that is 
chiefly grown on a commercial scale, although the sweet cherry is 
gaining in favor for this purpose. 

Both sweet and sour cherries are divided into groups, and these groups 
in tiuTi are made up of different varieties. There are four distinct groups 
of sweet cherries : the Mazzards, which grow wild in eastern United States, 
not desirable in themselves but furnishing good stocks for other groups; 
the Hearts, large, soft, heart-shaped cherries, either light or dark in color, 
represented by the Black Tartarian and Governor Wood; the Bigarreaus, 
also heart-shaped, but very firm and meaty, the Napoleon Bigarieau being 
a common variety; and finally, the Dukes, light-colored, not so sweet as 
the other groups, and represented by the May Dtoke. These classes have 
been mixed by crossing, imtil now it is very difficult in many cases to tell 
in which group a variety belongs. 

The sour cherries are separated into the Amarelles and the Morellos. 
The Amarelles are light red cherries with uncolored juice, the Early Rich- 
ir.ond and Montmorency being well-known varieties. The Morellos are 
dark red, more acid than the Amarelles, and have a colored juice. The 
English Morello, grown for so many years, belongs to this last-named 

Rural School Leaflet 959 

The cherry is propagated by budding, in the same way as are the apple 
and pear. The stocks used are the Mazzard, which has been mentioned, 
and the Mahaleb, a European species. Of the two stocks the Mazzard 
is the better, because it makes a larger, more vigorous tree. The nursery- 
man prefers to use the Mahaleb, however, as it effects a union with the 
sdon more readily and does better in the ntirsery row. Cherry trees are 
usually set out at two years from the bud, although one-year-old trees 
may be used. Sour cherries are set 16 to 18 feet apart, and the larger- 
growing sweet cherries are planted 25 to 30 feet apart. 

The tree does not require much pruning. Most of the fruit is borne 
on spurs on two- or three-year wood, although spurs are found on much 
older wood. Some fruit is often found at the base of the one-year wood, 
and these cherries are usually the largest and best. These do not grow 
on spurs, but come from a single bud; consequently, as soon as the fruit 
is borne, no further growth takes place. This accounts for the long, bare 
spaces often found at the base of the one-year wood.. In general, we 
do not wish to encourage a large amoimt of wood growth in a single year, 
and as heavy pruning induces wood growth we prune but lightly. Three 
to five branches are used to form the head. In the sweet cherry the 
central-growing shoot, or leader, is removed, in order to keep the head as 
close to the ground as possible. The head of the sour cherry is thinned 
out and cut back but little. 

Cherries thrive in a warm, well-drained soil that is not too heavy. A 
gravel is suitable for most varieties, although the sour cherries do better 
on the heavier soils than do the sweet cherries. Clean culttire should 
always be practiced. The cultivation should be shallow, as the roots are 
close to the surface. A cover crop should be sown in midsummer, to remain 
on the ground until the following spring. 

Cherries are picked a few days before they are fully ripe. They should 
always be picked with the stems on imless they are to be canned at once. 
They should be gathered by the stems instead of by the fruit. The small, 
one-quart baskets are commonly used, and these are placed in larger 

The cherry tree will thrive with as little care as any of our fruit trees, 
and responds as readily to skillful treatment. It should be planted on 
every fann or in every garden. 


The quince is not a native of this country, its first home being in Asia 
and southeastern Europe. It has been known and used for at least two 
thousand years. In spite of this fact, the fruit does not compare in impor- 
tance with our other common fruits, the apple, pear, peach, cherry, and 
plum. This may be explained in part by the fact that the quince is not 

g6o Rural School Leaflet 

a pleasant nor an agreeable fruit to eat in its fresh or raw state. It is 
used chiefly for canning and making jelly. 

The quince is a short, bushy-growing plant, seldom reaching a height 
of more than 15 feet. If allowed to grow as it will, it often resembles a 
bush more than a tree, but by careful pruning the tree shape may be 
obtained. The growth each year is short and much .twisted and distorted, 
tmlike the straight, shapely shoots of the cherry and the peach. The 
leaves are oval, dark green above, and downy below. The quince is very 
closely related to the apple and the pear, belonging to the same family, 
but it is not quite so hardy as these fruits. The fruit is five-celled, like 
the apple and pear, and contains several seeds in each cell. All the fruit 
is borne on wood of the same season's growth. In other words, when 
the buds begin growth in the spring they form leafy shoots, and on these 
shoots the blossoms soon appear. The flowers, which are borne singly, 
resemble closely those ot the apple, but are larger and more showy. They 
shade from pure white to a distinct pink, and are so attractive that the 
quince is sometimes kept for a flowering shrub. 

The quince thrives best in a rich, rather moist but well-drained soil 
that contains a small amount of clay. Sandy soils are not so suitable, 
as they dry out very quickly. The young trees should be set 12 to 15 
feet apart, depending on the variety and the richness of the soil. Clean 
culttu-e should always be practiced, but cultivation should cease shortly 
after midsummer, in order that the wood may be mature and hard before 
cold weather comes. It is always well to sow a cover crop of rye, buck- 
wheat, or cowpeas, to remain on the ground during the winter and pro- 
tect the roots, which are very close to the surface. 

The quince is propagated in a number of ways. One of the most com- 
mon methods is by budding, as with the apple and pear. Another common 
method is by mound layering, which is performed in the following manner: 
In the spring the bush is cut back so severely that many new shoots are 
sent out during the summer. The next spring, the earth is heaped or 
mounded around these shoots, leaving but a few inches above the surface 
of the soil. These shoots take root, and the following fall or spring they 
are separated from the parent plant and set out. 

The pruning consists in keeping the head fairly open to air and sunlight 
and in cutting the young wood back each year in order to thin the fruit 
and to insure a good growth of wood for the succeeding season. 

The fruit is extremely tender, bruising very easily, and therefore must 
be handled with great care. It ripens at about the same time as the pear, 
or even later. It is marketed in peck baskets, in bushel kegs, or in half- 
barrels. The most common varieties are the Orange, the Champion, and 
the Rea. 

The quince is easy to grow and should be planted in every home garden. 

Rural School Leaflet 961 


L. H. Bailey 

Qxuck smell of the earth, I am come once more 
To the feel of th' soil and the sky before 
To the tang of th' ditch and wif t of the bough 
With stamp of my team and grip of my plow. 

I am blowing again with th' wind and rain 

I am falling with f rOst and snow 
Yearning once more with the fields that have lain 

Through the months of the drouth and flow, — 
You shall hear the clank of my plow and chain 

Where my hard-harnessed horses throw 
And follow the welts that I rip in twain 

As I turn up the lands below. 

Jangle and crunch in the far-windy mom 

Cut and grind through the singing sod 
Stone and high-hummock and thistle and thorn 

Root and stubble and rolling clod 
Puddles that break into furrows foreshom 

Helm of the handles, plow-point's prod, — 
With hale of great harvests my bouts are borne 

Over th' vasts of the glebes of God. 

Mete to the mark are my furrows full-set 
Hard with the muscle and marrow and sweat 
Straightforth is the way and the fields are rife 
High over the heights of the hills of life. 

962 Rural School Leaflet 

" Away with clocks and sttn-dialsl Time and I 
Have made a compact — this to be my boon — 
To hear the evening thrush, and know tke hour. 
Yet fed it noon." 


Rural School Leaflet 963 


Tnfe Editor 

A naturalist, writer, farmer, living and working in oui' time; such a man 
is John Burroughs, and every boy and girl shovdd know something of the 
life he leads in his home, Slabsides, and of his rich contribution to the 
nature literatiire of the world. A deep sincerity marks his personality 
and work. 

Every teacher should try to have in the rural school library three or 
four volumes of Burroughs's works. When the weather permits, he might 
take the boys and girls out of doors and read a chapter or two selected to 
meet the age of the children. The simplicity of the life of this great man 
and his way of nature seeking will be suggestive to both teacher and 

Burroughs says that he is not always in sympathy with nature-study 
as it is taught in the schools. " Such study," he states, " is too cold, too 
special, too mechanical; it is likely to rub the bloom off nature; it misses 
the accessories of the open air and its exhilarations, the sky, the clouds, 
the landscape, and the currents of life that pulse everywhere." This 
message should be considered by teachers. The schoolroom work should 
always be suggestive for live out-cf-door interest and intelligent observa- 

By courtesy of the Atlantic Mofithly we are able to present the following 
excerpts from an article entitled " Fifty Years of John Burroughs," by 
Dallas Lore Sharp: 

•* Take Mr. Burroughs's work as a whole, and it is beyond dispute the 
most complete, the most revealing, of all our outdoor literatiu-e. His 
pages Ke open like the surface of a pond, sensitive to every wind, or calm as 
the sky, holding the clouds and the distant blue, and the dragon-fly, stiff- 
winged and pinned to the golden knob of a spatter-dock. 

"All outdoor existence, all outdoor phenomena, are deeply interesting 
to him. There is scarcely a form of outdoor life, scarcely a piece of land- 
scape, or natural occurrence, characteristic of the Eastern States, which 
has not been dealt with suggestively in his pages: the rabbit under his 
porch; the paleozoic pebble along his path; the salt breeze borne inland 
by the Hudson; the flight of an eagle; the whirl of a snow-storm; the work 
of the honeybees ; the processions of the seasons over Slabsides ; even the 
abundant soil out of which he and his grapes grow and which, * incor- 
ruptible and undefiled,' he calls divine. 

" Mr. BiuTOughs is not an idylist but an essayist, with a love for books 
only second to his love for nature; a watcher in the woods, a tiller of the 

964 Rural School Leaflet 

soil, a reader, critic, thinker, poet, whose chief business these fifty years 
has been the interpretation of the out-of-doors. 

" For my part, when I take up an outdoor book I am glad if there is 
quiet in it, fragrance, and something of the sameness and sweetness of 
the sky. * * * There is a clear sky to most of Mr. Burroughs's pages, 
a rural landscape, wide, gently rolling, with cattle standing beneath the 

" Not many men ought to live by the pen alone. A steady diet of 
inspiration and words is hard on the literary health. The writing should 
be varied with some good wholesome work, actual hard Work for the hands ; 
not so much, perhaps, as one would find in an eighteen-acre vine;) ard, yet 
Mr. Burroughs*s eighteen acres have certainly proved no check — ^rather, 
indeed, a stimulus — to his writing. He seems to have gathered a volume 
out of every acre; and he has put a good acre into every volume. Fresh 
Fields is the name of one of the volumes. Leaf and Tendril of another; 
but the freshness of his fields, the leaves and the tendrils of his vineyard, 
enter into them all. The grapes of the vineyard are in them also. 

" Here is a growth of books out of the soil that have been trimmed, 
trained, sprayed, and kept free from rot. Such books may not be alto- 
gether according to the public taste; they will keep, however, until the 
public acquires a better taste. Sound, ripe, fresh, early and late, a full 
crop! Has the vineyard anything to do with it? 

" It is not every farmer who should go to writing, nor every writer who 
should go to farming; but there is a mighty waste of academic literature, 
of prematura, of chicken-licken literature, because the writers do not 
know a spade when they see one, would not call it that if they knew, and 
need to do less writing and more farming, more real work with their hands 
in partnership with the elemental forces of nature, or in comradeship with 
average elemental man — the only species extant of the quality to make 
writing worth while. 

** Mr. Burroughs has had this labor, this comradeship. HSs writing is 
seasoned and sane. It is ripe, and yet as fresh as green com with the dew 
in the silk. You have eaten com on the cob just from the stalk and 
steamed in its own husk? Green com that is com, that has all its milk 
and sugar and fliavor, is cob and kernel and husk, not a stripped ear that 
is cooked with the kitchen air. 

'* Literature is often stripped of its human husk, and cut from its human 
cob: the man gone, the writer left; the substance gone, the style left — 
com that tastes as much like com as it tastes like puffed rice — which 

Rural School Leaflet 965 

tastes like nothing at all. There is the sweetness of the husk, the flavor 
of the cob, the substance of the com to Mr. Burroughs." 

Following is a list of school editions of the works of Burroughs, so inex- 
pensive that they may be purchased by any rural district in New York 
State. They will make a valuable addition to any nature library. Every 
school should start a library fund to which the pupils make some contri- 
bution. Boys and girls will be interested in books that they help to buy. 

Paper Linen 

Birds and Bees 15c 

Sharp Eyes, and Other Papers 15c. 25c. 

Birds and Bees and Sharp Eyes in one volume 40c. 

A Bunch of Herbs and Other Papers. , 15c. .... 

Afoot and Afloat 15c. 25c. 

Bird Stories from Burroughs 60c. 

Squirrels and Other Fur Bearers 60c. 

Houghton Mifflin Company 

4 Park Street 

Boston, Mass. 



From Old the white and pulsing storm 
I hear the snow-birds calling; 

The sheeted winds stalk o*er the hills. 
And fast the snow is falling. 

" Like children laughing at their play 
I hear the birds a-twitter. 
What care they that the skies are dim 
Or that the cold is bitter? 

" cheery bird of winter cold, 
I bless thy every feather; 
Thy voice brings back dear boyhood days 
When we were gay together.'* 


Again the sun is over aUt 
Again the robin's evening caU 

Or early morning lay, 
I hear the stir about the farms, 
I see the earth with open arms, 

I feel the breath of May.'' 


The cradlers twain, with right good-will 
Leave golden lines across the hul 

Beneath the midday sun. 
The cattle dream 'neath leafy tent. 
Or chew the cud of sweet content 

Knee-deep in pond or run,** 

966 Rlral School Leaflet 



The Editor 

Tliere was a child went forth every day; 

And the first object he looVd upon, that object he became; 

And that object became part of him for the day, or a certain part of the day, or for many 

years, or stretching cycles of years. 
The early lilacs became part of mis child, 
And grass, and white and red morning-glories, and white and red clover, and the song cf 

the phabe-bird. 
And the third-month lambs, and the sow*s pinh-faint litter, and the mare's foal, and the 

cow's calf, 
And the noisy brood of the barn-yard ♦♦•♦♦♦ 
And the apple-trees covered with blossoms, and the fruit afterward, and wood-berries, and 

the commonest weeds by the road; ♦•♦*•• 
And the school-mistress that passed on her way to the school, ♦•♦♦♦• 
The village on the highland, seen from afar at sunset — the river between. 
Shadows, aureola, and mist, the tight falling on roofs and gables of white or brown, three 

miles off, ♦••••** 
These became part of that child who went forth every day, and who now goes, and will c^ways 

go forth every day. 


Throughout the United States eflEort is being made to have school sur- 
roundings fitting places for boys and girls. New York State should be 
one of the foremost in this movement so vital to better citizenship. Every 
individual who takes part in such philanthropic work will be making 
history that will count toward progress through all time. 

The matter of consolidation of rural schools is being considered in many 
places and seems to be a wise plan for some communities. There are, 
however, many persons who feel that the rural school, if properly cared 
for and vmder the direction of a wise teacher, has many advantages over 
the consolidated schools. Which is the better will doubtless be demon- 
strated in the future. At present it is the duty of every individtial in 
country districts to take an interest in the school surroundings, whether 
the plan for consolidation be worked out or whether the district school 
be made a place in which boys and girls are getting the educational oppor- 
tunity that is their right. 

To tell what can be done and what should be done to improve school 
buildings and groimds, is not so convincing as to tell what has been done. 
We wish, therefore, to call attention to improvements made in a rural 
school in the neighborhood of Canandaigua. All persons interested in 
the development of the rural schools of New York State will be impressed 
with the restdts of the efforts made by Mr. C. F. Booth and his associates • 
of Canandaigua, who have placed before the State a concrete piece of 
work that reflects credit on the public spirit and is certainly a most valuable 
contribution to thd entire neighborhood. Doubtless, in many other 

Rural School Le.\flet 967 

The old and the new rural uhnol building. District No. g, Caruindai%ua 


DtiT./(09 CArtAflDAiGUA./<V. 


R.otHe»Te«, . « Y 

Plan (^ tht new buildine 

968 Rural School Leaflet 

districts in this State philanthropists are ready to help in developing more 
attractive school surroundings. We hope that the article by Mr. Booth 
in this issue of the leaflet will give inspiration for a beginning. It would 
be well to note particularly, in connection with the improvement of the 
Canandaigua school, the following: 

1. A good architect was employed. 

2. The planting is of such nature that it will be of great educational 
value to the boys and girls, as well as an ornamental landscape feature 
that will benefit the entire community. 

3. The library has a fireplace. 

4. In the new plan proper lighting was considered. 

5. There are good blackboards. 

6. A color scheme was carried out. 

7. There was consideration of the teacher's comfort. 

8. Individual enameled drinking cups are provided. 

9. There is an endowment fund, the interest of which will be used for 
the future care of the groimds. 


C. F. Booth 

Before any improvements were made in the rural school building of 
District No. 9, but little could be said of the place in which the boys and 
girls were spending the greater part of their young lives. The schoolhousc 
consisted of a one-room structure, built in 18 19, with the usual stove 
in the center. The grounds were completely occupied by the building. 
The outbuildings were partially in the highway on borrowed territory. 

The present school building has grounds consisting of an acre of good 
land, graded and terraced, with b. hedge of Lombardy poplars (100 trees) 
in the rear and on the side of the lot, forming an attractive background 
for the white building. There are nine elms, one white pine, eight Nor- 
way maples, one Norway spruce, three hemlocks, one English walnut, 
twenty-four dogwood trees, one shrub of white honeysuckle, twenty-four 
shrubs of spiraea, twenty-four Dorothy Perkins rosebushes, twenty-four 
shrubs of barberry. The plan of the new building, page 175, will explain 
itself. The light is from the east and north of the schoolroom. There is a 
slate blackboard on the west side and another back of the teacher's desk. 

The color scheme is as follows: the ceiling, and the side walls as far down 
as the picture molding, are cream color; the main part of the room, pale 
green; the library, terra cotta; the fireplace in the library, red pressed brick. 

In the library are bookcases and a private locker for the teacher, a 
lavatory bowl, and individual drinking cups. 

Rural School Leaflet 969 

lAbrary t^ At new btaiding 

970 Rural School Leaflet 

In order to do good work one must be inspired by a good motive. My 
reason for the work in District No. 9, Canandaigua, was that the school- 
house and its grounds were the most neglected places in the neighbor- 
hood. A beautiful lake shore drive passing homes with all modem improve- 
ments whi<^ were a pleasure to look on, presented in marked contrast 
the place in which boys and girls, the best assets from these homes, were 
receiving their education. The schoolhouse was built in 1819, the deed 
calling for no more ground than that on which the building was to stand. 
The outhouses were on land that belonged to the public highway. 

Section of library. Note indioidwi drinking cups 

At the time I took up the work, many of the school patrons felt that the 
wisest plan was to close the school and send the pupils to the town, I do 
not believe in this method when it is possible to avoid it, I believe that 
children are better cared for. near their homes than when they go to and 
from school in a caii-yall with an indifferent driver and no supervision: 
re m ai n ing in town all day, where in order to maintain order and a fair 
citizenship we must have churches, Y. M, C. A,'s, and a police force. 

Very often the reason for closing the rural school and sending the children 
to town is because it is cheaper and the patrons are not willing to assume 
the duties of the school and dignify those duties by their interest and 

Rural School Leaflet 971 

cooperation. In our district to-day, I am happy to say that we are hear- 
ing little of the closing of rural schools. 

One of the first things that I did was to ask Mr. F. G. Benham, who 
owned the farm of which the school lot was a part, to give us an acre of 
land. This was at once granted on condition that I could carry out the 
plan of improvement. I then appealed to the citizens of the village, who 
enjoy the lake drive, for help in the enterprise and received $300. A 
meeting of the taxpayers was next called, at which a resolution accepting 
the money and land was passed and a levy of $2,000 made. Then, with 
the united efforts of school commissioner and people, we accomplished the 
election of a trustee in sympathy with the work we were trjring to perform. 

With the gift of land and money, and $2,000 of the district money, we 
went to work. We had an engineer of good standing to lay out the grounds, 
and I think this was a most important step. We next engaged a good 
architect, who said at once that our plans could not be carried out with 
the amount of money we had. I told him that I was raised on a farm and 
never lifted a stone when I could roll one, and I believed we could do it. 
I proceeded, however, to get more interest and help. The workmen 
entered into the spirit of the thing, working hard and overtime and deduct- 
ing a goodly amount from their bills. By the end of the year all was 
finished and paid for. 

But this is not all. Later there was donated to the school' a swing, 
which is a beginning in the interest of recreation apparatus for the boys 
and girls. We then remembered that we had a friend in the gas and oil 
business. I asked him if he would like to have the honor of presenting 
us with a steel flagpole. As a demonstration of his response, we now have 
a flag Airing from a 40-foot steel pole set in concrete. There are many 
persons who like to do things if they have definite understanding of the 
need and value of their contributions. 

We are now planning for an endowment fund, the interest of which 
will be used for the care and improvement of the school grounds, the 
district to look out for the building. The raising of an endowment fund 
is valuable for the community. It means looking ahead, a consideration 
of the futtire. The school will work for it; the people will work for it. 

We want to raise $1,000 for this fund. At my lake home last stunmer 
an entertainment was held for the first annual endowment fund benefit. 
This will bring together each year patrons and friends of the school in the 
interest of an educational enterprise. 

Editor's note. — ^We shall be glad to hear from every rural district in 
which improvement of schoolhouse and grounds has been made within 
the past five years. Photographs will be helpfid in using such infor- 
njation for the benefit of others. 

Rural School Leaflet 

Edward M. Tuttlh 

The first pages of this leaflet contain the point of view from which 
we regard the work in Nature-Study and Elementary Agriculture. Fol- 
lowing this are notes outlining the work for the year and presenting 
certain fundamental considerations. We shall now mention some specific 
ideas that may be of value to the teacher who desires to secure the interest 
of his pupils and the cooperation of the community. While we are particu- 
larly concerned with the work in Nature-Study and Elementary Agri- 
culture, we are in nq sense blind to the fact that it is but one portion of 
the school curriculum. With this in mind we venture to make the follow- 
ii^ suggestions, not as our own. but as a result of the experience of persons 
who have actually been successful in this work. 

I. H<yw to secure interest. — In many schools the work with nature is 
new and teachers find difficulty in securing active response from their 
pupils. It seems that once an interest is created, the expansion of the 
subject is very simple. To secure the first attention a comprehensive 
and detailed examination of some one or two common objects has been 
found valuable. Something that the children see every day of their 
lives should be taken and carefully studied with them. The exercise 
will reveal facts regarding the object which the children have never before 
realized. After one or two repetitions this appears to create a spontane- 
ous desire to see whether other familiar objects possess characteristics 
usually hidden from the ordinary observer. Once this spirit of inquiry' 
is gained and when it is guided and directed by the teacher, the rest follows 
naturally. This presupposes that the teacher is prepared. One of the 
most significant remarks that has recently come to our attention was made 
by a teacher of thirtji years service with notable success, who, when 
asked what was the secret of her work, said, " I try to be always ready " 
— ready, that is, to cooperate intelligently with the pupils in their efforts 
to name and explain things. 

Rural School Leaflet 973 

2. The teacher* s responsibility, — We are more and more impressed 
with the responsibility borne by those who guide the developing years 
of children. To be the means of helping a single individtial to truly 
find life in its all-round wholesome fullness is a privilege, which with 
most teachers is multiplied many times. The child's mind is very imita- 
tive and it is most surprising to see how much it is influenced by the 
teacher whom he sees each day. Literally hundreds of children's letters 
that have come to us during the past twelve months have contained 
near the end one very significant sentence, always in the same few words — 
" My teacher is very neat." What an opportunity to keep before the 
pupils character and personal habits that are worthy of imitation! 

3. The community. — There come to us constantly two points of view, 
as follows: the trustees and the community deplore the incompetency 
of the teacher and the consequent lade of progress by the children; the 
teachers complain against the low salaries and the lack of appreciation 
of their efforts on the part of the community. It would seem that often 
both are partly right, yet the burden in the task of improving conditions 
lies with the teacher. First, he must be willing to give more service 
than he is paid for. Then he must endeavor, by frequent contact and 
absolute openness, to sectuie the confidence of trustees and parents. Too 
often the latter are in the dark as to the piuposes that the teacher has in 
mind and are consequently qtdck to brand as a fad any departure from the 
customary school work. But let the teacher meet the trustees informally 
and outline his plans and talk things over, and let hitn meet the parents 
collectively in a meeting at the schoolhouse and individually outside; 
and if he is earnest in his desire and serious in his purpose to do his best, 
confidence will not long be withheld. Entire frankness and a ready 
spirit of cooperation and unselfishness will go a long way toward improv- 
ing matters. It would follow also that the teacher's opportimity to do 
effective work increases in proportion to the length of time during which 
he has been associated with the children and the commimity. Thus, 
a second year in the same school is more valuable in its results than the 
first year and this is increasingly true with each succeeding year. We 
realize that it is often difiicult for the teacher to remain in the same school 
owing to the necessity for earning more money, which the community 
is unwilling to pay. It has been demonstrated, however, that if the 
teacher who has first made it his business to give his best service will 
then meet the commtmity halfway, a compromise can be effected and 
a gradually increasing salary established. Once such a tendency as this 
is established, the rural commtmity takes pride in its own progressiveness. 
This is a desirable end toward which to strive. It is, however, quite 
clear that the teacher must be the one to take the initial step, and that 

974 Rural School Leaflet 

this can be done only when there is present an unselfish ambition to render 
service without thought of immediate recognition of worth. Later, 
even though the recognition is no more sought than at first, it will usually 
be given. 

4. The schoolhouse and grounds. — Something has already been said 
in this leaflet regarding the importance of having the schoolhouse and the 
school grounds clean and attractive. On page 176 is an article illus- 
trative of the success of one school in this line. With a little encourage- 
ment from the teacher, the children will come to feel a pride in having 
pleasant surroundings and there are many ways in which they can help 
to ntiake and keep them so. We should like to see a general movement 
throughout the State to acquire more land around school buildings. Too 
often one sees a school yard sixty feet square when there are open fields 
on three sides. Land is a desirable school asset. It affords opportunity 
to do a little attractive planting around the building; it gives a much- 
needed and proper place for recreation that is essential even in the country; 
and it serves as a place to conduct a few simple experiments in elementary 
agriculture, which will tmdoubtedly differ from any home operation 
and which will serve as a practical application of the ideas suggested in 
the schoolroom. Land costs little to maintain; the first cost is the only 
large item. Ten, twenty, thirty years from now many a rural community 
will be glad to have a good-sized piece of ground for school property. The 
time to make provision for this is now. The teacher might well take the 
first step by talking the matter over with the trustees and parents. 

5. Aids to the study of nature. — A museum which will provide a place 
for the collection and exhibition of specimens is a valuable help in this 
work. It may be started in a very simple way by putting things on a 
shelf. Later a small cabinet may be available. It is interesting and 
surprising to us all to find how many things there are when we see them 
all at once. In last year's leaflet we printed the following list as sugges- 
tive of collections that might be made: 

(i) The different t3rpes of soil found in the neighborhood: sand, silt, 
clay, muck, and sandy, silty, and day loams. 

(2) Common seeds of vegetables, flowers, and farm crops. 

(3) Common grasses: timothy, redtop, meadow fescue, Kentucky 
blue grass, orchard grass. 

(4) Common legumes of the farm and garden: red, white, and alsike 
clovers, alfalfa, peas, beans, vetch, soy beans. 

(5) Common cereals: com, wheat, oats, rye, barley, buckwheat. 

(6) Ears of com: flint, dent, pop, sweet. Procure ears showing the 
qualities that good ears should have. A lesson in com judging may 
profitably be given. 

Rural School Leaflet 97£ 

(7) Fertilizers: nitrate of soda, dried blood, ground bone, acid phos- 
phate, muriate of potash, and as many others as are used in the neighbor- 

(8) Feeds for farm animals: bran, middlings, gluten feed, buckwheat 
middUngs, and others in use. The local feed merchants and seedmen 
might lend their aid in supplying samples of these feeds as well as samples 
of fertilizers and seeds. 

(g) Fruit. In the fall, different varieties of apples, pears, plums, 
and grapes could be collected, probably with much enthusiasm by the 
children. Part of an afternoon could be given for a short talk on fruit 
growing by a local fruit-grower, after which the samples of fruit could 
be eaten. Similar collections of root crops and vegetables might be 
made, not with the idea of keeping them in the school for a long time 
but as one of the best means of teaching children to become familiar with 
the common things of their farms. 

(10) Flowers and weeds. These can be pressed and used as the basis 
for the school collection. Begin with the most common plants and enlarge 
the collection slowly in order that the children may become familiar 
with the plants studied. 

(11) Leaves of trees. Press the leaves of some of the most common 
trees, adding to the collection slowly enough for the children to leam 
as they go. 

Plants are always attractive and wherever possible they should be 
grown in the schoolroom. For this purpose a window box is good, 
especially one in which flowerpots are set instead of the plants being 
grown in the box. In this way the arrangement can be frequently changed, 
new plants added, or the individual plants taken home in cold weather. 

A terraritun is merely a box with screened sides and top, containing 
earth, stones, and plants in the bottom. In it can be kept any live animal 
that it is desired to study for a limited time. This is a handy method 
for close study. 

The Babcock milk test has met with great response wherever tried. 
The small four-bottle outfits cost $5 and can be obtained from any good 
dairymen's supply company. Many of the larger schools will find this 
a valuable piece of apparatus to own. We have four of these outfits, 
which it is our purpose to lend for a month at a time to those schools 
that apply for them. In this way we can reach some thirty-five schools 
during the year. If you desire one we shall be glad to place your name on 
the list. The only cost will be the express charge one way. 

We reprint from last year's leaflet the following, which we consider 
a very valuable line of work and which can be done largely outside of 
school by those interested: Encoxirage the pupils to take an interest 


976 Rural School Leaflet 

in all that relates to their own county. Have pupils begin work in con- 
nection with the county. Let one get all the information he can regard- 
ing the physiography: the highlands, lowlands, streams, lakes, and the 
like. Encourage him to find all he can from his own observation, from 
farmers, and from books, and to bring to school pictures of natural soenen' 
of his coimty. Another pupil might take the political geography of the 
county: townships, cities, villages, and what each contributes to state and 
national welfare. A third, the agricultural interest of the county : What 
successful farmers live in it ? What farms have specialized work ? What is 
the most important farm crop in the county? What important crops 
might be raised that are not now raised? What forest land does the 
county possess? How large is the grange in the county? What work 
does the grange accomplish for better living in the coimty? 

Lastly, every school should be steadily increasing its libiary. Books 
are the records of facts that we could not otherwise obtain, and as such 
they are worth caring for. Many teachers ask for a list of books on nature- 
study and elementary agriculture. We reprint, therefore, the list that 
we recommended a year ago, with some corrections and additions: 

(a) Write to The Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, 
asking to have the school placed on the mailing list for the monthly 
list of publications and to have the following sent to you: 

I set of Farmers' Bulletins suitable to the locality. 
I copy of the list of Publications for Free Distribution. 
I copy of the list of Publications for Sale. 

I copy of each of reprints of areas that have been surveyed by 
the Bureau of Soils in your State. 

(b) Write to The Geological Survey, Washington, D. C, enclosing 
15 cents in stamps and asking for the three geological survey maps that 
cover your region. 

(c) Write to the Mailing Department, College of Agriculture, Ithaca, 
N. Y., asking for complete sets of: 

Cornell Rural School Leaflets. 
Cornell Reading-Course Lessons for the Farm. 
Cornell Reading-Course Lessons for the Farm Home. 
In writing, state that these btdletins are desired for the school library. 

(d) Write to the Experiment Stations at Geneva and Ithaca, N. Y., 
for available bulletins and reports. Request also that the school be 
placed on their mailing lists. 

(e) Obtain the use of a Traveling Library from the State Educa- 
tion Department. These libraries are loaned to rural district schools 
and may be kept for the entire school year, the fee being $2 for 25 volumes 
and $1 for each additional 25 volumes. Write to the Division of Educa- 

Rural School Leaflet 977 

tional Extension, New York State Education Department, Albany, for 
information regarding the method of obtaining one of these traveling 

(f) Write to the nearest Weather Bureau office asking that a weather 
map frame be given your school and that weather maps be sent daily 
throughout the school year. In New York there are Weather Bureau 
stations at BufEalo, Albany, Binghamton, Ithaca, and New York City. 

Books for the library 

Traveling Library — Division of Educational Extension, State 

Education Department, Albany, N. Y., 50 volumes, loaned 

for the year I3 .00 

Nature Study Leaflets (bound volume) — Extension Department, 

College of Agricultiue, Ithaca, N. Y 30 

Burkett, Stevens, & Hill — Agriculture for Beginners, Ginn & Co., 

Boston 75 

Mann — Beginnings in Agriculture, The Macmillan Company, 

New York 75 

Bessey and others — New Elementary Agriculture, University 

Publishing Company, Lincoln, Nebr .60 

Hunt — Cereals in America, Orange Judd Company, New York. . i . 75 
Wmg — Milk and its Products, The Macmillan Company, New 

York 1 . 50 

Roberts — The Horse, The Macmillan Company, New York 1.25 

Henry — Feeds and Feeding, W. A. Henry, Madison, Wis. 2 .00 

Warren — Elements of Agriculture, The Macmillan Company, 

New York i . 10 

Bailey — Garden Making, The Macmillan Company, New York. . i .00 
Plumb — Types and Breeds of Farm Animals, Ginn & Co., 

Boston 2 .00 

Comstock — Handbook of Nature-Study, Comstock Publishing 

Company, Ithaca, N. Y., postage 35c 3.25 

Hodge — Natxire-Study and Life, Ginn & Co., Boston i . 50 

Keeler — Our Native Trees, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. . 2.00 
Mathews — Field Book of American Wild Flowers, G. P. Putnam's 

Sons, New York 1.75 

Blanchan — Bird Neighbors, Doubleday, Page & Co., New York. . 2 .00 
Comstock — Insect Life, Comstock Publishing Company, Ithaca, 

N. Y 1.7s 

Stone & Cram — Animal Life, Doubleday, Page & Co., New York. 3 . 00 

Burroughs — Songs of Nature, McClure, Phillips & Co., New York, i . 20 


Rural School I-£aflet 



Animal study 63-86 

Cat 63 

Cow, Lessons on the 65-79 

Food 80 

Fox 82 

Frog 86 

Goat 82 

Muskrat 85 

Notes— The Editor 63 

Skunk 83 

Bailey, L. H., I Plow (poem) 169 

Point of view 3 

Bird study 22-62 

Brown thrasher 36 

Cliff swallow 35 

Eagle, Bald 39 

Goldfinch 33 

Grackle 37 

Hen, The 40 

Meadow lark 38 

Migration table. Spring 25 

Notes — The Editor 23 

Nuthatch, White-breasted 26 

Orioles, Orchard and Baltimore. 31 

Peacock 32 

Phoebe 34 

Poultry lessons 46-62 

Warbler, Black-and-white 32 

Books 185 

Burroughs, John 170 

Com day 18 

District superintendent, The 19 

Editor's notes 7-21 

Granger, The 21 

Improvement of rural school build- 
ings and grounds 174-179 

Article — C. F. Booth. 176 

Notes — The Editor 174 

Insect study 87-1 13 

Aphids 108 

Apple-tree tent-caterpillar 93 

Bitmg insect, A 105 

Cabbage butterfly, The im- 
ported 105 

Cabbage louse and other aphids. 108 
Lady beetles. The 91 


Insect study — concluded 

Notes — The Editor 87 

Potato beetle. The Colorado. ... 87 

Spiders 9? 

Sucking insects 108 

Notes, Editor's 7-21 

Plant study 1 14-152 

Anemone 142 

Bindweed 145 

Black medick 139 

Cherry 141 

Clover, Alsike 151 

Daisy 141 

Grain, One 147 

Grass, One 149 

Marsh marigold 139 

Notes — The Editor 138 

Oats 147 

Partridge berry 141 

Pigweed 146 

Pitcher plant 139 

Potato, The 1 14-137 

Purslane 145 

Thistle 146 

Timothy 149 

Trillium 139 

Weeds 143 

Wild carrot 146 

Willow 140 

Point of view — L. H. Bailey 3 

Suggestions for teachers 180 

Syllabus, State 10 

Tree study 153-168 

Alder 161 

Cherry 166 

Ehn 161 

Fir 160 

Horse-chestnut 161 

Locust 154 

Our forests 153 

Poplar x62 

Propagating trees in school gar- 
dens 162 

Quince 167 

Spruce 160 

Tamaradc 160 


Rural ScKool Leaflet 


Vol. 6 


No. I 


The September number of the Rural 
School Leaflet contains subject matter 
in nature-study and agriculture as 
outlined by the New York State 
Syllabus for 191 2-1 91 3. This leaflet 
will be sent to every teacher in New 
York State who makes request for it. 
We ask that all city teachers desiring 
the leaflet apply first to their city 
superintendent. If he cannot supply 
a copy, apply to us. 

In addition to the September leaflet 
we shall issue leaflets for boys and 
girls in November, in January, and in March. On receipt of 
the pupils* names these leaflets will be sent to teachers and 
children in rural districts and in commtinities of three thousand 
inhabitants or less. 

We hope the teachers will encourage the children to write let- 
ters to Mr. Tuttle in reply to the leaflets, describing some experi* 
ence or asking questions that cannot be answered at home or in 
school. Each letter should give, in addition to the child's name 
and address, the name of the township and the number of the 
school district. 

In order to enable us to handle oiu" large correspondence and 
maiUng li^ts with promptness and accuracy, we urge that the 
teacher observe the following: 

1. Do not apply for other than the September leaflet unless 
you are a teacher in a rural district or in a community of three 
thousand inhabitants or less. . 

2. Send us on the attached blank (page 3) the names of all boys 
and girls in your school. Before returning the blank be sxire 
that it is properly filled out. 


980 Rural School Leaflet 

3. Be sure to give full name and address, together with town- 
ship and number of school district, in all commtmications sent 
to the College. 

We are very anxious to reach young men and yoimg women 
in rural districts. Last year we asked for the names of young 
men and received a large number. This year we want to obtain 
a Ust of young women. Will you send us, in the spaces below, 
a list of young women in your district between the ages of 14 
and 22 ? In doing this you will not only be giving us information 
that it would be diffictdt to obtain in any other way, but you 
will be coming into closer touch with your conmitmity. As soon 
as we are able to do so, a special message will be sent to these 
young persons. 

In spite of the fact that oiu* funds for the year are very much 
limited, we hope to cooperate with the teachers of the State in 
every way possible, working together in order that the year may 
be one of distinct progress toward a better rural education. 

Address all communications other than children's letters to 

(Miss) Alice G. McCloskey, 

College of Agriculture, 

Ithaca, N. Y. 


14 AND 22 

Rural School Leaflet 981 



Teacher's name. 

Post-office address.- 

Ntunber <rf school district 

Name of township.. 

Name of county. 

Name of district superintendent.-. 
Number of teachers in the school. 
Number of pupils in your charge... 


982 Rural School Leaflet 

Fill out and return to 

(Miss) Alice G. McCloskey, 

College op Agriculture, 

Ithaca, N. Y. 

Sly? QlnrnpU S^aJiiing-OIourBfa 


Published Semi-monthly by the New York St»te College of Agriculture K 
Cornell Univeraty. Throughout the Yeu. Applicatioa for BnCry u 
Second-Cten Matter >t the Post-Office at Ithtei, N. Y., Pending 

L. H. Bailev, Director 

CouasK FOB THE Pabu Hour \ Martha Van Rensselaer, Sttperviior 
t^uasK FOR THE FAWi HOME ^ j_j^ jp^ g Harrington. AssislaiU Supervisor 



Flora Rose 
This is called the " century of the child," for at last the world is awake 
to the fact that right care of little children must be regarded as a serious 
responability. At a time when agriculture and industry are advancing 
so rapidly, this question is receiving sincere attention: Is the welfare of 
the human baby of less importance to the prosperity of the home or the 
community than the welfare of crops or animals or inanimate machines? 

In many farm homes, the farmer has a wider and more scientific knowl- 
edge of the needs of the young calves and chickens, of the newly sprouting 
wheat and com, of reapers and binders, than the woman on the farm has 
of the baby whose life is so dear to both mother and father and of such 
prospective value to the community. In city, town, or village, the man 
has a more intimate and accurate understanding of the delicate machinery 
he handles, of the industry he fosters, of the business of the firm he serves, 

984 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

than the woman possesses of that most intricate and frail organisra, the 
human infant. The baby needs more intelUgent handling and more 
careful cherishing than the young of other animals, than infant industries 
or intricate machines, if it is to develop into healthful, efficient manhood 
or womanhood. 

Responsibility in caring for and rearing children is of as great importance 
to the race as responsibility in any conceivable line of industry, yet parents 
have little training for it. Mothers and fathers rarely possess any definite 
scientific knowledge of the real conditions governing childhood and youth. 
K prosperity is to increase, if the efficiency of men and women is to be 
made greater, it must be through a better understanding of the needs of 

The three factors of greatest importance in determining the welfare of 
the child are inheritance, environment, and food. It is vital to the progress 
of the race that children should be well bom, that the parents should be 
strong and untainted, that they should pass on good habits of mind and 
body to the next generation. It is not, however, within the scope of this 
bulletin to attempt any discussion of this abstract subject. Only the 
more immediately present conditions will be considered here. 


Thoughtful care of the child should not be deferred to the time of its 
birth. It should at least begin with the care of the mother from the time 
she knows that she may expect the little one. Much misery and ill health 
on the part of both child and mother may often be prevented by an imder- 
standing of the conditions which prevail at this time and by giving better 
attention to a hygienic regimen for the mother. 

The period of the greatest growth during the lifetime of the htmian 
being is during the nine months previous to birth. When the child is 
bom, it is about five million times as* large as the germ from which it has 
sprung. During the first year of its life growth is only about threefold, 
and after this it progresses much more slowly until mattuity is reached. 
While right conditions are extremely important during the first years of 
life, they are supremely important dining the prenatal period. During 
these months, muscles, bones, and nerves, the foundation for all organs 
and tissues, are formed. This is the time when the htmian being is created 
and the rest of life concerns itself with the development and education 
of that which is now produced. It is therefore vital to the welfare of the 
future individual to have the best possible environment during this period 
ol fundamental growth. Nature has done her best by hiding the devel- 
oping baby snugly away where it shall be protected as far as possible from 

Thb Care and Feeding of Children 985 

outside interference; where it can be kept constantly and unchangingly 
wann; where its food can be supplied regularly and unfailingly from the 
blood of the mother ; and where, from day to day, it shall be as free as pos- 
sible from change or disturbance. During the whole prenatal or " bef ore- 
birth " period of its existence, the mother supplies both food and environ- 
ment for the growing organism. It is only through the mother that the 
child can be reached, that its nutrition and general welfare can be con- 
trolled. It is therefore the mother with whom we are primarily 

Exercise of the right kind is as necessary now as at any time. A false 
pride should never stand in the way of outdoor exercise. Exercise out 
of doors with a free imtroubled mind keeps both body and brain in better 
condition, keeps the muscles plastic and strengthens them for the trial 
which has to be endured. If only more thought were given to this one 
question of muscular development in women the danger and sufferings of 
childbirth wotdd be very greatly reduced. Severe, overtaxing exercise or 
very hard work should be avoided. The ordinary housework instead of 
being harmful is generally distinctly beneficial. Running a heavy wash- 
ing machine, working long hours at a sewing machine, bending for hours 
over fine sewing, fancy work or embroidery, riding horseback, in fact, any 
long-continued or straining effort should not be attempted by the average 
woman. In various States the constant hard work with long hours in 
factories is now regarded as suflSciently detrimental to women during this 
period to require legislation to prevent it. It should receive equal atten- 
tion in the home. Overworked, worn-out mothers tend to produce weak, 
sickly children — and sickly children are not an asset to family or 

The clothing should be light, loose and warm. The wearing of clothing 
which constricts waist or abdomen is not only unwise but dangerous both 
to the health of the mother and to the life of the child. Corsets should 
be discarded. This is not a time for false pride. 

Fresh air is very important, for the body needs now as never before to 
rid itself as quickly as possible of all poisonous wastes. Well-ventilated 
sleeping and living rooms, plenty of sunshine and fresh air, outdoor exer- 

ft _ 

cise whenever possible, should be the rule. Growth and development are 
stimulated by sunshine and fresh air, food is more readily digested and 
assimilated, and the whole organism is in better tone. A tendency to 
aiJaemia may often be corrected by a regimen of right food, fresh air, and 
Kght outdoor exercise. 

The diet should be carefully regulated. Pood is needed as usual to 
supply all the needs of the mother for energy , ^repair and building of tissue, 
and elimination of waste products. Besides this, provision must be made 

986 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

for the demand upon the mother by the child. The baby is bom \rith 
bones and muscles; blood vessels and nerves; with a supply of iron stored 
in its body sufficient to make good for the first year the deficiency of iron 
in milk. All the materials used for this growth and for storing are drawn 
from the blood stream of the mother. While the actual amount of tissue 
built into the body of the baby during the nine prenatal months is not 
very large it is very important. If the food of the mother lacks greatly 
in anything, or if her health is such as to interfere with right assimilation 
. of food, both mother and child may suffer. When the growth or develop- 
ment is stunted by malnutrition before birth, no subsequent care will 
completely overcome the bad results. If the defects in diet are slight, 
the development of the child will probably not be interfered with, but the 
mother may suffer. The rule is that nature cares most for the new gener- 
ation and will protect the child at the expense of the mother. The supply 
of food needed for the child's development will be drawn from the mother^s 
blood even at a considerable cost to her. If the diet is very poor or the 
defect in nutrition is very great both mother and child suffer. 

Food for the mother, — Protein^ so essential for the growth of the new 
organism, is best included in the form of milk and eggs, or some well- 
cooked vegetable protein food as legumes and cereals. Meat should be 
eaten in but limited amounts since it increases the work of the kidneys 
and they should be spared as much as possible at this period. In removing 
meat from the diet one source of iron is withdrawn. Eggs, green vege- 
tables and legtimes will more than make good the amount withdrawn. 

Fats should be eaten only in such amounts as may easily be bome. 
Pat as it occtu-s in cream, milk and eggs is better than fat in meats, in 
rich pastries or fried food, since the latter form is less easy to digest. The 
digestive organs are doing double duty and should not be overtaxed. 
Besides this, the organs of digestion are often somewhat crowded and 
have not their normal ability. 

Sugars and starches should be eaten as they occur in cereals, legumes, 
nuts, fruits and vegetables, for in this form not only the energy of these 
two food-stuffs is supplied but other substances needed in the diet are 
increased, particularly mineral matter and bulky material. 

Mineral matter, — There should be an abundance of mineral matter at 
this as at all times, iron for red corpuscles, phosphorus to stimulate growth, 
lime for bones. This will be supplied by a diet rich in fruits and vege- 
tables, milk and eggs. Frequently the diet lacks some one element of 
mineral matter, as iron or lime, or it may lack mineral matter as a whole. 
Anaemia, decayed teeth, or derangement of the whole system may result, 
and the results of such diet are ^more than ever emphasized at this 

Thb Care and Feeding op Children 987 

Acidr^oducing foods. — Many of the foods produce what is called an 
add reaction in the body. While such foods are important in nutrition, 
it is equally important that they should not predominate but should be 
balanced by what is known as base-forming foods. In meat, eggs and 
cereals as a whole, add-forming elements predominate. Base-forming 
elements predominate in milk, fruits and succulent vegetables. Hence 
the necessity of including fruits and succulent vegetables in the dietary. 

Constipation should never be allowed to continue for any length of time. 
The intestines should be kept free from any accumidation of waste matter, 
as poisonous substances result which are absorbed into the blood stream 
of the mother and interfere with her health and with that of the child. 
A tendency toward this disorder may be overcome in most cases by right 
regulation of the diet and proper exercise. The following laxative diet 
is suggested: 

Diet for constipation. — Whole wheat or graham bread; stewed prunes; 
properly cooked cabbage and onions; well-cooked oatmeal; shredded 
wheat; plenty of fruit, fresh or cooked; abtmdance of vegetables; if in 
nonnal health, six or eight glasses of water a day. 

To stun up, a well planned diet will contain eggs, milk, cream, well- 
cooked cereals, fruits and vegetables, meat in small amounts; it should be 
easily and completely digested; rich foods requiring great effort to digest 
should be omitted. 

Cheerfulness is always a means toward good health. Gloominess may 
be the result of digestive disturbances but it may also cause them. Melan- 
cholia interferes with the mother's digestion and general assimilation of 
food. This may affect the composition of her blood and thus disturb 
the nutrition of the child whose food reaches it indirectly from her blood 
vessels. The same result may occur during the nursing period, and many 
a grieved or angry mother has seen the ill effect of such emotion in a 
lessened or changed supply of milk. 

Prenatal influence, — The old idea that melancholy at this time per- 
petuated itself in the disposition of the child, thus marking it for its life- 
time, has been proved tmtrue. Gloom does cause malnutrition and a 
poorly nourished mother may produce a sickly child. A sickly child is a 
suffering one; and may it not be allowed to be melancholy under such 
conditions without blaming a mysterious prenatal influence? 

Gradually we are forsaking some of our former beliefs concerning this 
prenatal influence. We know now that birth marks are not due merely 
to a state of mind in the mother but to a condition of body, to some 
interference with nutrition, to some diseased or inherited condition of the 
gerai, to some blow sustained by the mother which has affected the grow- 
ing child: but not to a mother's sudden fright or fear or mental attitude 

988 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

unless these have caused actual bodily harm to her and to the growing 
child, or have so seriously interfered with her nutrition as to affect the 
food supply of the child. In other words, the prenatal bugaboo has been 


The newborn baby receives and deserves our sympathy. All at once 
it is called upon to face new and very strange surroundings, to exercise 
recently developed functions, to adjust itself to a new set of conditions. 
A new food supply has to be digested by a previously untried digestive 
apparatus; a new way of taking oxygen begins through lungs never before 
called into play; previously circumscribed limbs are now free and must 
be exercised; and often, worst of all, it is faced by a large acquaintance 
of persons as ignorant of it and its real needs as it is of them. Its educa- 
tion now begins. A pathetic Uttle figure, we mtist agree ! 

Otir great ignorance of the growth and development of the htiman 
organism during the nine months it lies so snugly hidden away makes us 
feel that an unbridgable chasm separates the child which is bom from 
the child before it is bom. This very fact leads to much of our ignorant 
management of the small baby. In the few moments or hours which are 
occupied in accomplishing the entrance of the child into the outside world, 
there has not been time for it materially to change its needs. It has been 
accustomed to uninterrupted quiet, to a sightless, possibly a soimdless, 
and a certainly monotonous period of existence in which to accomplish a 
most wonderftd growth and development. Its food has been supplied 
automatically, and under normal conditions satisfactorily. When it is 
bom it is just an immature and undeveloped bit of humanity ready to 
use the newly developed functions, ready to be educated and trained to 
use others, but not ready to share largely the lives of the more completely 
developed. It still needs and should have something approximating as 
closely as possible the previoxis environment but which will be consistent 
with its new responsibilities of digesting its own food, getting rid of its 
own wastes, taking in its own oxygen, wearing clothes to supply its need 
of warmth, learning little by little to move its muscles, to correlate its 
actions and to adjust itself to other hiunan beings. 

Training the baby, — What the newborn baby is we know. What it is 
to be will depend about equally on two factors, inheritance and environ- 
ment. A good inheritance may be marred by a bad environment, but 
the reverse is also true, for a poor inheritance may be in part overcome 
by careful training. It is a fatal mistake to think that education begins 
with school years. It begins with the first breath the child draws, and 
the education or training of the infant is as important in determining its 

The Care and Feeding op Children 989 

ultimate characteristics as any education that may come later. This is 
the period for establishing regular physical habits which will not only be 
the basis for future health but which will give the first foundation for an 
idea of obedience to law. If the child learns during the first year of its 
life to adjust itself to regular hours of sleep, to regular meal times, to a 
regularity of various body habits, its training is made easier for all future 
time. Irregularity of meals is the cause of many unnecessary deaths 
among children and where it does not actually destroy life it often leads 
to permanently impaired digestive functions. Irregular sleeping hours 
wreck many nervous systems. Vicious habits in later years may often 
be traced to a lack of systematic training in infancy. Parents should 
have a realizing sense of the necessity for beginning the child's training 
immediately and of the danger of even one day's delay. 

Sleep. — There should be long hours of quiet sleep for the baby, inter- 
rupted only by giving food at regular intervals, by the daily bath or by a 
change of clothing. Its chief functions now are to eat and sleep and not 
to furnish a center of interest for an admiring group of relatives. The 
baby is not a plaything; it is an individual in the process of making and 
its chances should not be wrecked. If sleep is interfered with at this 
age the nervous system does not develop normally. About twenty hours 
out of twenty-four should be spent asleep. During sleep the baby should 
be turned occasionally to avoid cramped and imcomfortable positions 
and strained muscles. If the mouth opens while the child sleeps it should 
be gently closed. 

As the child grows older the waking periods will be longer. At two 
years, thirteen or fourteen hours of sleep may be enough; at three years, 
eleven or twelve hours. There will be considerable variation in this with 
different children, some requiring more, others less sleep. In any case 
there should be a systematic regularity of bed hours. 

From birth to the end of the first year the child should be undreessd 
and settled for the night by six o'clock or seven o'clock. After the night 
feeding at ten or eleven o'clock it should sleep undisturbed imtil five. 
During the day it should sleep at first most of the time and gradually 
less until only a morning and an afternoon nap are needed. Until the 
end of the second year the child should have a morning nap and should 
be undressed for it when possible. It may have a short afternoon nap 
also if this seems needed and does not lead to disturbed sleep at night. 
Its bed hour at this age should be about seven. 

All during the years of childhood the bed hour should be regularly early, 
up to the eighth year not later than seven o'clock or eight o'clock, and 
not later than nine o'clock until after the fifteenth year. It is sometimes 
necessary to infringe upon this rule but the occasion should be exceptional. 

99<^ Thb Cornell Rbadino-Coursbs 

Constant late hours with attendant irregularity of sleep tend to ^ dis- 
ordered nervous system. The child should sleep through the night and 
should rise at once on waking. If sleep is restless or disturbed it is usu- 
ally due to digestive disturbances and can be corrected by some modi- 
fication in the diet or some change in the time of feeding. Restless sleep 
usually goes hand in hand with eating between meals and habitual irregu- 
larity of the meal time and the bed hour. It should be looked upon as 
something requiring immediate investigation and correction. 

Exercise. — The first exercise which the normal baby takes is a vocal 
one. Its cry establishes the power of the lungs to do their work. There- 
after a certain amount of lusty crying each day strengthens the vocal 
chords, the muscles of throat, chest, abdomen and back, and gives the child 
a good wholesome stirring up of general activities, through an increased 
circulation of blood. For the first week the exercise attendant upon the 
daily changes of clothing; occasional ttuning during sleep, and normal 
crying is sufficient. After this, exercise may be given by wheeling the 
child in its carriage a few moments at a time several times a day, or by 
carrying in the arms, by gentle rubbing or massage, and by allowing the 
child to kick and squirm, freed from all clothing, for five or ten nunutes at 
night when undressing and in the morning when dressing. As soon as a 
child creeps it usually exercises sufficiently by itself. Children should 
not be encouraged to walk at too early an age; as premature exercise of 
any function is very harmful. 

Play^ games, and toys. — As the child grows older and its exercise takes 
the form of play, thought should be given to a selection of games and toys. 
Those should be suggested and chosen which will lead to an all-around 
muscular development, as balls for arm and shoulder muscles, ladders 
or bars for the back, and the like. The discovery that play is useful and 
that games and toys have other than a pleasurable meaning is a new one. 
Now we know that play is a vital form of exercise for the growing child, 
so we encourage it and organize it and include it in our school curricula. 
The playground and the play-hour are as important factors in the edu- 
cation of the child as the schoolnx>m and the daily lesson. 

Fresh air is very necessary to the baby. If the weather is warm and 
the baby is protected from sun and wind it may sleep out of doors during 
the daytime after the first three or four days. If the weather is cold it 
must be gradually accustomed to the change of air by opening the windows 
for a short period several times a day. This does not mean that the roova 
should not be well ventilated at other times. By the end of the first 
month the child should have a daily outing. If well wrapped and rightly 
protected from cold, from too much light and from wind, the child may 
spend most of the day out of doors, even in moderately cold weather, 

Ths Cars and Pebdino op Children 99t 

ind will be all the better for the treatment. This applies to the frail 
:hild as well as to the healthy one. Out-of«door sleeping for children as 
nrell as for adults, is now recognized as an excellent ctirative for the feeble 
3nes and an . excellent preventive for the robust ones. The sleeping 
rooms of growing children should be thoroughly ventilated. In winter- 
time this can be accomplished b^t by opening the window and tacking a 
piece of muslin over the opening. The air sifts through and drafts are 
prevented. If the child does not react to cold, strenuous treatment must 
be avoided. 

The schoolroom should be better ventilated. Serious as well as minor 
iUnesses are often traceable to dirty, badly ventilated schoolrooms. 

Bathing, — After t^e healthy baby is a week old it should be given a 
daily bath. The bath acts as a tonic to the healthy baby. It is com- 
forted and filled with well-being in the present and braced and hardened 
for the future. The baby's body becomes warm and often moist in its 
many wrappings, and the bath cools and cleanses and relieves. Irri- 
tability and fretfulness are sometimes a direct result of a clogged skin, 
and the child can be quieted by a good bath. If the baby is feeble or 
does not react well the frequency of bathing will have to be regulated 
according to its endurance, but the body may still be cleansed daily with 
a dampened sponge. The best time for the bath is during the morning, 
midway between two feedings, that is, about ten o'clock. It should not 
last longer than five minutes. The temperature of the water should be 
about blood heat, 99® P. during the first weeks. This is gradually low- 
ered until at the end of the first year, a temperature of 80° F. is reached. 
Only good unscented soap should be used in very small quantities, and 
it should be thotoughly rinsed from the body. If left to diy on the body 
it soon irritates the delicate skin. Comers of the eyes and nostrils should 
always be washed. During the first year or year and a half the mouth 
should be wiped out with a swab or soft doth and the teeth should be 
cleansed with this. Great care should be given the teeth all diuing child- 
hood. Teeth decayed through lack of care or disease are a source of 
^ger to the child's health. They should be cleaned regularly at least 
twice a day. After the child is two years old this is best done with a 
small, soft toothbrush. 

Often uncomfortable chafing and irritation restdt from a neglect of 
the genitals. These parts should be carefully cleansed each day, as irrita- 
tion due to neglect may result in future bad habits and consequent ill 

Clothing. — Nothing which concerns the baby has been more radically 
changed in recent years than its clothing. The long, heavily betrimmed 
^Iresses, with irritatingly stiff ruffles and yards of uselessness have gone; 

99^ I'hb Cornell Reading-Courses 

the pinning blanket with its diabolical power of repressing necessary 
freedom has been discarded. The length and strength of the binder 
has been limited. 

The ideal to seek in providing the child's clothing is looseness, lightness, 
warmth and cleanliness. 

The binder is still worn and should consist of a bias unhemmed strip 
of flannel 28 inches long and about four inches wide. This binder is 
easily washed, exerts an even pressure, is elastic and 3rields to the movement 
of the child's body, and supports the abdomen without uncomfortable 
binding. It is pinned in place with small, strong safety pins. This is 
worn until the child's abdominal muscles are strong. It should be kept 
clean and changed with the rest of the clothing. 

The shirt. — The next garment is the shirt. This should be of fine, 
soft material. The best fabric for shirts is a mixture of part silk and part 
wool, or part cotton and part wool. This mixture shrinks less and 
hardens less in washing than all wooL 

The diaper is best made of a soft grade of cotton diaper. It should 
not be too large nor have too many thicknesses as it interferes with right 
development of the bones of both pelvis and legs. A better arrangement 
is to provide square pads made of soft cotton and easily washed and 
place these in the center of the diaper before it is pinned on. The diaper 
should not be so tight as to constrict the child's pelvis and back, nor so 
thick as to spread the bones of the legs. Much harm is done by careless 
adjustment of this garment. The diaper may be fastened to the shirt 
with safety pins. 

The slip, — Over the diaper and shirt in cool or cold weather should go 
a flannel slip, in simimer one of some lighter material. It should be a 
simple garment hanging loose from the shoulders and having sleeves. 
It should be about eight or ten inches below the feet and is more convenient 
if made by the same pattern as the dress but one-half inch smaller. It is 
best made from a mixture of cotton and flannel and reqtiires careful 
washing to keep it soft. 

The dress or slip should be made one-half inch larger in all measure- 
ments save length and one inch longer than the flannel slip. It should be 
made of some soft white cotton material without dressing and should 
never be starched. The simplest, prettiest and most comfortable baby 
dresses are made without tucks, without trimming, and with soft, simple 
bands at neck and wrist. 

Socks may be used, but if the child's clothing is drawn well around the 
legs no further protection is needed. Stockings which pin to the diaper 
are sometimes advocated. The objection to these is, they are often wet 
with the diaper and must be changed and washed each time, or else they 
are a source of danger rather than protection to the baby. 

Thb Care and Fbeding op Children 993 

Nighi clothes. — Flannel, stockinet, or canton flannel make good night 
clothes. The little night slip should be made in the same plain way as 
the dress but should have a draw string nm in the bottom of the hem. 
This can be drawn together at night and protects the child's feet against 
cold during the sleeping hours. 

None of the clothing which the child wears in the day time should be 
kept on at night. The child should be completely undressed and allowed 
freedom of limb for a few moments with gentle massage or rubbing, and 
should then have fresh, dry, warm clothes, consisting of a shirt, a clean 
diaper and pad and the night slip. The clothing worn during the day 
should never be worn at night but should be hung where it will air 
thoroughly and should be warmed before being put on in the morning. 

The clothing should frequently be washed as it absorbs the moisture 
and secretions from the baby's body and then ceases to be the same source 
of warmth and comfort. Diapers should not be dried and worn again 
after wetting. They should first be washed and sunned. No clothing 
which the baby wears should ever be starched. 

Short clothes. — The age at which clothing should be shortened differs 
with the season and the vigor of the child, the present tendency being to 
shorten the clothes as soon as possible. 

Shoes. — When the child begins to walk and the feet need protection, 
care should be taken in selecting the foot gear. Soft moccasins with 
shaped soles and lacing over the ankle are best, as these do not press the 
foot out of shape. Small, strapped slippers or soft shoes made with broad 
spreading toes and soft soles are excellent. No shoe should be worn 
which in any way contracts or constricts the foot. A well-shaped foot 
means much of health and comfort to the adult in later years. 

Regularity of intestinal movement.—^ With the healthy baby the habit of 
freeing the bowels with regularity may be established during the first 
month or two of life. The child should be carefully supported over the 
chamber night and morning at about the hour when evacuation usually 
occurs. The association of idea is quickly set up and the habit soon 
becomes fixed. The early establishment of this habit has more than one 
virtue. It lessens the number of soiled diapers, thus ensuring more 
hygienic conditions for the household and less work for the one in charge, 
and it hastens the day when the diaper may be altogether discarded. 
The same method of training may be applied in teaching the child to 
Pinnate regularly' or at least to make its wants known. 

The infant should never be allowed to pass even one day without at 
least one free intestinal movement. It may sometimes be necessary to 
accomplish this with sick or feeble children by giving an enema to soften 
the fecal matter. Drugs should never be given except imder the advice 

994 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

of a competent physician. With artificially fed babies, obstinate constipaJ 
tion is often due to defective feeding and may be overcome by a judicioifi 
use of thoroughly cooked oatmeal water. Lack of water may be alsq 
one cause of this trouble with babies. The habit of a daily movexnenl 
once established should be carefully fostered as the child grows olderj 
Time should be allowed for this process as for others. A common caus^ 
of chronic constipation in later years is the morning hurry in childhood 
which may interrupt and destroy the child's regularity of habit. Physical 
functions are just as important as mental ones. It would be better tc 
miss a few lessons than to make brain and body sluggish with retained 

Food for the infant, — Nutrition is of supreme importance during th^ 
first years of childhood. Much of the unnecessary waste of life dtmn^ 
infancy and childhood is due not to Providence but to wrong methods 
of feeding. The digestive apparatus of the child at birth is no mord 
developed than the rest of the body. It has never been used thus fai 
and is delicate and relatively feeble in its action. The stomach is m«-ely 
an enlargement of the digestive tract and lies almost perpendicular to 
the rest of the alimentary canal. This explains the ease with which si 
baby rids itself of any excess of food, or food which causes distress. 

Until birth the baby's supply of food has reached it through the blood 
of the mother. No effort of preparation has been required on the part 
of the child. After the baby is bom it must begin to digest its own food 
and absorb it through the digestive tract. This does not mean a sudden 
great increase of growth. The child is only one short stage further on 
its way toward development. While the newborn baby has power of 
digestion, that power is limited. All its digestive juices are weak and some 
of them have not appeared. 

The ftmdamental needs of the infant for food are the same as those of 
the adult. The difference lies not in kind but in form and amount. Only 
those foods which are ready for absorption or require little change can 
at this period be utilized. It is beyond the feeble power of the baby's 
immature digestive tract to utilize foods which require marked changes 
before they are ready for absorption. 

Protein is needed to supply the cornerstone for growth and development 
of all tissues j but it must be in a form adapted to a weak power of digestion. 
Fats and carbohydrates must be supplied to meet the demands for energy. 
But there is only one form of fat which is fitted to the infant and that is 
fat which occurs in a very finely emulsified form as in milk. Starch is a 
food stuff which requires marked changes before it is ready for digestion. 
The baby has practically no power for digesting starch. This power 
doe3 not develop to any degree until after the end of the sixth or eighth 

The Cars and Feeding op Children 995 

Qonth. Sugar reqttires little change, hence this is the form of carbohy- 
Irate suited to the infant. Mineral matter the baby must have to supply 
ime and phosphorus and iron and all the other elements which are con- 
emed not only in building bones and forming red blood and stimulating 
(Towth but which are essential in many different ways. The mineral 
natter must be in a form best suited to the need for rapid development. 
Vakr must be present to hold food in solution, and to carry it to the cells 
ind remove the waste products. 

Best food for the baby, — Nature's answer to the question as to where 
ill these demands are best supplied dtuing this undeveloped period of the 
iild's life is unfailingly " the mother's milk." In the mother's milk the 
protein is in a form which is very easily digested and yet gives the baby's 
iigestive tract enough work to ensure its gradtial development. The fat 
is unusually finely emulsified and is of a kind which requires little effort 
to digest. The carbohydrate occurs as milk sugar, almost ready for absorp- 
tion, and is not so sweet as to vitiate the child's taste for bland food later 
on. The mineral matter present is very available to the htmian infant. 

When we come later to a discussion of the composition of milk other 
than human milk and of the various patent baby foods on the market 
it will be readily seen that any form of food other than mother's milk must 
be regarded as abnormal for the very young baby, and as likely to involve 
it in serious difficulties. Hence every effort should be made by the mother 
to nurse her own child even if this method of feeding cannot be continued 
during the entire nine months or year. 

The first meal. — During the first two or three days after the infant is 
bom no milk is secreted by the mother's breast. A thin watery fluid 
called colostrum is secreted, which is believed to have a distinctly laxative 
property and which thus aids in cleansing the baby's intestinal canal of 
the mucous which has acctmiulated there before birth. The child should 
he put at the mother's breast as soon as the mother has recovered from 
the fatigue of labor, about six or eight hours after birth, and every two 
or three hours thereafter when the mother is awake. This helps to estab- 
lish the flow of milk, it aids in closing the uterus, and probably gives the 
haby some water. It also establishes the ability of the child to suck. 
Mature seems to have intended to give this time to establishing a natural 
supply of food and it is dangerous to experiment tmless under the advice 
^ a physician who understands thoroughly the essentials of infant feeding. 
■n>e old fashion of making a " sugar rag " or a " flour baU " and giving it 
to the newborn baby must be strongly condemned. It puts into the 
AiM's stomach some entirely foreign substance and is a fertile source 
^^ colic, and it diminishes the sucking activity and consequently with- 
draws this stimulus to milk secretion, thus causing delay in flow of milk. 

996 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

If the milk is slow in coming, the following mixture may be given aft^ 
the third day every four hours, alternating it with the breast: Whey, i 
teaspoonfuls; water, 2 teaspoonfuls; milk sugar, i teaspoonful. Th^ 
should be stopped as soon as the milk supply begins. 

Water. — As soon as the child^s eyes and nostrils have been cleansed ^ 
should be given a teaspoonful or two of warm sterilized water either froD 
a spoon or a nursing bottle. A little warm water should be given ^ 
intervals during the day all during the nursing period. Babies frequentlj 
suffer grievously from thirst and are given an irregular meal to supplj 
this demand. The child needs plenty of clean, sterile, warm water givei 
between feedings to keep the kidneys active and the body in good con* 
dition. Yet many mothers never think of giving the baby so simple i 
remedy as a drink. 

Regularity of meal hours. — From the day the baby is bom it should U 
fed at regular hours and at regular intervals. Time should be giveii 
after each meal for the food to digest and the stomach to rest. It is a 
common sight to see little babies of a few weeks or a few months old^ 
fed at all hours and at all times. The child cries and the mother haS 
learned that feeding it will cause temporary relief. It is a very fata] 
mistake. The child is, as a rule, not crjdng because it is hungry, but 
because it is thirsty, or because irregular meal hours and constant feeding 
have upset its digestion and coUc has resulted, or because it is sick or 
uncomfortable. First determine the cause of the irritation. Find out 
whether it is due to colic, to indigestion, to thirst, to uncomfortable 
clothing, chafing, pins, cold or heat, or the beginning of some illness. Do 
not make things worse by feeding the child. If the trouble is due to 
indigestion, the amoimt of food is to be decreased and not increased and 
a longer time must elapse between feedings. A drink of warm water 
will often relieve the irritation. If the trouble continues, a good physician 
should be consulted who will be able to judge whether or not medicines 
should be given. 

Time for feeding. — For the first six weeks the baby should be put at 
the breast every two hours in the daytime from five a. m. until eleven 
p. m. It should then remain qtiiet until the following morning, allowing 
six hours of tmdisturbed rest for both mother and child. For the first 
few days another night feeding may be necessary until the child learns to 
rest quietly without the extra food, but this should be discontinued as 
soon as possible. Gradual lessening of the amount of food given at this 
extra feeding and a little patience will quickly accustom the child to adjust 
itself to this schedule. Common sense must alwaj^ govern the 
planning of any schedule. In some cases where the child is robust and 
the mother*s milk is rich, these intervals are too short and the number of 

Thb Cars and Feeding op Children 997 

feedings too many. The main point is absolute regularity whatever the 
schedule. The schedule will have to be adjusted to the child. If the 


child is asleep and its meal hour arrives it should be awakened for the 
first few days. If this is done, it will very soon become accustomed to 
awaken with a clock-work regularity. 

From the sixth week to the third month the nturfng intervals should be 
gradually increased to three hours, giving seven feedings between five a. m. 
and eleven p. m. inclusive. If it is possible to avoid it no night feedings 
diould be given at this time. By the sixth month six feedings should be 
enough for the average child, and by the end of the year five. 

Irregularity of feeding not only affects the child directly by interfering 
with its powers of digestion, but it affects the quality as well as the quantity 
of the mother's milk by overworking the milk-producing glands. One 
cause of failure in the mother's supply of milk is due to habitual irregular- 
ity in feeding the child. 

Length of titne of nursing, — About twenty minutes should be given 
to each nursing. If the time is shorter than this it usually means that 
the milk flows too freely and that the quick feeding may result in diges- 
tive disturbances. Under these circumstances the flow of milk should 
be controlled by pressure of the nipple between the fingers. If the child 
falls asleep while nursing it should be awakened and kept awake until 
it has finished the meal. The contents of one brcjast should be sufficient 
for a meal, especially with younger babies, and the breasts should be 
alternated. As the child grows older, or if the yield of milk is not large 
at any one time, it may be necessary to give both breasts at a meal. After 
the child has been fed it should be placed in its crib on the side which 
has been uppermost dtuing the nursing. This rests tired muscles and 
ensures better sleep. 

Care of the breast, — Indigestion in breast-fed babies is sometimes caused 
by a lack of care of the mpther's breast and of the child's mouth. Before 
and after each nursing the nipples should be washed with a dilute boric 
acid solution and rinsed with fresh water. The baby's mouth should 
also be cleansed by wrapping a little soft cloth or cotton around the finger 
and swabbing out the mouth with clean water. Milk left on the nipples 
w in the mouth of the child may sour or become otherwise contaminated 
and cause as much trouble as unclean milk. from any source. The milk 
^hich accumulates in the milk ducts is often contaminated and it is often 
best to withdraw a little of the milk before nursing the child. 

The mother* s food. — The general health and nutrition of the mother 
i^y affect the composition and quality of the milk. 

The diet of the nursing mother should be much the same as it has been 
during the nine months previous to the birth of the child. It should be 

998 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

rich in milk, eggs, well-cooked cereals, vegetables and fruits. Meat should 
play an unimportant part, tmless the mother has been accustomed to \ 
large meat diet. Under these drcumstanoes the withdrawal of thi 
stimulating food may be tmwise. Strong vegetables, ais onions and ttimipS 
which produce flavors in milk should be avoided. Liberal use may b^ 
made of such fruits as apples, which are often better cooked as they an 
more easily digested, oranges, prunes, ripe peaches and pears. Th^ 
belief is a mistaken one that fruit in the mother's diet is a cause of coli< 
to the baby. Constipation and the general bad condition resultm| 
from a diet deficient in bulk and in the mineral salts provided in fruits an^ 
vegetables is much more to be feared. If there is any tendency towar(j 
constipation the diet should be a laxative one such as has been previously 

Weaning. — The age at which a child should be weaned will have to U 
determined by a ntmiber of things, such as the vigor of the child, the rich' 
ness and quality of the mother's milk, teething conditions, season of th( 
year. Normally the child should be weaned at least within the year, fo< 
by this time the average milk has become insufficient to meet all th^ 
needs of the growing organism. It is not wise to wean a child just at the 
beginning of summer or during the hot weather. It should be accomplished 
earlier or should be held over until fall. Prolonging the period of breast^ 
feeding beyond the normal time may be as bad for the child as any othel 
wrong method of feeding. Weaning should be accomplished graduall}^ 
unless the child refuses other food as long as it is kept at the breast. Two 
or three months may be allowed for it, beginning at first with only one 
modified milk meal a day and gradually incnsasing the number. The last 
nursing to be dropped shotdd be the one at night. The diange from the 
breast to cow's milk must be made carefully to avoid any disturbances 
which may arise from the difference between the two foods. Cow's milk 
is rarely given at this time without dilution ax[d it must be more diluted 
than for a child of the same age who has been artificially fed from birth- 
The milk mixture to be substituted at this time will be considered in the 
second part of this bulletin under the head of artificial feeding. 



Published Semi-monthly by the New York State College of Agriculture at 
Cornell University. Throughout the Year. Application for Entry as 
Second-Class Matter at the Post-Office at Ithaca. N. Y., Pending 

L. H. Bailey, Director 

^^..,.«„ -^- •«„ -o^^w XT/N»» i Martha Van Rensselaer. Supervisor 
Course for the Farm Home | j^^ j^^ S Harrington, Assistant Supervisor 

vol 1. Ho. I OCTOBER I, I91I ^^^ SSBIBS No. i 



By means of the discussion papers we have an opportunity to become 
acquainted. We shall take it as an indication on your part that you are 
interested if you answer the questions and retiun them to us. The staff 
of the Department of Home Economics is ready to assist in your study of 
scientific home-making. We want your assistance as well. Ask questions, 
offer suggestioios, let us have the benefit of your experience. You thus 
become a vital part of the work of the State College in its ejBForts for rural 

Will you please send your opinions on the following points to the Super- 
^^so^ of the Cornell Reading-Cotarse for the Farm Home? 

I. Discuss the results of the constant attention so often given to babies 
by their grown-up friends. 

2. What responsibility have you for the right care of other people's 


Address . . . 

icxx) The Cornell Reading-Courses 


The Care and Feeding of Children: 

A. Care of the mother before the birth of the baby. 


1. Effect of poor conditions for the mother on the child, a^ 

overwork, under^xercise, wrong feeding, etc. 

2. How the mother may care for the baby at this time. 

3. What is meant by prenatal influence and how it affects th^ 


B. Care of the child after birth. 

1. The newborn baby. 

2. Care of the child. 




3. Effects of poor care on the baby. 

4. Training the child. 

1. What effect the formation of good phjrsical habits in 

babyhood, such as regular meal times and sleeping 
hours, may have in developing self-controlled, X7cll- 
poised men and women. 


2. The need of the child for quiet and freedom from the 

constant attention of grown persons. 

3. Play, games, and toys as factors in the training of children. 


Published Semi-monthly by the New York State College of Agriculttire at 
Cornell University. Throughout the Year. Application for Entry a* 
Seoond-Claas Matter at the Pott-Office at Ithaca, N. Y., Pending 

L. H. Bailbt, Director 

VJ>k.« •* 1 1 ilAO A, W. X. w*.**.^.—. M«a««.««>M «• 

VOL. 1. Ho. 3 NOVEMBER i. 1911 ^^^ SSRIES Ho. 2 


Flora Rose 

Alas for the baby deprived of its natural food supply! With all our 
accumulated knowledge of foods and our improved methods for making 
the artificial approach the real, we have not been able to find or manu- 
facture a food that can supply the baby's needs in the same perfect way 
that they are supplied by the mother's milk. Experience has shown that 
even with skilful supervision the artificial feeding of a baby may be at- 
tended by restdts as serious to its health as a severe illness. If this is 
true, what disaster may follow when there is no knowledge of child feeding 
and the baby becomes the victim of imtutored experimenting? This peril 
is impressed upon us when we read such statements as the following: 
(i) " The death rate among artificially fed babies is seven to ten times as 
great as among those fed from the breast"; (2) " breast-fed babies have a 
greater possibility of developing into healthy childhood than artificially- 
fed ones" ; (3) ** one third of the babies die before the end of the third year, 
^d 85 per cent of these are bottle-fed." 

In the face of this evidence it is our duty to become familiar with the 
conditions that will give the best possible chance to the unfortunate 
"bottle-fed " baby and to protect it with all the knowledge that science 
has brought to bear on the subject. This knowledge is now within the 
reach of all, as each year sees an increasing ntmiber of good books, simply 
Written, on the care of the child. 


When the baby's nattaral food is denied it, the question of finding a 

substitute that will give good results becomes urgent. Too often the only 

guide to a choice is the advertisement that goes with a patent food. 

The worried mother tries first one brand, then another, in a frantic attempt 

39 [1001] 

I002 Thb Cornell Reading-Courses 

to find something which will " agree " with the baby. Sometinies we hea 
of a successful result, but the failures are sadly marked. This is not th< 
time to rely on the word of those having a commercial interest in selling 
a particular patent food. Now, only expert advice and the word of thosn 
physicians and scientists who have spent a lifetime in exploring this fielc 
should be considered. What is the opinion as expressed practicall5 
tmanimously by these persons? That the food which gives the best resulii 
when babies must be Jed artificially is the milk of some other animal. 

Whatever the source, milk is a natural building material for sue! 
tissues as the baby's. When the mother's milk fails, or is not available 
an intelligent effort should first be made to use the milk of some otha 
animal. Undoubtedly there are serious difficulties to interfere in the ust 
of cow's milk as a substitute for the baby's natural supply, but ah under- 
standing of these difficulties will enable us in most cases to overcome them 
We must remember that the difficulties in using foods other than milk 
are greater than those in using milk. 

Nature has adapted the milk of each animal to meet the particular 
needs of its young. The new-bom calf is a relatively strong and well- 
developed animal. Its muscles are comparatively vigorous and its powers 
of digestion are fairly active. In a very few hours it must lead a semi- 
independent existence and in a very few weeks it must shift for itself. 
Cow's milk is a strong food that stimulates and develops but does not 
overtax the digestive powers of the sturdy calf. 

But the new-bom baby is more frail and helpless. Its muscles are 
weaker, its powers of digestion relatively feebler, its period of dependence 
longer. Human milk is a weak food, requiring comparatively little effort 
to digest, and it is perfectly suited imder normal conditions to the lagging 
activities of the baby. 

In using cow's milk to feed the baby, a part of the problem, therefore, 
is to adapt the food of a naturally vigorous animal to a naturally les^ 
vigorous one. To accomplish this, cow's milk must be modified or changed 
to make it more like human milk. Milk thus treated is known as modified 
milk, and it has become an important factor in the artificial feeding ol 


A very important factor in suiting cow's milk to the baby's needs h 
the question of cleanliness. Mother's milk is delivered directly from 
the " producer to the consumer." There is little time or opportunity 
for it to become contaminated in passing from the mother to the child 
Cow's milk, on the other hand, is frequently produced under very 
unclean conditions and is liable to careless and dirty handling before it! 
reaches the baby. Hours or even days may elapse before it is used as a 

Thb Cars and Feeding op Children 


food. During this time it may have become contaminated in one of a 
dozen ways and may finally be unfit for use. Many deaths among babies 
and little children may be traced directly to the use of unclean milk. 
Milk not quite fresh, and a little dirty, is a very common cause of a 
baby's trouble in using cow's milk. 


Cow's milk can be so diluted and modified as to make it resemble 
mother's milk very closely in composition, but no known process of modi- 
fication can make the two alike in all respects. The two differ not only 
in composition, but also in other characteristics. The following table will 
serve to show the external differences between them: 

Comparison op Human Milk and Cow's Milk 

In 100 Parts of Milk 




Milk sujar 


Mineral mattsr 

Human milk . . 
Cow's milk . . . 





4- 50 


Cow's milk not only contains more than twice as much protein, but the 
protein is largely of a kind called casein, which may form a relatively firm 
curd when it reaches the stomach. This curd is a good developer for the 
calf's active stomach muscles but it is not so well adapted to the needs of 
the baby, whose natural food contains but little casein and demands no 
such effort to digest it. The fat in the cow's milk is in larger particles, or 
globules, than that in human milk, and it is therefore more difficult to 
digest. This difference in the two kinds of fat is now believed to be a 
frequent cause of the child's difficulty in digesting cow's milk. There 
are just as distinct, though less easily explained, differences in the min- 
eral content of the two kinds of milk. 

All of the foregoing factors, combined with the possibility of dirty milk, 
make more difficult the artificial feeding of the baby even with skilfully 
made nKxiified milk mixtures. They are mentioned here to show that 
artificial feeding must ever be regarded as tmnatural and that the baby 
thus fed must be treated with double care. 

No matter what method is used in making modified milk mixtures, the 
underlying principle is the same: that is, to dilute cow's milk so as to 
reduce the amoimt of protein present until it is about the same as in 
mother's milk, and then to increase the food value of the diluted mixture to 

I004 Tub Cornell Rbading-Coursbs 

normal by adding sugar or $ugar and cream. Which method is best, it is 
impossible to say, and there is not space here to include a description of 
all of them or to enter on a discussion of their respective merits. Every 
family in which there is a baby should own one or more good books that 
treat on the care and feeding of children. If the child must be bottle-fed, 
the choice of method may then be made intelligently. 

Most methods of modifying milk are rather complicated and difficult to 
manage. The following is recommended for its simplicity and is given 
here by the courtesy of the Babies' Dispensary and Hospital of Cleveland, 


1. " The only good substitute for mother's milk is milk from healthy, 
consumption-free, clean-kept cows, milked in a dean stable by dean milk- 
men into sterilized cans, quickly cooled over sterile refrigerators and 
poured into sterile bottles, which are closed with sterile stoppers, and kept 
cool till used for the baby. Such milk need not be sterilized or boiled. 
Common store or milkman's milk is no food for the baby, even though it 
may taste and look good. The patent baby foods, condensed milk and 
the like, also harm the infants in most cases, and should therefore not be 
used. Your doctor can tell you how to get the right kind of milk for your 

2. " If you cannot get the best milk, see that you get as good milk as you 
can from a milkman whom you know to be clean; use a clean dish; unless it 
is certified milk or clean and pure beyond doubt boil the milk from three 
to five minutes; during the hot summer boil for ten minutes; cool as quickly 
as possible by pladng the dish in another filled with the coldest water you 
can get; renew this water frequently and keep the dish covered in the coolest 
room of the house. 

3. ** Clean the bottle immediately after feeding by first rinsing it with 
clear water, then soak it in soda, borax, or soap water; clean well with dean 
brush and rinse with boiled water; then set it upside down in a clean place, 
or stand it upright filled with boiled water. (The bottles are to be boiled 
as directed below, before bdng used. — ^Author.) 

4. "As soon as you have sufiidently cooled the milk, prepare your food 
as directed by the doctor, always using the cleanest dishes \ then pour it 
with a dean pitcher, not through a dirty funnel, into as many bottles as 
the baby is to have meals, and stopper with dean cotton batting, which 
you may have baked in the oven. Before using the bottles, however, 
which you have already deaned as directed under item No. 3, boil them 
for twenty minutes and then set them upside down in a dean place or dish 
to dry andcooL 

The Cars and Feeding of Children 1005 

** Use a nipple which is slipped over the neck of the bottle and which 
can be turned inside out ; nipples with tubes are convenient for a lazy mother, 
but mean de<Uk to the baby. Cleanse the nipple thoroughly, outside and 
inside, after each feeding and keep it dry in a dean, covered cup or glass. 
Boil the nipple at least once daily. 

5. " Feed the baby: 

'* First Week. — Seven meals in 24 hours; each meal from 1} to 3 
ounces (45 to 60 grams), consisting of i part milk and 2 parts water or 
thin gruel, and i even teaspoonful of granulated sugar for each 2 ounces 
or 60 grams of the diluted mixture. 

(Boil the water used in making milk mixtures.) 

** Second Week. — Six meals in 24 hours; each meal from 2^ to 3 
ounces (75 to 90 grams), consisting of i part milk and 2 parts water or 
thin gruel, and i even teaspoonful of granulated sugar for each 2 ounces 
or 60 grams of diluted mixture. 

" Third and Fourth Weeks. — Six meals in 24 hours; each meal of 4 
ounces (120 grams), consisting of i part milk and 2 parts water or thin 
gruel, and j even teaspoonftd of granulated sugar for each 2 ounces or 
60 grams of diluted mixture. 

" Second Month. — Six meals in 24 hours; each meal of 4 to 5 ounces 
(120 to 150 grams), consisting of i part milk and i part water or thin 
gruel, and i even teaspoonful of granulated sugar for each 2 ounces or 
60 grams of diluted mixture. 

" TTtird Month. — Six meals in 24 hours; each meal of 5 ounces (150 
grams), consisting of i part milk and i part water or thin gruel, and 1} 
even teaspoonfuls of granulated sugar for each 2 oimces or 60 grams of 
diluted mixture. 

** Fourth to Sixth Month. — Five meals in 24 hours; each meal of 6 to 7 
ounces (180 to 210 grams), consisting of 2 parts milk and i part water or 
thin gruel, and i\ even teaspoonftils granulated sugar* for each 2 ounces 
or 60 grams of diluted mixture. 

" Seventh Month. — Straight milk may be given in five feedings of about 
6 to 7 ounces each. 

6. " Warm each feeding to about body-heat before giving it to the 
child, by placing the bottle in a dish of hot water; hold the baby in your 
arms while feeding; do not allow the baby to drink from the bottle any 
longer than 15 minutes at the most; pour away any of the rest; do not save 
tftis for the next feeding. 

7. " Do not coax the baby to take more food than he wants. Too large 
quantities and too numerous feedings harm the stomach and lead to in- 

^The tue of raSSk tugiar in ]>laoe of 'granulated sugar is believed by some physicians to be advisable 
uccauae, first, it is said to ferment less easily, and second, it is considered to have a slightly laxative effect. 
If miiic sugar is uMd the amoants given above should be doubled. The disadvantage of iu use is expense. 

ioo6 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

testinal disturbances. That's what makes the baby cry so much; not^ as 
mothers think, insufficient food. Do not overlook a serious illness because 
the child is teething; for, teething very rarely makes the baby sick. 

8: ** From the seventh month on, give one meal of broth daily. From 
the eighth month, give 2 to 3 tablespoonftds of strained oatmeal, rice, 
tapioca, farina, flour soup, zwieback, daily. From the tenth month on, 
strained apple sauce, prune juice, orange juice.* Never give the baby more 
than five meals a day all in all." 

Modified milk mixtures must always be used with common sense. 
Directions are given to serve as guides and are not infalUble rules. If a 
child digests its food well but shows too great symptoms of hunger between 
meals, increase the amoimt given at a meal. If the child is not hungry at 
meal times increase the intervals between meals. There will be many 
similar points of adjustment to be made, for no schedule can be absolutely 
perfect for all cases. Cleanliness, accuracy, and regularity can and 
always should be observed. 


The question is often asked, which is best to use in diluting milk mixtures, 
water or some kind of gruel. If the baby suffers habitually with con- 
stipation, a thoroughly cooked thin oatmeal gruel should be used in place 
of water to dilute the milk. Barley gruel is also somewhat laxative, 
though less so than oatmeal. Rice water may be used when there is a 
tendency to looseness of the bowels. The use of barley or oatmeal is 
advisable in cases in which the milk seems to cause slight indigestion. 
Many physicians believe that it is always better to use a thin gruel instead 
of water as a diluent, because the thickened starch aids in breaking up 
the curd which cow's milk forms when it reaches the stomach, and thus 
helps the baby to digest the milk. If gruels are used they should be care- 
fully made, very thoroughly cooked and strained, and should be rather 

Barley water or gruel. — To i quart water add i tablespoonf ul well- 
washed barley. Boil very slowly for several hours or until reduced to i 
pint. Strain and use. If too thick, dilute with a little water that has 
been boiled. 

Oatmeal water. — To § cup rolled oats add i quart water. Boil slowly 
two hotu-s. Strain and use. If too thick, dilute with a Uttle water that 
has been boiled. 

Rolled-oat jelly. — To i cup rolled oats add 3 cups water. Cook two 
hoviis or longer in a double boiler. Rub through a strainer. The coarser 
part may be reserved for use by the adult members of the family. 

*If the baby iB fed with boiled milk, a tefiMKXMofol of strained orange juice diluted with a to 4 timei Iti 
axnount of water ahould be given between feeninga several times a day. — ^Author. 

The Care and Feeding op Children 1007 


If the baby suffers from indigestion, for a day or two give it a milk 
mixttire suited to a younger child and then increase the strength gradually 
meal by meal. 


If the baby is prematurely weaned, begin by feeding it with a milk 
mixture suited to a younger child, and increase the strength of the mixture 
meal by meal and day by day as fast as the baby can bear it without 
showing symptoms of distress. One of the essentials to success is that the 
child's intestinal tract should come gradually to adjust itself to digesting 
cow's tniUc. 


When a baby is weaned at the normal time, the milk mixture used to 
replace mother's milk should at first be much more dilute than the usual 
mixture required for that age in artificial feeding. The strength of the 
mixture to full cow's milk should then be increased as rapidly as the baby 
can bear it. Gruels should be used to dilute the milk at this time, for the 
baby will have established its power to digest starch and the gruels will 
have an actual food value as well as being of tise to break up the curd. 


Sometimes even the most careful efforts to feed a baby with modified 
milk fail. It may then be necessary partly or completely to predigest the 
milk with pepsin. This is a very simple process. A given amoimt of the 
digestive substance, pepsin, is added to milk and the milk is kept at about 
body temperature for five to thirty minutes, according to the completeness 
of digestion desired. . It is then chilled as soon as possible to stop further 
digestion. Predigestion of milk must be carefully considered. It means 
carrying on outside the body a process which normally should occur within 
the body. If it is kept up too long the child's powers of digestion may 
become weakened by having too little work to do. Therefore the milk 
should be slightly less completely digested day by day tmtil the child learns 
to do its own work. Directions for peptonizing milk are given with the 
powders or pepsin purchased for that purpose. 


If the milk supply is at all doubtful, milk should be either boiled or 
pasteurized. Pasteurization is the name applied to a process of heating 
milk for a given length of time at a temperature below the boiling point 
of water. Milk is less changed by the action of this lower temperature 

ioo8 Thb Cornell Readikg-Coursbs 

than by boiling, and generally pasteurization is sufficient to make the milk 
clean and wholesome. If milk is to be pasteurized, the easiest way is to 
mix the milk, water, and sugar for the -entire day's feedings previous to 
heating the milk, fill the bottles which have been sterilized by being 
boiled, stopper with clean absorbent cotton, and set on a rack in a boiler 
or deep kettle with sufficient water to come to the level of the milk in the 
bottles. The water should be kept at a temperature of 145^-155^ P. for 
forty-five minutes. A dairy thermometer may be used for regulating the 
temperature. At the end of this time the bottles should be removed, 
cooled quickly, and put away in a cold place until ready for use. 

It is a much discussed question as to the effects which cooking has upon 
milk, but the consensus of opinion is that milk thus treated loses some of 
its desirable properties. While this may not be of great importance 
when milk is only a part of the dietary, as with older children and grown 
persons, it is of considerable importance to the baby living entirely on 
milk. When sterilized milk must be fed, it is believed to give better 
results if a teaspoonf ul of strained and diluted orange juice is given between 
feedings several times a day. The freshness of the orange juice is believed 
to coimteract in part the harm done by sterilization. An effort should 
be made to procure milk produced under such clean conditions as to make 
sterilization or pasteurization unnecessary. 


Little has been said so far concerning the use of the various patent 
foods on the market, save that they cannot compete successfully with 
carefully made milk mixtures in substitute or artificial feeding. 

The baby should have its carbohydrate in a soluble form like sugar, 
for it has little power to digest starch until about the sixth month or later. 
Some of the patent foods contain as their chief food-stuff unchanged 
starch, and as this is not available to the baby the child may actually 
suffer from tissue himger although the stomach and intestine are full. 
To give best results, the baby's food should contain fat in a finely 
divided, easily digested form. Many of the patent foods contain little 
or no fat. Perhaps the strongest case against the patent foods is their 
lack of the food-stuff known as mineral matter or salts, which is so essential 
to healthy growth and development. Many cases of malnutrition result 
directly from the use of such of these foods as are deficient in fat and 
ntuneral matter. A common ailment among babies thus fed is rickets, an 
ailment that is serious and may be lasting in its effects. 

When a patent food is made with milk, its bad effects are minimized 
and it may serve a useful purpose. As has already been pointed out, 

Thb Cars and Feeding of Children 1009 

barley and oatmeal are much tised in place of water to dilute milk mixtures. 
They help to break up the curd formed from the casein of the milk during 
the pxocess of digestion. Some of the patent foods act in the same way 
and this is oiie of the secrets of their success. Occasionally a patent food 
used without milk is of value to tide the baby over a period of indigestion, 
to help when a trip is to be taken and fresh, clean milk is not available, 
or to take the place of the mother's milk during a brief temporary illness 
of the mother. On the whole, however, canned milk and patent foods 
used without milk should be last resorts. They may make a fat baby, 
but fatness does not mean development of muscles, bones, and nerves, 
or assurance of vigor and endtuance. 

USE OF solid foods 

If a child has been bottle-fed, the use of semi-solid or solid foods begins 
somewhat earlier than with the breast-fed baby. Wise care should underlie 
this use of solid foods and the baby should not participate in the family 
dietary, as so frequently happens, just because milk is no longer its sole 


The cereals given to the baby should be very thoroughly cooked. Many 
times failtu^ to make children Uke cereals is due to improper cooking. 
The half-raw cereal has an unpleasant taste and causes indigestion. Pack- 
age directions should not be depended on; they are given to tempt us to 
save time. Even partially prepared cereals, as rolled oats, when served 
to very small children should be cooked i J to 2 hours. A fireless cooker 
will make this both easy and cheap to accomplish and every family can 
afford at least a home-made cooker. Vegetables should be carefully 
prepared so as to keep them mild and delicate in flavor. At first they 
should be strained or rubbed through a sieve to remove all lumps or hard 


To realize the significance of an imderstanding of the right way to feed 
children, it is necessary simply to turn to some of the recent btiUetins on 
the feeding of animals. The writer has in mind one bulletin that gives 
the results of experiments in feeding growing swine. The kind of food 
given to them during their growth period was found to affect greatly the 
size and strength of the bones, the vigor and amount of muscular tissue, 
the size and activity of the Itmgs, kidneys, and liver, total growth and 
weight, and ultimately the ability to produce healthy offspring. So, after 
all. Providence is not altogether responsible for our physical defects. 

loio Thb Cornell Reading-Courses 

The feeding of the baby during the first nine months or year of its life 
is so important to its future that imder normal conditions nature is not 
willing to let us experiment with it, but cares for it herself by providing 
mother's milk. This first year is the time when the baby's digestive 
powers are being made ready for use. Toward the end of the year the 
healthy, human digestive apparatus is ready to begin its more exacting 
education. It now needs training by carefully chosen exercises. It would 
be absurd and imwise for us to try to hamper the year-old baby in his 
attempts to crawl or walk or otherwise use his strengthening muscles. 
It is equally foolish to limit the diet of the normal year-old child to milk 
only. He is instinctively ready to begin the active use of his muscles, 
whether of locomotion or digestion. On the other hand, these are func- 
tions which are by no means fully developed. Are we going to demand 
greater feats of the muscles of digestion than of the arm and leg muscles? 
The underlying principal of child feeding should be to develop the child's 
powers of digestion, and neither to retard nor to overtax them. If child 
labor is to be discouraged it must be discouraged in the less apparent 
but equally real way of making a child's immature digestive apparatus 
do grown-up service. 

The two mistakes most often made in feeding children are: 

(i) Giving foods unsuited to the stage and age of development. 

(2) Permitting children to eat between meals and at irregular hours. 

The baby just weaned is not immediately ready for a very varied diet 
of solid foods, although it has established its ability to digest starch and 
has increased its ability to digest the other food-sttiffs. These powers 
should be tested a little at a time and the burdens imposed on them should 
be gradually increased. The first starchy food given to a baby is cereal 
gruel mixed with its milk, later cereal jelly and unstrained cereal, and 
then bread crumbs and bits of crust or zwieback or tough educator crackers 
to develop its powers of mastication. Strained fruit-juices are given first, 
then fruit pulp and cooked mashed fruit, and finally the fruit itself. Meat 
broth and meat juice precede the use of scraped meat, and this precedes 
meat which is finely cut. Vegetables are mashed, bread is crisped, cereals 
strained, meat scraped or cut fine, until the child has some grinding teeth 
and is old enough to obey the command to " chew." The child should 
be trained to digest fat by giving it, first, rich milk, then -thin cream, 
then butter, and lastly other solid fats. 

This idea of gradually increasing the strength of the food to be digested 
as the child grows and develops should be carried out all through child- 
hood. If more thought were given to this there would be little need in 
later life to discuss the digestibility and indigestibility of various foods. 
A sound, well-educated stomach wotdd be able to stand the wear and tear 

Thb Cars and Feeding of Children ioii 

rf the eveiy-day diet. Certainly we should learn to digest foods that 
require real work on the part of the digestive organs, but this should come 
gradually. It is all very well to say that Jane or John is a perfectly vigor- 
ous child and already at two or three years of age shares the family dietary 
in all particulars. Do the grown-up Janes and Johns exhibit such sound 
health as to justify us in our belief that the vigor has endured? 

Much of the trouble that is laid at the door of teething and most of the 
diflSculties feared during the baby's second summer are due not to teeth 
and time, but to wrong feeding methods. The child's first summer is in 
point of fact more perilous than the second, but usually during the first 
year it is living on a carefully regulated diet and all the digestive pro- 
cesses are proceeding normally. 

During the second year, when foods other than milk should of necessity 
appear in the child's diet, unwise choice of foods is made and digestion 
is disturbed. Cutting teeth adds to this disorder and the time becomes 
one to be feared by the mother and suffered by the child. 

The following list of dietaries is given as a guide to aid in a wise choice 
of food for the child up through the seventh year. It is intended to be 
suggestive and to illustrate types of food for different ages, and does not 
pretend to cover all the foods which may appear in the child's dietary 
during these years. The actual dietary as prepared and served to the 
child must be a matter for individual adjustment and requires the prac- 
tice of much sound common sense. 

Dietary from 12th to i8th month 
First meal. 6-7 a. m. 

Warm milk mixed with a little thick cereal gruel or cereal jelly 


A little lightly cooked egg nwxed with stale crumbs, and a glass of warm 
Second meal, 9-10 a. m. 

Glass warm milk. 
Third meal, i~2 p. m. 

A lightly cooked egg mixed with stale crumbs, glass of warm milk 


Tablespoonful of thoroughly mashed potato with meat juice, glass of 
Fourth meal. Midway between meals. 

One or two tablespoonfuls orange juice or prune juice. (This meal may 
be given at nine o'clock in the morning instead of at this time.) 
Fifth meal. 5-6 p. m. 

Glass warm milk with cereal jelly. 

I0I2 Thb Cornell Reading-Courses 

Dietary from i8tk to 24ih month 
First meal. 6-7 A. m. 

Warm milk with lightly buttered bread 

Cereal with thin cream, glass of warm milk 

Lightly cooked egg, lightly buttered bread, glass of warm milk. 
Second meal. 10 a. m. 

Glass of milk with slice of bread. 
Third meal. 1-2 p. M. 

Mashed potato with dish gravy, bread and milk, very small serving 
baked apple or prune pulp 

Lightly cooked e^, bread and milk, small serving baked apple or prune 

Mashed spinach, carrots, or similar vegetable, bread and milk, small 
serving very simple junket or rice pudding or similar simple dessert. 
Fourth meal. Midway between meals. 

Tablespoonful orange juice or scraped apple. 
Fijth meal. 5-6 p. m. 
Bread and milk 

Milk toast. 

Although the child may be at the family table from about the third 
year, it shotdd not be allowed the freedom of the family dietary. It is 
far better for the child to learn that certain foods are not for its con- 
stmiption, and that they are actually as remote from its scheme of things 
as the moon. There is no better lesson in self-control or temperance than 
the one that may be taught in this simple way. 

Dietary for third year 
First meal, 7-8 a. m. 

Cereal with cream, milk to drink 

Lightly cooked e^ with toast and milk. 
Second meal. lo-ii a. m. 

Bread and milk. 
Third meal. 2 p. m. 
Lightly cooked egg, buttered baked potato, bread, milk, stewed fruit 

Broiled scraped beef, mashed vegetables as spinach, puree of peas, or 

Thb Cars and Pbeding op Children 1013 

canx)ts, bread, milk, light pudding, as rice or bread pudding or junket, 
or occasionally a simple ice ci:eam 

Bread and milk, baked potato and one other vegetable, smaU serving 

Fourth meal, 6-7 P. m. 
Bread and butter, milk 

Cereal mush and milk 

Bread and milk and stewed pnmes or apple sauce. 

Dietary for fifth year 

Breakfast. 7-8 A. M. 
Cereal with sprinkle of sugar and cream, bread and milk. 
An egg may be added to this meal. 

At 10 A. M. 

Milk with thin slice of bread and butter. 
Dinner. 12-1 p. m. 

Lightly cooked egg or finely cut meat, spinach or peas or beans well 
mashed, baked potato or boiled rice, stewed fruit or light pudding. 

Well-cooked cereal with cream, milk to drink, stewed fruit 


Lightly cooked egg, bread and butter, milk to drink, baked apple. 

Dietary for seventh year 


Cereal with sprinkle of sugar and cream, eggs, poached, boiled, or 
scrambled, milk with bread and butter. Fruit may be eaten at this meal. 
At 10 A. M. 

Glass of milk and a cracker. 

Small piece of steak or roast, potato, rightly cooked cabbage or other 
v^etable, bread and butter and milk, some simple dessert as custard, 
bread and jelly, or fruit. 

Eggs or cream soup or milk toast, bread and butter, milk, stewed fruit 
or bread and jelly. 

I0I4 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

The above dietaries may be greatly simplified, but should hardly be 
made more complex. Such simplification has been fully explained in a 
previous bulletin on Human Nutrition. Ehiring the early years of child- 
hood, fried foods, pastries, hot breads, heavy puddings, strongly flavored 
vegetables, much meat, candies, and the like should find scant place in the 
diet. Tea and coffee or other stimulants should never be given to children. 

All through childhood, milk should be a mainstay in the dietary. The 
complaint is often made by mothers that their children do not Uke milk 
and will not take it. Inquiry generally shows that the cause for this has 
been the use of quantities of very sweet or highly flavored foods. The 
distaste is generally a fancied one. The cases in which a child has some 
persistent disability to digest milk are very rare. If the child has been 
permitted to become notional in his food habits and he will not eat raw 
milk, some way should be found to include it ih the dietary. This can 
be done through the use of milk soups, weak cocoa, custards, cereals 
cooked with milk, and simple puddings. All the milk needed by the child 
may be concealed in this way. 

The child's sense of taste is very highly developed. It derives much 
more flavor and ** taste satisfaction " from such bland foods as milk and 
cereals, and from simple bread and butter, than does the adult. The 
healthy child does not need highly flavored, stimulating foods, for nature 
has given it a keener relish for bland ones. If strongly flavored foods are 
constantly given to the child its keen sense of .taste becomes dulled and 
the child soon loses its pleasure in simple fare. 

The question is constantly asked, is not the child's natural fondness 
for " sweets " an indication of its need for candy or sugar? A certain 
amount of sugar in the child's dietary is certainly a very desirable way of 
supplying some of the child's energy. But this sugar may be supplied 
best in the form of milk, in sweet fruits and vegetables, in fruit jellies, and 
in well-sweetened simple puddings, with only occasional pieces of candy 
as a dessert at the close of the meal. All the sugar a child needs can be 
included with other foods at meal-time without the necessity of the too 
common between-meal indulgences. If a child is allowed to eat candy, 
cake, and quantities of sweet crackers between meals, the appetite con- 
stantly accustomed to the stimulus of the sweet food becomes vitiated. 
As a result, the meal-time becomes a farce. ** Not himgry," is the com- 
plaint. Muscles, nerves, blood, and bones, which need all the things 
that only such foods as milk and eggs and cereals and fruit are able to 
supply, become badly nourished and the child is not the rosy, wholesome, 
sound-sleeping, rightly-developing mortal intended by nature. 

If a child is very active it is a simple matter to increase the sugar in 
its dietary without giving candy between meals. Sugar may be allowed 

The Care and Feeding op Children 1015 

with cereal or in bread and milk. Sweet jellies may be given to the younger 
children at some meal and preserves to the older ones. Simple desserts 
and cooked fruits may be well sweetened. Then the child eats the other 
foods along with the sugar and the diet is not a one-sided affair. When 
we say that constant candy eating results in poor teeth we are describing 
a more deeply seated evil than we realize. If poor teeth are caused by 
too much candy, it is usually because the use of the sugar has so satis- 
fied the child's appetite that the child has been unwilling to include the 
blander bone-building materials in its diet. If the teeth are affected as 
a result, what about the harmful effects on the more obscure tissues which 
are hidden from us.^ Concentrated sugar solutions are very irritating 
to the mucous membranes and may give rise to gastric disorders, hence 
the further desirability of having the sugar used in the dietary^ diluted 
with other foods. 

Some of the men most learned in the conditions best for little children 
believe that the use of meat in the dietary of the child imtil after the fifth, 
sixth, or seventh years is not advisable. The main reasons given for this 
are: Meat is more subject to decay in the intestines than other protein 
foods. Clean, wholesome milk tends to prevent this decay. Meat con- 
tains stimulating substances which, though they may be of use in the older 
organism, are not needed by the yoimger one. The baby or child should 
be vigorous enough not to need any stimulant. These substances give 
rise to waste products in the tissues which, though they may not be di- 
rectly harmful, are certainly not beneficial to the child. The kitten is 
often cited as an illustration of this principle. While cats Uve healthily 
and well on a rich meat diet, if kittens are fed largely on meat they become 
subject to convulsions. Meat is a highly flavored food. A diet rich in 
meat is likely to be a diet poor in milk, for the higher flavor tempts away 
from the milder one. Such a diet may be deficient in lime. 

Some physicians believe that it is an tmwise practice to eliminate meat 
from the child's diet because meat is a useful source of iron. An intel- 
ligent knowledge of foods soon shows how this disadvantage may be over- 
come by using eggs and certain vegetable foods relatively rich in a form 
of iron more available than that which occurs in meat. Meat has one 
decided advantage in that it necessitates the use of the powers of masti- 

attractive serving 

It is impossible to overestimate the importance of serving food in an 
attractive maimer. Food may be of the right kind, carefully prepared, 
may be dean and wholesome and good, but at the last it may be presented 
in such a way as to appeal neither to eye nor to appetite. If a child dqes 

ioi6 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

not like food which the parent knows to be desirable, the dislike may 
generally be conquered by a modification in the way the food is served. 

Two little girls of the author's acquaintance would not eat baked potato 
until its commonplaceness had been removed by having wonderful riUs 
mounded up the side with the tines of a fork. The change in taste caused 
in this way was very real to them and they clamored for more and more. 
A little imagination on the part of the parent will do much to make John 
and Jane eat bread and milk and find therein the flavor of nectar and 
ambrosia. But the bread and milk must be as daintily served and as 
attractively presented as any more elaborate feast. 

the school lunch 

The school lunch is a problem. We all concede that it is better for 
the child to have his noon meal qtuetly at a well-ordered table and under 
dose supervision of grown-ups. This is not always possible, however, 
and in many places it is necessary for the child to carry his lunch with 
him in pail or box. The question is, therefore, how may this best be done? 

If food is ever to be attractively presented, here is the opporttmity. 
The limited variety made necessary by the use of cold foods, the tendency 
toward messiness luiless the packing is careful, may make the child scorn 
bread and butter and choose only sweet or highly flavored foods for this 
meal. The mainstay of the child's lunch box should be sandwiches. Not 
thick slices of bread, but bread cut thin, both slices buttered lightly and 
filled with something not too dry. If meat is used it should be sliced 
thin, or it may be ground fine and mixed with cream to form a paste. 
Slices of hard cooked egg seasoned with a very little oil or cream salad 
dressing, peanut butter softened with cream, jams and marmalades, all 
make good sandwiches. The crusts should be left on the bread, but the 
sandwiches shotdd be carefully cut and wrapped singly or in pairs in 
the paraffin paper which is used for wrapping butter. A piece of simple 
cake or a cookie, and a liberal allowance of some juicy fruit, will be 
enough. It would be better, however, if occasionally, at least, some little 
unexpected treat is included, as a few shelled nuts, a piece of candy, a little 
jar of jelly, or some much-loved dainty. 

The best limch box is made of tin. This type of box may be kept 
perfectly dean; and at the same time it keeps the food moist and in good 

If milk can be kept cold and clean, a bottle of milk is an excellent ad- 
jtmct to the child's lundi. The mothers in a rural community would 
do well to take this matter up for discussion and see whether it may not 
be possible to arrange for the keeping of the milk. 

Thb Carb and Feeding op Children 1017 


It is important that a child should learn to masticate its food well, 
and to this end it should have something to chew as soon as the large 
back teeth begin to come. Tough bread, zwieback, educator crackers, 
and, later, some meat are useful for this ptupose. All of these things 
develop the powers of mastication and give the exercise necessary to de- 
velop the jaw and make room for the second teeth. 


Again let emphasis be laid on the bad habit of allowing children to eat 
between meals. It results in no good to the child and must be strongly 
condemned. If a child is habitually and really hungry between two defi- 
nitely established meals, sho^rten the interval between the meals, or give 
more food at the meal, or establish a simple meal of bread and milk at 
a regular time between the two meals, or allow him to eat dry, tmbuttered 
bread. If dry, unbuttered bread is given, it will be foimd that the between- 
meal habit exists frequently more because of a desire for something good 
to eat than from actual hxmger. Learn to distinguish between habit and 
hunger. It is a duty which parents owe their children and if it is neglected 
the child may finally pay the price. 


From the time they arrive until the time they depart, a trouble, and 
when they are gone most trouble of all, the teeth. The teeth begin to 
appear about the sixth month, although there is considerable variation in 
this, as well as in the order in which they come. The following table 
shows the usual order and time of eruption of the temporary milk teeth: 

Lower central incisors 6th to 9th month 

Upper incisors 8th to loth month 

Lower lateral incisors and first molars 15th to 21st month 

Canines i6th to 20th month 

Second molars 20th to 30th month 

Early appearance of teeth is not uncommon and may not be indicative 
of any wrong condition. If the teeth are delayed the cause shoidd at 
once be investigated, as this condition may indicate some serious defect 
in nutrition, resulting in retarded or interrupted bone formation. Teeth- 
ing is a normal process and should proceed fairly easily. Pain or sick- 
ness at this time should not be overlooked or set aside as being the natural 
result of teething. The cause may be indigestion or some deep-seated 
malnutrition, and it should be investigated. 

ioi8 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

The teeth should receive care from the first. Before the child is old 
enough to handle a toothbrush, the mouth should be washed out twice 
a day with absorbent cotton wet with dilute boric acid water. The im- 
portance of keeping the teeth clean is twofold: first, to prevent their 
decay, and second, to remove particles of food which, left in the mouth, 
decompose and later, when swallowed with the food, start decomposition 
in the intestine. Good digestion in later life depends so much on proper 
mastication that defective teeth often interfere seriously with nutrition. 

It is poor economy to neglect the care of a child's teeth. Last year's 
hat and coat had better do double duty if it is a choice between new clothes 
and the services of a good dentist. In many of the large cities, dental 
inspection in the schools is being reqtiired, for it is now known that decayed 
teeth may so affect the child's general health as to make him dull and 
backward. It has been found to be cheaper for State and taxpayer to 
pay for medical inspection than to pay for teachers to go on teaching over 
and over again curably dull and backward children. 

The child's dietary should be so regulated as to ensure right nourish- 
ment of all bony tissues. Any habits such as " thumb sucking " or the 
habitual use of that pernicious plaything, the ** soother " or " comforter," 
should be discouraged. The pressure on the gums through constant suck- 
ing throws the whole arch of the mouth out of symmetry and later makes 
mastication difficult and thus impairs digestion. Adenoids are said to be 
caused by thumb sucking and the use of the comforter. 


The belief that all ills may be ctu-ed with drugs is fortunately diminish- 
ing as the knowledge of nutrition and hygiene increases, but there is stiU 
too much " faith in the label on the bottle." Only a good physician 
should be allowed to determine what medicines shall be given to the child. 
The following quotations concerning soothing syrups are made from a 
recent government bulletin on habit-forming agents, and show what 
disastrous treatment is often innocently given to the baby: 

** It has long been known to the medical profession that these products 
as a rule contain habit-forming agents, but the majority of mothers have 
been and still are ignorant of this fact." 

** In some instances, in which the remedy is freely used and the child 
does not succumb, there is developed a case of infant drug addiction. As 
soon as the effects of one dose pass away, the child becomes irritable and 
fretful, with the result that another dose is administered, the craving is 
met, and the child is quieted, a condition which is analogous in every 
respect to drug addiction among adults. The chief active agents of sooth- 

The Care and Feeding op Children 1019 

ing syrups are well known to be opium, morphin, heroin, codein, chloro- 
form, and chloral hydrate in some combination. The following are repre- 
sentative of this class: 

Children's Comfort (morphin sulfate). 

Dr. Fahey's Pepsin Anodyne Compoimd (morphin sulfate). 

Dr. Fahmey's Teething Syrup (morphin and chloroform). 

Dr. Fowler's Strawberry and Peppermint Mixture (morphin). 

Dr. Groves' Anodyne for Infants (morphin sulfate). 

Hooper's Anodyne, the Infant's Friend (morphin hydrochlorid). 

Jadway's Elixir for Infants (codein). 

Dr. James' Soothing Syrup Cordial (heroin). 

Kopp's Baby's Friend (morphin sulfate). 

Dr. Miller's Anodyne for Babies (morphin sulfate and chloral hydrate). 

Dr. Moffett's Teethina, Teething Powders (powdered opium). 

Victor Infant Relief (chloroform and cannabis indica). 

Mrs. Winslow's Soothing Syrup (morphin sulfate). 

" Soothing syrups containing habit-forming agents, used without dis- 
crimination, undoubtedly leave their impression on the delicate organisms 
of infants and induce tendencies which tmder unfortunate circimistances 
in future life may be aroused to activity and develop an evil habit of one 
form or another. The question arises: How is this condition to be met? 
The signs of the times point to two ways, namely, education, and the with- 
drawal of the dangerous articles, both measures appearing to be necessary. 
At present there are on the market, intended to be used for children, 
several mixtures free from the customary habit-forming agents, but they 
apparently do not give satisfaction as formerly, as manufacttirers are con- 
stantly receiving calls for the * old kinds.' " 

the training of parents 

Physicians, lawyers, engineers, teachers, must all receive definite tech- 
nical training before they are adjudged ready to assume their professional 
duties. A plea must be made for training parents. Is there any pro- 
fession which, to be successful, requires greater intelligence, resourceful- 
ness, endurance, self-control, ability to lead and to govern, than being 
just a parent? The knowledge of children and their needs is but little 
more inborn than a knowledge of law or medicine. In every home, an 
effort should be made to leam through books, or directly through the ex- 
perience of others, something of the needs, both physical and spiritual, of 
the children in the family. The best inheritance a child may have is the 
training and care given to it by thoughtful, intelligent parents. 

I020 Thb Cornell Reading-Courses 


I. Methods op Infant Feeding. 

A. Natural method or breast feeding. 

1. Composition and characterstics of mother's milk as compared 

with the milk of other animals. 

2. Relative feebleness of the baby and other young animals. 

3. Reasons for better results obtained by using mother's milk. 

4. Causes of the inability of the mother to nurse her baby and 

of the failure of the child to flourish. 

5. How these causes may be remedied. 

6. Has the State any responsibility in legislating so as to secure 

to the working woman the privilege of nursing her children? 
B. Artificial feeding. 

1. Milk of some other animal. 

a. Cow's milk. 

1. Characteristics as compared with human nulk. 

2. Reasons for difficulties in using cow's milk for infant 


3. Underlying principles in modifying milk. 

4. Methods of adapting cow's milk to suit the baby. 

5. The use of various gruels in making modified milk 


6. Causes of differences in results obtained by using miUc 

from various breeds of cattle. 

7. Clean miUc. 

a. Relative cleanness of cow's milk and human milk 

when it reaches the child. 

b. Possibilities of infecting cow's milk on its way to the 


c. Practical problems in producing clean milk. 

d. Sterilization and pasteurization. 

e. Sterilized milk, pasteurized milk, or milk produced 

imder dean conditions, — which? 

b. Goat's milk, etc. 

2. Patent or proprietary foods. 

a. Comparative composition of various patent foods and 

human milk. 

b. Reasons for the use of patent foods. 

c. Their use and abuse. 

d. Possible injury from ignorant use of patent foods. 

e. Reasons for advantages of cow's milk over other foods in 

artificial feeding. 

The Care and Feeding of Children 1021 

11. Feeding op Children After Weaning. 

1. Underl3ring principle in feeding childrexL 

2. Food for children of various ages. 

3. Effects of wrong nutrition on children. 

4. Disorders caused by malnutrition. 

5. Comparative value of milk and eggs and meat as foods for the 

growing child. 

6. The use of sugar in the child's dietary. 
7« Fruits and vegetables for children. 

8. Mineral matter in the diet of the growing child. 

9. What is to be learned about feeding children from feeding experi- 

ments performed on animals? 

10. The interrelation of right food, exercise, fresh air, and rest. 

11. What about eating between meals? 

12. Shall children share the family meal? 

13. Plan a week's meals for your family, considering the needs of each 

member and arranging the meals as far as possible so that most 
of the food may be eaten by all. 


Abbott, E. H. On the Training of Parents. Houghton, MifHin & Co., 

Boston, Mass. 
Brown, D. R. The Baby, a Book for Mothers and Nui:ses. Whitcomb 8c 

Barrows, Boston, Mass. 
Cotton, A. C. Care of Children. American School of Home Economics, 

Chicago, 111. 
Griffith, J. P. C. The Care of the Baby. W. B. Saunders & Co., New 

Hall, G. S. Youth. D. Appleton & Co., New York. 
Holt, E. L. The Care and Feeding of Children. D. Appleton & Co., 

New York. 
Hunt, Caroline E. Daily Meals of School Children. United States 

Government Bulletin, Bureau of Publications, U. S. Department of 

Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 
Kirkpatrick, E. A. Fimdamentals of Child Study. The Macmillan 

Company, New York. 
Latimer, C. W. Girl and Woman. D. Appleton & Co., New York. 
Mitchell, Margaret. Fireless Cooker Cook-Book. Doubleday, Page & 

Co., New York. 
Morley, Margaret. Renewal of Life. A. C. McClurg & Co., New York. 
Oppenheim, Nathan. Development of the Child. The Macmillan Com- 
pany, New York, 

I022 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

Saleeby, C. W. Health, Strength and Happiness. Mitchell Kennerly, 

2 East 29th St., New York. 
Saleeby, C. W. Parenthood and Race Culture. Moffatt, Yard & Co., 

New York. 
Shearer, W. J. The Management and Training of Children. The Mac- 

millan Company, New York. 
Starr, Louis. Diseases of Digestive Organs of Children. P. Blakiston's 

Sons, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Starr, Louis. Hygiene of the Nursery. P. Blakiston's Sons, Philadelphia, 

Washbume, M. P. Study of Child Life. American School of Home 

Economics, Chicago, 111. 
Yale, L. M., and Pollak, Gustav. The Century Book for Mothers. The 

Century Company, New York. 
Bulletin on The Production of Sanitary Milk. State of New York, De- 
partment of Agriculture. 
Bulletin 95. Experiments in Pig Feeding. Pennsylvania State College 

Agricultural Experiment Station. 
Bulletin 213. Specific Effects of Rations on the Development of Swine. 

Ohio Agrictiltural Experiment Station, Wooster, Ohio. 
Bulletin, October, 1909. Reduction of Infant Mortality. New York 

State Department of Health. 
Farmers' Bulletins: 
No. 363. The Use of Milk as a Food. R. D. Milner 
42. Facts about Milk. R. A. Pearson. 
74. Milk as Food. 

63. Care of Milk on the Farm. R. A. Pearson. 
413. The Care of Milk and Its Use in the Home. George M. 

Whittaker, L. A. Rogers, Caroline L. Hunt. 
346. The Computation of Rations for Farm Animals by the Use 

of Energy Values. Henry Prentiss Armsby. 
309. Bacteria in Cream. 
348. Bacteria in Milk. L. A. Rogers. 
Circular 117. A City Milk and Cream Contest as a Practical Method 

of Improving the Milk Supply. L. B. Lane, Ivan C. 
Weld, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
Abbott, Lyman. The Profession of Motherhood. The Outlook, April 10, 

Addams, Geo. S. Children. The Survey, June, 191 1. 
Aikens, Charlotte A. Lunches for Travelers and School Children. Boston 

Cooking School Magazine, September, 1909. 
Briscoe, Margaret Sutton. The Hospitalized Child. Good Housekeep- 
ing, November, 1910. 

The Cars and Feeding op Children 1023 

Brude, Rob. W. Saving the Babies. The Survey, November 26, 1510. 
B. S. B. The Training of Our Baby. Good Housekeeping, January, 1910. 
Chambers, Mary D. Diet in Childhood, Sickness and Old Age. Boston 

Cooking School Magazine, January-April, 1908. 
Greer, Edith. What Children Should Eat. Human Welfare Publica- 
tion, Southwest Harbor, Me. 
Stewart, Gwendoljm, Diet in Relation to Growth, Journal of Home 

Economics, February, 1911. 
Taylor, John Madison. Children of Feeble Resistance. Home Science 

Magazine, February, 1904. 
Washburn, Marion Foster. The Children's Diet. Good Housekeeping, 

September, 1908. 
Weanii^ Bottle-Fed Babies. American 

Hoiisekeeper, August, 1911. 
Williams, Mrs. Mary E. Infant Feeding. Journal of Home Economics, 

April, 191 1. 



Published Semi-monthly by the New York State College of Agrictilture at 
Cornell University Throughout the Year. Application for Entry as 
Second-Class Matter at the Post-Office at Ithaca, N. Y.. Pending 

L. H. Bailey, Director 

r. _^« ....^ !>.«„ xx^.,^ S Martha Van Rensselaer, Supervisor 

Course for the Farm Home | j^^^ ^^^ g. Harrington, Assistant Supervisor 




By means of the discussion papers we have an opportunity to become 
acquainted. We shall take it as an indication on your part that you are 
interested if you answer the questions and return them to us. The staff 
of the Department of Home Economics is ready to assist in yotir study of 
scientific home-making. We want your assistance as well. Ask questions, 
offer suggestions, let us have the benefit of your experience. You thus 
become a vital part of the work of the State College in its efforts for rural 

Will you please send your opinions on the following points to the 
Supervisor of The Cornell Reading-Course for the Farm Home ? 

I. Discuss the ways for making simple foods attractive to children. 


1026 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

2. What catises a child to eat between meals and how may the habit 
be broken? 

3 Plan a week's meals for your family, considering the needs of each 
member and arranging the meals as far as possible so that most 
of the food may be eaten by all. 

Name. . 


Published Semi-monthly by the New York State College of Agriculture at 
Cornell University, Throughout the Year. Application for Entry as 
Second-Class Matter at the Poet Office at Ithaca, N. Yl, Pending 

L. H. Bailey, Director 

r-^wr.^- ^^« ,^» 17. «w xj^»,« / Martha Van Rensselaer, Supervisor 
Course for the Farm Home | ^^^ j^^^ g, Harrington. Assistant Supervisor 

VOL. ,. No. 5 DECBt&ER{. 791 1 '^^ ^^'^^ ^""^ ^•^ * 

Introduction by 

Martha Van Rensselaer 

" Come forth into the light of things, let nature be your teacher." — ^Wordsworth. 
" To make work happy and rest fruitful is the aim of art.** — William Morris. 

E may not understand the principles of art 
and yet be possessed of artistic temperament 
-or capable of artistic training. We may hold 
the erroneous idea that to be artistic one 
must express this quality by painting a picture. 
Every one may express an artistic temperament either 
in dress, in house fiunishings, or even in the arrange- 
ment of flowers in a vase. This is the adaptation 
of the artistic sense to life itself, which is the best 
aim in education. 
One simple and effective standard is nature itself. A pot of 
plants, a vase of flowers, effectively placed is worth all of the 
questionable ornament that can be supplied. Life has zest simply 
in the contemplation of these simple forms of art. 

The following little anecdote carries a great meaning: 
" * Mary, come out, the violets are in bloom.' 
* No, I cannot, I am housecleaning.' ' Dirt will 
keep, but violets won't.' 
•* She went." 

Longfellow's advice to Mary Anderson, who became a great artist, 
was to study each day a beautiful picture, read a beautiful poem, 
hear a piece of fine music, or observe a bit of natural scenery. This 
is good advice to the worker in any field, for every day in which this 
is done is less spiritless and more worth while. 


lOzS The Corkbll Reading-Courses 

Every human being is responsible for making his own part of the world 
as beautiful as possible — by causing a flower to bloom where none had 
bloomed before, by ridding a doorway of unsightly weeds, by painting 
a weather-beaten surface of the house, by hanging a picture that will 
mean something in the life of the observer. This desire to beautify seems 
to be common to mankind; the person who has not this inclination may 
have become too absorbed in arduous duties to allow it to develop. 

Ftc. t. — Nature an efftctwe standard in decoration 

It is not enough that houses be merely built; after they are built they 
should be made homelike by means of serviceable furniture and purpose- 
ful decoration. The taste and knack of the housewife may make even 
the commonest home attractive and restful. All women cannot be artists. 
They may never have used the brush and pencil, but every day they make 
a picture; they try to bring their rooms and their fiunishings into one 

Household Dbcoration 1029 

harmonious effect. It is a great study, bringing zest to the daily work 
and adding comfort and refinement to the home. There are principles in 
decoration that every one can leam^ and good results will follow as the 
housewife studies nature in order to enable her to simplify and elevate 
her taste and ambitions. 

Decoration is not mere ornament; it contributes to the making of a 
home picture. To produce a picture the artist places on canvas the 
forms and colors necessary to bring all things into beautiful harmony. 
In the art of decoration we are constantly producing pictures. The 
decorator makes use of materials to produce effects as truly as does the 
painter, but in a different way. The artist with brush works upon canvas 
not merely to show certain paints. The housewife who adorns her home 
works for general effects, although attention may be centered on some 
particular object that is emphasized by a pleasing relation to its 

Simplicity an important principle in decoration. — Comfort and good 
taste are excellent motives in decoration. The first law of good taste is 
simplicity. Two kinds of flowers do not grow on the same stem, although 
we are sometimes guilty of placing a conglomerate mixttire of flowers in 
one vase. 

The Japanese teach us lessons ixx simplicity of decoration. Their sug- 
gestions should do away with complex mingling of materials and arrange- 
ment. They do not display articles on their walls for mere ornament, 
but place them in cabinets to show to their friends as a matter of interest. 
Their homes are not over-decorated in order to show off bric-a-brac. 

In seeking materials with which to decorate, combine utility and beauty 
if possible. This makes the most attractive decoration. ** Be its beauty 
its sole duty " is not always sufficient. 


Helen Binkerd Young 

The problem of home decoration is always with us. In the absence of 
such advice as good decorators might give on this subject, the average 
woman is thrown on her own resources, solving her problems by senti- 
ment rather than by reason. This brings many failures and few successes; 
for preferences, to be safe and practicable, should be based on wise and 
reasonable principles. This bulletin aims to review these principles. 

Unity of ejffect, — Broadly speaking, a simple, united effect is the first 
quality to be desired for interiors. This is true whether the interior be 
one room or several connecting rooms through which vistas are seen. 
All parts of the home picture should harmonize so as to produce one 

1030 The Cornell Reading>Courses 

sustained impression. As we enter a room, we should seem to be infolded 
in an atmosphere of cheer, comfort, repose, and freedom. No single 
object nor surface shoiUd intrude itself on our immediate notice; later, 
when we have sunk contentedly into the spirit of the place, we may notice 
at leisure the various objects and ideas that have united to give us this 
pleasing impression. In asimilarwaypersonsimprcssus asbeingcharming. 
cordial, earnest; later we notice that they have fine eyes, soft hair, and 
other attractive features. 
This spirit of the interior of the house is as vital as the spirit of a person. 

Fig. 2, — "A simple united effect is the first quality to be desired for interior^' 

It must be a simple, sterling expression of the life within; otherwise it is 
a mere chaos of wood and textile. Says Lowell : 

" Roots, wood, bark and leaves, singly perfect may be. 
But elapt hodge-podge together, they don't make a tree." 


Since the walls, colii^, and floor of a room present greater surface than 
any of the furnishings, they require first attention. It is chiefly on the 

Household Decoration 1031 

walls that we must rely for uniting our whole interior scheme, for they 
serve as a common background for furnishings and persons. Moreover, 
they define the outermost limits of the interior and should be covered in 
such a way as to hold their place. For this reason we must avoid the 
use of bright colors and showy patterns; these have no place in the modest 
home. Bright or gayly papered walls have a way of crowding into a 
room and clamoring for notice. We must remember that it is never the 
intent of decoration to 
be conspicuous or ex- 
eiting. The home 
should be a place of 
rest. There is small 
encouragement for re- 
laxation in the sight 
of walls flaring with 
color, writhing with 
scrolls, or peering 
with spots. Discard- 
ing these two things, 
then, we have left for 
use all sorts of quiet 
colors and modest 
patterns. Let us dis- 
cuss these subjects of 
color and pattern 
thoroughly in order 
that we may be armed 
with knowledgeaswell 
as with preferences. 

Color. — For the pur- 
poses in hand, we may 
say that (with the ex- 
ception of black and 

white) there exist only Pic. 3. — "Gayly papered waits have a way 0} crmuding into 

three colors that can- aroomafufdamoringfarnolict. Tkeri « smaiienamr- 

agement for relaxalton in the sight of walls writhing vnlk 

not be formed by scrolls " 

combinations of other 

colors. These are red, yellow, and blue, and are commonly called 

the primary colors. Many color experiments have been tried on 

folks, sick and well; and while yellow proves merely cheering and 

sunny, colors that are strongly red have been found to be somewhat 

exdting, and those that are strongly blue to be somewhat depressing. 

1032 The Cornell Reading-jCourses 

Therefore, if we are to have restftil homes we nrnst avoid using large 
quantities of colors that are strongly red or blue, for these demand of us 
too much nervous energy. Consciously or otherwise we react to their 
influence, and sensitive women have been known to pay the price of one 
headache a week for a red wall paper. We confess to this color influence 
ourselves in such expressions as " red with anger" and " having the 

Compare these mental states with the calm mood expressed by the 
words " in a brown study." Why is brown calm? Because it is a mix- 
ture, of red, yellow, and blue, in which each color subdues the intensity 
of the others. It is by mixing these three bright colors that all our soft, 
livable colors are produced; if mixed in equal proportions we get a gray, 
which all agree is a color that " goes with everything." We now see 
why this is true: because gray contains all the colors that exist, it will 
harmonize with each in turn. If to this gray mixttire an excess of red 
and yellow in varying proportions is added, all sort^ of soft reds, tans, 
and browns are produced; if an excess of blue and yellow in varying pro- 
portions is added, soft gray-blues and greens are produced. 

These soft colors are called " tones." By covering our walls with soft 
colors, or tones, we may unite into one harmonious effect the red of mahog- 
any, the brown of walnut, the various shades of oak, and other motley 
colors present in mixed furnishings. This is an important problem in 
the average home. 

The color influence of nature, — Natural surroundings greatly influence 
the color sense. In our climate nature moves in great shifting masses 
of greens and browns, according to leafy or leafless seasons. For this 
reason it will be found that interior color effects in various shades of green 
and brown are likely to be pleasing and restful to folks in general. Not 
that these are the only colors that may be successfully used; but it is a 
comfort to know that for almost any room intjuestion some shade that 
will be safe and attractive may be found within the wide range of greens 
and browns. 

Our reference to " warm colors " and " cool colors " also comes from 
our contact with nature. Warm colors we associate with blaze, heat, 
and sunlight; cool colors with leafy shadows, blue sky, ice, and distant 
hills. " Green as grass " is a frequent term of comparison; yet observe 
that grass is not so green when compared with a green wall paper. The 
trouble is that we are not keen enough observers: we imagine Nature 
cruder than she is. So if we attempt to outwit her by using paper that 
is greener than grass she responds by fading it until it is fit to live with. 
Depend upon it, all bright colors in inexpensive materials are likely to 
fade. One should reckon with this in mind, for fast dyes are expensive 

Household DEcoHAtloW ^°3i 

and are used chiefly for coloring expensive stuffs. Greens and blues are 
especiaLy treacherous, because, roughly speaking, colors tend to fade 
toward the yellow. Hence buffs, tans, and browns are usually more 

If we stand off and look at a summer landscape we notice that, 
broadly speaking, the great masses of leaves, grass, and grain, 
broken as they are by sunlight and shadow and softened 
by atmosphere, are 
only tones after all; 
and that brilliant 
colors are reserved 
tor bits of accent or 
fleeting effects, as a 
bluebell, a yellow 
daisj', an orange 
sunset, or an autumn 
maple. These con- 
ditions in nature, 

if applied to our 

subject of home 

decoration, would 

aiggest soft colors 

for all large surfaces 

as wall, ceiling, floor, 

and hangings, with 

accents of bright 

color in pictures, 

books, lamp-shades, 

and other small ob- 
jects, as Nature uses 

her flowers. This 

furnishes a sparkling 

playof color over the Fig. 4. — A« harmonious corner in a north room. Walls and 

bterior and enliv«^ SS'S'^iiJ^fiSri"'' ""■ ''^' "" °''°"' '"- 
the scene. 

Figures and patterns for walls. — Since a wall is a flat surface, designs 
should be flatly represented so as to lie tight to the wall. They should 
in general represent only two dimensions, length and breadth, not thick- 
ness. All shaded moldings or designs of any kind that imitate rounded 
forms are false in principle. A natural rose or an actual grape vine crawl- 
ing through an actual trellis is not good decoration. A floral wall paper 
should si^gest to us the idea of a rose or other growth adapted to use on 
a flat surface — not a confusion of lifelike flowers bulging from the wall. 


The Cornell Reading-Courses 

Only in pictures and in statuary is actual representation good art 
Even then it should not be so realistic in detail that we can see every 
wrinkle in a face or read the labels on all the books in the picture. Good 
art, in both pictures and decoration, must leave something to the 
imagination. Natural forms should be 
somewhat conventionalized before they 
are good decoration. " Conventional- 
ized " means simplified in form or color 
and applied to some de&nite orderly 
arrangement. All geometric all-over 
patterns, or conventional flower designs 
in two or three tones of the same color 
or two hannonious colors, are likely to 
be good. An all-over pattern that con- 
nects or interlaces is more pleasing than 
one composed of separate spots. 

Most scroll patterns are frivolous and 
meaningless and are likely to be bad. 
Large medallion or shield-shaped spots 
with scroll y outline are a very common 
type of distressing pattern. Figures of 
a pattern should be not too far apart. 
else we are continually surprised at each 
repetition and never get used to the idea. 
About seventy-five per cent of figured 
wall papers arfe on the wrong principle; 
therefore, when in doubt about a pattern, 
choose a pl^n one. Avoid selecting 
patterns that, viewed from a distance, 
suggest queer faces, human shapes, or 
other absurdities. If a pattern attests 
an odd resemblance once it is likely to do so again, and one cannot 
consider it a dignified wall covering. 

■ These principles of pattern apply also to rugs, upholstery, curtains, 
and other flat surface designs. 


Before deciding on the decoration for any particular room, one must 
first size up the situation. The paper hanger is not the person who can 
best dedde whether your walls shall be tliis color or that, light or dark, 
plain or figured, for these things depend upon home conditions that he 
knows nothing about. The home-maker knows, as the decorator cannot 

Fig. 5. — A natural rose or actual 
grape vine wUh actual trellis i. 
good decoration 

Household Decoration 


know, for what the room is used, whether it is naturally Hght or dark, 
sunny or sunless, high or low, large or small, and what colors are present 
in woodwork, floor, and furnishings. These are the considerations that 
should influence interior decoration, for obviously if a room has any nat- 

Two tbaAta of green Dull blue tuid gray 

Fig. 6. — Tkree good all-over pallerni in tao 

Two ihulea of gretnlih gray 
te harmonious tones 

ural deficiencies in proportion, light, or harmony of furnishing, such faults 
should be overcome if possible in the decoration. It is the same principle 
that influences personal dressing: the tall woman chooses such styles of 
clothing as make her appear shorter, the short woman tries to look a little 
taller, the stout woman to look a little thinner, and the thin woman to 
iook a little stouter. A ready-made siut will fit tolerably well a woman 
of average height and weight, but will not exactly fit any of the four 
above-mentioned types. 

This is precisely the weak point of fads and novelties in decoration: 
they are ideas for the average case that cannot in the very nature of things 
take account of differ- 
ing conditions- Com- , 
mon sense and reli- 
ance on a few sound 
principles are surer 
guides than " the 
latest thing." Grow- 
ing tired of a wall 
covering is nearly 
always an admission 
that it is designed 
I wrong principle. 

Fig. j.—An 

rr palUrn Ikat 

te composed of separate spots 

■e pleasing 

Moreover, if we wish really to be economic we 
should use wall coverings that will stand the test of satisfaction for a long 
period of time. Except for the sake of cleanliness, there is hardly more 
sense in changing the wall paper every year than there would be in remov- 

1036 Thb Cornell Rbadino-Coursbs 

ing the woodwork or changing the floors. Wall decoration would 

be undertaken more cautiously if viewed in the Ught of a fixed part 
or element of the house. 

The use of the room. — In all family 
living-rooms ^of whatever sort we are 
likely to have various tastes, ages, and 
moods to satisfy. Only an unobtrusive 
wall covering is appropriate here; for a 
paper the color and pattern of which 
strike our fancy when we are fresh and 
rested may oppress us when we are tired. 
If one intends to cover walls with paper, 
it is a good plan to bring home rolls of 
several selections and look at them in 
their proper setting and in various 
moods. One may thus test their effect 
before buying. The color schemes of 
adjoining rooms through which vistas 

Pig. 8. — "Large medaUion or shtela- , ,. 1, 'j ..■ 1 Li ^ 

shaped spou with scrolly outline are scon need not be identical, but must 
art a common type of distressing harmonize in order to produce an effect 
P*^*""* of spaciousness. It is very jarring to 

look from a yellow room into a blue 

room on the one hand and a green one 

on the other. The color scheme is thus 

broken into several small divisions and 

unity of effect is destroyed. 

The passing whims of fashion or of the 

paper hanger should not be inflicted on all 

the members of the family. Decided 

color preferences and a taste for novelty 

effects should be reserved for one's own 

bedroom, where they need offend no one. 
Light or dark walls. — Outdoors a flood 

of light from all directions permeates 

everywhere. Indoors we have artificial 

conditions of hght, due to the fact that 

light enters a room from the side only, FtG.9.-AJi»sy bedroom paper that 
, „ , , -. taoidd become tiresome 

and usually from but one or two direc- 
tions; also, because a room is box-shaped, we have reflected ligM 

as well as direct hght. The ceiling especially acts as a reflector 

of light. For this reason it usually should be kept light colored, unless 

Household Decoration 


the interior already has too many windows, when by making the 
ceiling darker we may absorb some of the glare. The walls also reflect 
one upon another, thus using the light twice. Because of this reflection, 
light-colored walls will look lighter and bright-colored walls will look 
brighter than the 
actual color applied. 
No room nor interior 
need appear dark if 
the daylight that 
enters it is utilized 
to its fullest capac- 
ity ; cream or yellow- 
ish walls with white 
woodwork and ceil- 
ing and a moder- 
ately light floor 
covering will, by 
reflection, illuminate 
the darkest interior. 
Just how Ught or 
dark the walls of a 
given room should 
be depends on the 

quantity of daylight ' 

that enters. Avoid 
dark color schemes 
unless the room al- 
ready has too much 
daylight. Dark col- 
ors, espedally blues 
and greens, absorb 
much light, both by 
day and by night. 
This makes the 
evening lights in- 
effident and expen- 
sive. Rooms with gloomy comers present veritable wells of darkness 
unless a color scheme is used that will reflect light into the dark spots. 

The present tendency, perhaps, is too much toward dark interiors. 
Modem building and the laws of health now provide more windows than 
formerly; then the decorator turns around and appropriates all the light 
we have purposely admitted. Dark interiors prevent the easy discovery 

Color schemes of adjoining rooms through which 
seen must harmonite so as to produce an effect of 

The above interior has natural oak brovm floors, buff and 
greenish pattern paper in foreground, viiih plain buff be- 
yond, except for the itaring upper third in farther room, 
johich skouis a badly designed paper 


The Cornell Reading-Courses 

of dust and dirt, and thus harbor germs and disease. A moderately light 
interior looks cleaner than a dark one and encourages better care. 

How to decide color of walls for a particular room. — As before mentioned, 
a room usually receives light from only one or two directions. This 
affects greatly the color scheme for that room. A north room lacks 
sunlight, and therefore needs yellow or some other warm color in order 

to produce a bal- 
anced impres^on of 
light. A south room 
is filled with yellow 
light and therefore 
needs to be tempered 
by cool or moderately 
dark colors. Hence 
it is safe to say that 
all rooms, whether 
living-rooms or bed- 
rooms, which are 
northerly (north, 
northeast, or north- 
wect) look their best 
when the walls are 
of some warm color, 
as yellow, tan, buff, 
golden brown, reddish 
brown, old rose, or 
terra cotta, provided 
the furnishing har- 
monize with these 
suggestions. Beware 
of blue and green for 
northerly rooms. 

Rooms that are 
southerly (south, 
southwest, southeast) 
look their best in cool 
tones, such as cool tans or buffs, dull browns and greens, grays and gray 
blues, and lavender (with gray or white for bedroom), provided the fur- 
nishings harmonize with these suggestions. Beware of colors containing 
much red or yellow for southerly rooms, unless there is but one window. 
Rooms that are east or west allow of a wide choice of color, as they are 
both sunny and sunless according to the different times of the day. 

Fig ii. — Comer of a bedroom which was naturatly gloomy. 
Decorated with grayish green "Sanilas" on wttUs, cream- 
while ceiling ana cream-white painted woodwork. Floors 
of wide boards, painted golden brown, with hard floor finish; 
old furniture painted apple green; cream scrtm curtains 
at window 

Fig. 12.— a Jrar good u 

utee 3titnplei showing different i 

. 'I Mis greeiM vxfuid be almost ii 

Fig. 13. — A few colors that should not or usra 
bright artd would Jade; No. its raw; No.h 

fdfpr wallet 

Household Decoration 1039 

The amount of daylight, the amount of sunlight, and the furnishings 
and woodwork in the room shoidd guide aright our selection of color. 

Plain or figured paper. — To most persons plain walls are less tiring than 
even a good figured paper. They also make the best background for 
pictures, as they do not compete with them in interest. Pictures may 
be used, however, with most modest, quiet patterns, but in the case of a 
fine large design they should be omitted. This would occur only in a 
large room, when the design may be beautified by using it in panels with 

Fig. 14. — For Imng-rooms, plain vialls furnish the best background 

plain colored border. A small room loolis its largest with plain, light- 
colored walls. 

Striped papers are good in principle, since they repeat jmd emphasize 
the vertical dimension of the wall. For this reason they can be relied 
on to give height to a low room. The contrast between the stripes should 
not be pronounced, and in the case of large rooms alone may broad stripes 
be used. A quiet striped paper adds a charming dignity to a room. 

The majority of persons prefer plain walls for the rooms that are used 
the most, yet still have a hanlccring for a figured pajwr somewhere. The 
hall is usuaUy a safe place for indulgence, since in the absence of furniture 

1040 The Cornbll Rsading-Coursbs 

and pictures a well-selected pattern seems to furnish the place withont 
getting in anybody's way. 

Borders, friezes, picture moldings, etc. — The joint between ceiling color 
and side wall is usually covered by a molding, and may be further accented 
by a decorative band or border, which greatly reUeves otherwise plain 
walls. The reason for the frequent omission of borders in deooraition 
lately is not because the principle is wroi^, but because most borders are 
so poor in design. A simple stenciled border, or a band of color cut from 
striped or plain paper and used as a border on plain Unted or papered 
walls, makes them more interesting and gives a more finished appearance. 
In a low room this border would be merely a narrow band placed against 
the picture molding that is fastened in the angle between ceiling and wall, 
in order to avoid brealdng up the height of the room. 

Fig. 15. — Good striped papers 

Borders representing a continuous scene are often good if not too real- 
istic. Combinations of plain wall in the lower two thirds or three fourths 
of the room and figured wall above are good, if the room is high enough 
to be thus divided. The plain wall thus answers as a background for 
pictures and furnishings, while the figured paper is in reality a very deep 
border or frieze and occurs high in the room where it does not conflict 
with the furnishings. Foliage papers, soft in color and indefinite in design, 
are excellent used in this way or used with wood paneling below. 

Ceiling color carried down on to the side walls and finished with molding 
and border makes a high room look lower. Picture mendings in this case 
should line with tops of doors or windows. 

What to use for plain walls.— In old houses in which theplasterisuneven, 
plain walls are often impracticable as they show up all imperfections. 
Loose places in an otherwise good wall may often be kept intact by apply- 

Household Dbcoration 1041 

ing imbleadied nmslin or a canvas with prepared 
back, or a manufactured oilcloth that has a dull 
plain surface, or even a tough grade of ingrain 
paper. Ingrain or cartridge papers come in many 
soft colors and possess a nice texture, due to what 
seem to be little hairy flecks of color. It is this 
quality of texture that gives burlap, linen, grass 
cioth, and mattingtheircharm, although the dust- 
catching qualities of these uneven surfaces are a 
great drawback to the practical and cleanly house- 
wife. Unbleached muslin on walls may be finished 
by painting with either water or oil paints. Muslin 
or canvas applied to a loose ceiling, under wood 
strips that are screwed on, can be relied on as a 
good-looking and permanent " fix," and for homes 
this is much to be preferred to the crudity of a 
metal ceiling. 

Water color paints, tints, or calcimines of what^ 
ever brand should be a great blessing to the 
farmer's wife, for they are inexpensive and readily 
applied by members of the family. They are 
especially good for bedrooms, being clean, soft 
colored, and easily freshened by a new coat. 

Darker tones than were used formerly are made 

now, so that water paints are also suitable for 

li'ving-rooms. Any desired shade may be obtained 

by mixing two colors of the same brand. Try a 

sample first and let the paint dry. When the 

right shade is obtained, mix bulk enough to com- 
plete the job in hand. Keep a note of the exact 

proportion of each color used in the mixture, for 

reference in case you or a friend ever desire to 

match that particular shade. 
One can sometimes apply calcimine over an old 

wall paper if it is in good condition, plain colored, 

or of an inconspicuous pattern. Red spots or 

stripes in paper cannot be obliterated, but will 

strike through the paint. One cannot safely apply 

paper over calcimine, however, dnce calcimine, or 

water paint called by whatever name, is a mix- 
ture of plaster of paris and ground color, which ^'l,J^~for£-''lr^u^ 

when applied in liquid condition leaves a thin Telieats plain vxtUt 

The Coknbli. Rbading-Coursbs 

Fig. 17. — Foliage papert, soft in color and indefinite in design 

coat of plaster on the wall. Paper applied to such a wall adheres merely 
to this sldm of plaster and soon the whole thing is likely to strip off. It 
is well to remember, then, that after using calcimine the unpleasant 
process of washing down the walls must precede papering. New walls 
should be sized before tinting or papering. 

In the case of kitchens, pantries, and bathrooms 
the chief considerations are cleanliness and ease 
of care. For this reason, a smooth, hard surface 
that can be washed over is best for walls, ceil- 
ing, woodwork, and floors. Clean, light-colored 
paint, with varnish in the last coat, is first class 
for walls, ceiling, and woodwork. Wooden 
wainscoting, even at its best objectionable in 
kitchens, pantries, and bathrooms, should be 
painted a light color rather than varnished 
over the natural wood, which when splashed or 
Pig, 18.— 2,1^ fan design scratched shows white marks, A dark pantry v,tW 
"sJt^fi flS'"'"^' ^ improved in looks and ease of care by painting 
cream, yellow, or white. Include the shelves in the 
painting process, and afterward omit shelf paper. 

Instead of paint, the walls may be covered with a kind of oilcloth or 
varnished tile paper, either of which is clean and lasting. 

Household Decoratiok 1043 

Oil paint with dull finish is equally exrellent for bedrooms and other 
parts c^ the house, but is more expensive than either caldmine or medium 
grade wall paper. 

The adoption of rugs in place of carpets Js often delayed by lack of 

knowledge as to how to treat the old floors. If an old floor is good, heavy, 

and not too uneven by 

warping or otherwise, 

it may be made pre- 
sentable. Fill the 

cracks between the 

boards, the nail holes, 

and other open spaces 

with some good brand 

of crack filler; then 

when completely 

hardened, paint the 

floor with two coats of 
oil paint, allowing it 
to dry thoroughly 
between coats. Then 
apply a coat of a good 
brand of " hard floor 
finish," This is a 
special form of var- 
nish adapted to use on 
floors; it does nothed- 
mark, can be wiped 
with a damp cloth, 
and lasts longer be- 
tween applications 
than either wax or 
ordinary varnish fin- 
ish. Keep the floor 
moderately Ught in 

color. A golden brown is excellent (provided it harmonizes with the 
furnishings), as it does not show dust or footprints readily. For 
this color iise yellow odire paint and a natural or medium dark 
oak floor finish. This Ught brown floor goes well with painted 

—Plain viaUs for restfuiness. A home-made r, 

I044 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

If when the carpet is removed an old floor is found to be badly warped, 
iineven, and with wide cracks, it is better to cover it again until a new 
floor can be afforded to take its place. Japanese straw matting in the 
natural buff color laid over a paper lining is excellent for this purpose. 
It is finely woven, inexpensive, smooth in surface, and easy to care for, 
A carpet sweeper or a soft cloth on a broom keeps it in good condition; 

but of course like 
carpet this must be 
taken up occasion- 
ally, as some dirt sifts 
through. Matting 
should be sewed to- 
gether and the revers- 
ible kind should be 
used. Chinese mat- 
tings that are cheaper, 
but less durable, are 
not so artistic in 
effect. Many persons 
object to the odor of 
straw matting on 
damp days. There 
seems to be no 
remedy for this. Per- 
haps we are ovemice, 
for a hayfield or wet 
sod we call fragrant. 
The odor is clean and 
temporary ; sun, air, or 
an open fire will 

When one can 
« color v/ilh varnisk in kut afford it a new hard 
floor can be laid over 
the old floor, the un- 
even surfaces having been previously subdued by planing. Floorii^ strips 
one half inch or less in thickness are available for covering over old 
floors, or wood carpetingmay be used over afairly smooth floor. The latter 
is sometimes cheaper. Yellow pine is the cheapest of the usual floorings; 
plain oak and maple are more expensive, being denser woods. These 
floorings should be filled and either waxed or finished with a hard floor 
finish. The color may also be regulated by adding a little stain to the 

Household Decoration 1045 

filler. However, care should be taken not to get the color too dark, as 
is commonly done. Most " mission " or dark finishes are too dark, 
preventing the grain of the wood from being luminous and clearly seen, 
and rubbing ofE in 
light spots where the 
wear is greatest. 

For kitchen and bath- 
room fioors. — If an 
uncovered wood floor 
is desired, maple will 
be found to give the 
best results, ^ce it is 
very dense. This 
should be finished by 
saturating with lin- 
seed oil, then .wiped 
thoroughly. This 
treatment will protect 

the wood and keep it 

from absorbing grease 

spots or from raising 

the grain when wiped 

with a wet cloth. 
Granite or inlaid 

linoleum of a quiet 

geometric pattern is 

a good floor covering 

for kitchen and bath- 
room. The surface 

may be varnished or 

painted with hard 

floor finish to prevent 

absorbing dirt and—AnoldinUriorremodeUd. Woodwork paitOtdvihiU. 

grease, and may ^^^ oak floors laid over aid pine ones. Farther room iwm 

.. , .J formerly an old kitchen, now a bedroom, vtiik vikilt mainscot 

then be washed. and a quaint wall paper in green tones 


In most houses that have been built for a number of years, the wood- 
work is painted white, or rather cream. This is excellent, and one never 
tires of it if the walls are kept light enough in color scheme. In many 
o( the newest and best-designed houses the woodwork is white throughout. 
Occaatmally pearl gray or soft apple green or some other light color makes 

1046 Thb Cornell Rbading-Coursbs 

a pleasing change for one or two rooms, usually bedrooms. Any sort (rf 
painting is to be preferred to ** graining,'* which is a sham, since it pre- 
tends to be oak or some other wood that it is not. We should express in 
things only such qualities as we admire in persons: simplicity, honesty, 
modesty, self-control, and common sense are virtues in both. 

Unless woodwork has a grain worth showing, it shoidd be painted 
rather than stained. Stain is a transparent finish intended for use on 
woods that are beautifully grained by natiu'e. Woods with grain are 
usually finished in three steps: filling, staining, and surface finishing. 
Filler and stain may often be mixed and applied in one coat. Firms that 
manufact\u^ wood finishes of various kinds show that cypress and ordi- 
nary yellow pine may be made very beautifiil by using on them the same 
grayish, greenish, and brownish stains that are ordinarily applied to oak 
and chestnut. After wood is filled and stained, the surface may be fin- 
ished with either varnish or wax. The latter is preferable if it is to be 
applied by members of the family, since it does not require skilled labor. 

Both wax and varnish require much rubbing to secure a good result. 
Wax is rubbed up to a finish, varnish is rubbed down to a finish, with 
powdered pumice stone and oil. Shiny varnished surfaces are cheap and 
inartistic, as wood when finished should glow, not shine. There is no 
short cut to securing a good finish on woodwork; whether painted or 
stained, waxed or varnished, it takes time, labor, and patience. When 
well done, however, a good wood finish is very lasting. 

The greatest menace to good taste in American homes to-day is the 
desire to get results quickly. Tawdriness has been the result with us all. 
Let us no longer decorate in haste only to repent at leisure. . The artistic 
problems of home life must be dreamed oyer for weeks and months before 
our decisions are assured. Yet one such result will bring more satisfac- 
tion than all previous snap-judgments put together. 

Ruskin says in the " Seven Lamps of Architecture: " 

" I am no advocate for meanness of private habitation, I would fain 
introduce into it all magnificence, care, and beauty, where they are pos- 
sible; but I would not have that useless expense in unnoticed fineries or 
formalities; cornicing of ceilings and graining of doors, and fringing of 
curtains, and thousands such; things which have become foolishly and 
apathetically habitual — things on whose common appliance hang whole 
trades, to which there never yet belonged the blessing of giving one ray 
of real pleasure, or becoming of the remotest or most contemptible use — 
things which cause half the expense of life, and destroy more than half 
its comfort, manliness, respectability, freshness and facility. I speak 
from experience: I know what it is to live in a cottage with a deal floor 

Household Decoration 1047 

and roof, and a hearth of mica slate; and I know it to be in many respects 
healthier and happier than living between a Turkey carpet and gilded 
ceiling, beside a steel grate and polished fender. I do not say that such 
things have not their place and propriety; but I say this, emphatically, 
that the tenth part of the expense which is sacrificed in domestic vanities, 
if not absolutely and meaninglessly lost in domestic discomforts and in- 
cumbrances, would, if collectively offered and wisely employed, build a 
marble church for every town in England; such a church as it should be 
a joy and a blessing even to pass near in our daily ways and walks, and as 
it would bring the light into the eyes to see from afar, lifting its fair height 
above the ptuple crowd of humble roofs." 


A. The orinciples of home decoration. 

1. Unity of effect. 

2. Atmosphere. 

3. Harmony. 

4. Simplicity. • 

B. How to carry out principles. 

I. WaUs. 

Their importance in the scheme of decoration. 
They define limits and act as background. 
Should be quiet and restful. 
Primary colors: red, blue, yellow. 

Their differing effect on people as shown by experiments. 
Nervous strain from being surrounded by glaring colors. 
Soothing influence of softened and subdued colors, called tones. 
How tones made up of several colors tmite and harmonize 

mixed furnishings. 
The color influence of nature. 
Shifting masses of brown and green that nature uses, a 
good suggestion for interior color scheme. 
Warm and cool colors. 
Crude colors, when used in home decoration, are faded or 

** toned '* by nature. 
Bright colors used in nature only to accent effects. 
This hint as applied to home decoration. 
Figures and patterns for walls. 
Walls, as a flat surface, should represent only length and 
breadth, not thickness. 

1048 Thb Cornell Reading-Courses 

Designs should not bulge. 

Simplified, or conventionalized, designs. 

Good and bad patterns. 

Safety in choosing plain paper. 

Principles of patterns apply to rugs, upholstery, curtains, 
and other flat surface designs. 
What to consider in planning decoration. 

Purpose of a room. 

Whether it is light or dark, sunny or sunless, high or low, 
large or small. 

What are the colors of woodwork, floor, and fimiishings. 

The danger of '* the latest thing." 

Permanence in decoration. 
Use of room. 

Living rooms should be planned to suit various tastes, ages, 
and moods. 

Adjoining rooms must harmonize in color. 
Light walls or dark? ^ 

Room has artificial conditions of light. 

Reflection from walls and ceiling. 

Exact tone to be used depends on amount of daylight that 

Dark colors to be avoided unless room has too much daylight. 

Expense of artificial light in dark room. 

Dark interiors harbor disease. 

Proper colors for different exposures. 
Plain walls or figured? 

Plain wall best for small room, or as a background for 

Striped papers give height to low room- 
Borders, friezes, moldings. 

Simple borders add interest to plain tinted or papered walls. 

Width of border and location of pictture molding should 
depend on height of room. 
What to use for plain walls. 

Treatment where plaster is uneven. 

Advantage^ and disadvantages of burlap, linen, grass cloth, 

Good effects possible with water-color paints, tints, or calci- 
Kitchens, pantries, bathrooms. 

Necessity of smooth, hard, washable surface and light color. 

HoiTSBHOLD Decoration 1049 

Paint a better treatment for shelves than shelf paper. 
Oilcloth or varnished tile paper as wall coverings. 
2. Floors and woodwork. 
Treatment of old floors. 

a. If slightly cracked. 

b. If badly cracked. 

Flooring strips. 

Wood carpeting. 

Colors and finishes. 

Kitchen and bathroom floors. 

How to make nonabsorbent. 

Treatment of linoleimi for best service. 


Proper finish depends on grain. 

Time, labor, and patience necessary to achieve lasting effect. 


Bailey, L. H The Outlook to nature 

Burrage and Bailey School sanitation and decoration 

Crane, Lucy Art and the formation of taste 

Daniels, Fred Hamilton The furnishing of a modest home 

Kellogg, Alice M Home furnishing, practical and artistic 

Priestman, Mabel Tuke Art and economy in home decoration 

Ruskin, John Seven lamps of Architecture 

Wheeler, Candace Principles of home decoration 


The Craftsman 
The House Beautiful 
House and Garden 

1 050 Thb Cornbll Rbading-Coursbs 


I teach 
The earth and soil 
To them that toil, 
The hill and fen 
To common men 

That live jtist here; 

The plants that grow, 
The winds that blow, 
The streams that run 
In rain and sun 
Throughout the year; 

The shop and mart, 
The craft and art, 
The men to-day, 
The part they play 
In humble sphere; 

And then I lead 
Thro' wood and mead 
By bench and rod 
Out unto God 
With love and cheer. 
I teach. 

L, H, Bailey in the Outlook to Nature 



Published Semi-monthly by the New York State College of Agriculture at 
Cornell University, Throughout the Year. Application for Entry as 
Second-Class Matter at the Post Office at Ithaca, N. Y., Pending 

L. H. Bailey, Director 

CouRSR FOR THF Parm Home \ Martha Van Rensselaer, Supervisor 
i^URSE FOR THE I'-ARM HOME ^ ^^^ ^^^ g HARRINGTON, Assistant Supervisor 

VOL X. Ho. 5 DECEMBER I, 1911 '^^^^ HOUSE SERIES Wo. z 



By means of the discussion papers we have an opportunity to become 
acquainted. We shall take it as an indication on your part that you are 
interested if you answer the questions and return them to us. The staff 
of the Department of Home Economics is ready to assist you in your 
study of scientific home-making. We want your assistance in our work 
as well. Ask questions^ offer suggestions, let us have the benefit of your 
experience. You thus become a vital part of the work of the State Col- 
lege in its effort for rural progress. 

I. About how much would you feel justified in spending to fix over the 
walls and repaint the woodwork of a room 14 x 16 feet? Does your 
estimate include labor as well as material? 


1052 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

2. In how far- have you attempted to reprice carpets with rugs? How 
did you succeed in making the old floor sightly; or did you use new 

3. Does your experience lead you to favor papered or painted walls? 

4. Tell us any personal experience you may have had with plain or fig- 
lu^d walls, or with color, which agrees with or differs from the dis- 
cussion in this bulletin. 

5. How are the walls and floor of your kitchen finished at the present 
time? Are they satisfactory, or could they be improved in some 
way that would make your kitchen-work easier and more enjoyable? 



®If0 (Hatmll VimUnv^-QlaixtBiB 


r York State College of Agriculture at 
le Year. Application for Sntry ai 
R Office at Ithaca, N. Y.. PcodlM 

L. H. Bailey, Director 




Helen Binkerd Young 
" How much there is in this world thai I da not want." — Socrates. 
With most persons, furnishing the home is a threefold study. It consists, 
first, in arranging one's present belongings to the best possible advantage ; 
second, in discarding all useless and ugly 
objects; third, in selecting new articles 
that shall fit appropriately into the al- 
rcadyestablishedhome. The ability to 
do any one of these things comes only 
through patience, experiment, and a 
dear conception of the final effect de- 
ared. It is of no use to begin moving 
tilings about and buying new material 
until one knows what result she is after. 
Almost any phase of furnishing can be 
analyzed, pondered over, and to some 
extent decided on before the first move 
is made. And this conception of the 
complete home picture must be spirit- 
ual as well as material. Many a house 
containing correct furniture and deco- 
ration fails to become a home because 
of its coldness, and many a home 
exists in spite of atrocious furnish- 
ings. For home consists not merely 

of a roof over one's head and of ex- ~ 

temal trappings about us; it is a ^'°- ^^—A colonial doorway. SimpU 
, , . „ , , slrucluralform with appropriate orna- 

place where dwell peace and harmony. meni 


I054 The Cornell Reading-Courses 


It is of vital importance that the home shall have personality and in- 
dividuality. The influence of an indifferent interior is as negative as the 
influence of an indifferent person. The home should have positive quali- 
ties of goodness; it should express comfort, orderliness, harmony, cleanli- 
ness, simplicity, and honesty — surely very htiman qualities! If we 
demand these virtues of oiu^elves, why should we not demand them of 
our possessions as well? Why not insist that every object within our 
jimsdiction shall ring true, in purpose, in material, in workmanship? 

** Have nothing in your houses which you do not know to be useful and 
believe to be beautiful." So s^d William Morris some forty years ago. 
So say we to-day, but we do not apply it. Suppose each one of us shotild 
go on a tour of inspection throughout the house, challenging every article 
in every room with such questions as these: 

In what way is this article useful? 

Does it serve its purpose in a simple and direct manner? 

Is it durable? 

Is it made of appropriate material? 

Is it pleasing in form and color? 

If it is decorated, does the decoration improve it, or would it look better 
if left plain? 

If all articles that fail to measure up to this standard were banished 
from sight, oiw attics would be fuller but our rooms would be simpler, 
more genuine, and more spacious. For we have indeed become hardened 
to the presence of useless objects and have endured about us many things 
that in no way serve us, either physically or spiritually. So long as 
picture or vase is giving forth its quota of pleasure or usefulness it may 
be retained; when it becomes negative in value it would better be passed 
on or destroyed. It is true that we cling to many objects through senti- 
ment, a tendency that should not be lightly disregarded. Years of asso- 
ciation cannot be brushed aside in a moment, and so long as one feels 
devoted to an object, however imlovely it may be, that object should not 
be ruthlessly expelled from its accustomed place. Each individual must 
decide these personal matters for himself. 

The gifts of friends whose tastes differ greatly from our own also create 
a problem, but if we keep kindness in our hearts and frankness in our 
friendships the right solution in each instance will be found. Only let 
us first make sure that the sentiment is fine and sincere. The friend 
whom we would forget without a visible reminder surely has little hold on 
our affections. 

Habit is strong with every one. We grow so accustomed to the presence 
and position of chairs, pictures, and other familiar objects that we no 

Household Furnishing 1055 

longer notice them. In other words, the -appearance of our rooms ceases 
to make an impression on us. This is unfortunate and usually implies that 

Fig. 23, — View of livin^-r^om. Showing right relation between plain and decaralcd sur- 
faces. CoHvenlionalis^ lulip design applied to upper wall and screen {yahtch has been 
moved forward) adds interest to an otherwise plain raovt 

the rooms lack personality, for an interior arranged in an orderly manner 
and with harmonious contents, however himible in themselves such con- 

1056- The Cornell Reading-Courses 

tents may be, shotdd continually appeal to the observer without effort on 
his part. It would be an excellent plan if we would mentally step outside 
of ourselves once in a while and view our homes with an impersonal eye. 
This would suggest certain shifting of the furniture, which would be as 
refreshing to the occupants as going on a visit. Such a series of experi- 
ments would finally reveal the perfect arrangement for any given room, 
bringing it to the point where it would give permanent satisfaction and 
a continual feeling of enjoyment. 

Many times it happens that certain pieces of furniture, which &x>m their 
harmony of color and design would make a room distinctive, are scattered 
broadcast throughout the house, no one of them showing to its best ad- 
vantage because of the lack of relation between it and the neighboring 
pieces. The old-fashioned method of buying fumittire in sets resulted 
in stiff and uncompromising effects; yet such furniture had two desirable 
qualities, namely, dignity and harmony of design. At present we have 
gone to the other extreme, so that in every room of the house may be 
found, side by side, n:iahogany, walnut, light oak, mission, burnt wood, 
and wicker. Sometimes, if the pieces are simple and well-selected, the 
result is pleasing; more often it is hodgepodge. On the other hand, while 
light varnished oak pieces are in themselves not beautiful, being usually 
poor in design and cheap in finish, still if we accept this yellow-brown 
color as a basis for arranging an entire room a charming result may be 
obtained. For example, a north room will create a glowing atmosphere 
of harmony if fitted up with bed, dresser, washstand, and chairs of var- 
nished oak, cream-white woodwork, a mixed rug of tans and browns, or 
Japanese matting with a rug, pale yellow, tan, or golden brown ingrain 
paper on the walls, cream-white ceiling, and cream scrim or crossbar 
muslin curtains at the windows. Furthermore, the room will radiate 
this definite impression every day of the year. The ke3aiote of all success- 
ful furnishing, like the kejmote of family life, depends on harmony among 
its members. 

The principles discussed in the previous bulletin on household decora- 
tion should help the home-maker solve any problems that might arise 
concerning the finish of walls, ceiling, woodwork, and floors. 

Having secured an harmonious setting for the home pictitfe, let us 
consider the various objects that compose it. 


The substitution of bare floors and rugs for carpets will go farther in 
easing general housework than any other one item. Next to bare floors, 
Japanese matting will probably be found most satisfactory to care for. 
Rugs may be used with matting, the same as with bare floors. 

Household Furnishing ^057 

In general, rugs should be heavy enough to lie flat by their own weight 
without taxddng. A light-weight rug that wrinkles or that curls up on 
the edges is an aggravation. For a room that is used cx>ntinnally or by a 
number of persons, such as a sitting-room, one large rug is better than 
several small ones. A generous central rug makes a room appear larger 
and is more effective and more satisfactory to the occupants than a nimiber 
of small rugs, no matter how beautiful the latter may be in themselves. 
If the room is large or long, the main rug may be supplemented by one 
or two smaller ones in alcoves, between wide doorways, or in irregularly 
shaped parts of the room. Small rugs are suitable for bedrooms, fitted 
conveniently into the open spaces left by fiumture. A rug should not 
extend imder the bed, as this arrangement complicates cleaning. Rugs 
or mats placed before the bureau, the washstand, and the bed are com- 
forting and necessary. A washable cotton mat is the most practicable 
kind for use before the washstand. 

Bare treads on the stairs are easy to clean, but they are noisy and for 
this reason are not advisable if in frequent use. It must not be supposed 
that bare floors are intended to walk on. The areas of travel for the most 
part should be covered, so that persons can move noiselessly about the 
house. We should be much fresher at the end of the day's task if we 
were spared all imnecessary. noise. The nervous system pays toll alike 
for jarring sights and sotmds. 

As in the case of wall papers, large , vigorous flowery or scrolly patterns 
should be avoided in selecting floor coverings. The floor should lie 
modestly in place and not seem to dart up to meet one. Fortimately, 
flowered carpets are for the most part relegated to the past. The advent 
of rugs with their rectangular outlines has brought about more appro- 
priate designs for floor coverings. The body of the rug is usually covered 
with some sort of geometric pattern introducing several colors or shades 
and finished with a border of similar design. Many plain rugs with dark 
border and lighter center are also made. These are very attractive, but 
they are impracticable for general use since the care that a plain rug re- 
quires is often out of proportion to the effect secured. 

The various mottled textures to be foimd in.rugs of domestic weave are 
more practicable than and almost as beautiful as plain rugs. Among the 
richest of these mixed effects are rugs made by the carpet weaver from old 
ingrain or body brussels carpets. Such rugs stand high in favor with house- 
keepers who have tested their worth, being at once inexpensive, durable, and 
artistic. They are reversible, deep-napped, and heavy enough to lie in place. 
A plain band of lighter or darker shade is usually woven near each end, thus 
adding to the general impression. Old velvet or axminster carpets cannot 
be used in this way but they may be sewed into rugs of convenient size. 

105? "^"^ Cornell Reading-Courses 

Rag rugs are excellent in many places. A widespread admiration tor 
this old-fashioned floor covering has led to its commercial manufacture. 
It must be admitted that the rag nigs on the market, while perhaps not 
so substantial in weight as the homemade hit-and-miss variety, are better 
in design because attention has been paid to assorting the rags for color 
value. This should be a suggestion to all women who love to experiment 
with carpet rags. The usual hit-and-miss pattern will be much improved 
by omitting the white rags from the body of the rag and using them with 
some other light or bright color for the border. It may be said, in general, 
that dark rugs of any kind containing patches of white in the pattern tend 
to give the floor a disorderly appearance. If the rug is light in color x-alue 

Fig 24. — .1 good style of design for any kind of rug 

the white is not so noticeable. A rag rag with a moderately dark flecked 
body and a broad contrasting border becomes an artistic product ia 
contrast with the usual hit-and-miss carpet, which is merely a practicable 
product. Very original results may be obtained by sorting into balls 
the various shades and colors that blend well, keeping all harmonious 
colors for the same rug. Thus, blues and greens woven with a white 
warp and a broad light band near the ends give one effect, while if these 
colors are woven on black warp with a dark band across the ends the effect 
is distinctly different. Dull reds and browns woven on a tan warp with 
a lighter or brighter border make an appropriate nig to spread before the 
fire. Old blue-jeans make a bedroom rug of good weight; usually, if 
cotton rags alone are used, the rug is too thin. The old-fashioned round 
or oval braided rugs are qimint and all too scarce. It is well to scan all 
available material before investing in new floor coverings. 

HousBHOLD Furnishing 1059 

Rugs of ingrain weave, called by various names, may be bought in good 
colors and patterns. They are inexpensive and durable, but they wrinkle 
because they are thin. Perhaps no rug purchased could be more satis- 
factory than a good body brussels showing an all-over pattern in a mix- 
ture of such colors as will harmonize with a variety of ftmiishings. Rugs 
containing mixed patterns in tans, browns, greens, duU reds, and black 
unite pleasantly with any usual color scheme. One should never invest in 
tapestry brussels, which is cheap but short-lived, as the pattern, being 
merely hooked into the surface threads, soon wears off in spots. Wilton 
velvet rugs are rich and durable, and are preferable to axminster since 
the latter mats down and loses nap at every sweeping. 

Straw mats are less expensive than almost any other floor covering of 
a given size. They are an artistic product, but are not very durable on 
floors that receive hard usage. The warp threads that hold the straw 
intact soon wear through and leave grassy, whiskery ends projecting up- 
ward. To keep them wearing evenly, straw mats should be constantly 
shifted and turned over. 

If one contemplates purchasing an oriental rug, he should become in- 
formed on the subject and should buy only from a reliable source. The 
beauty of oriental rugs lies in their richness of texture and in their ex- 
quisite coloring. Many commercial tricks, such as burying in the earth, 
are resorted to in order to make new rugs look ancient and only an expert 
can detect the real from the false. 


Every piece of furniture should serve some useful purpose. The con- 
struction should be strong and honest, and the shape of each piece should 
be a frank statement of its use. The material of which any given piece 
is made is of secondary importance to the straightforwardness of the 
design. • Thus, through all combinations of oak, mahogany, walnut, or 
pine with leather tapestry or cane, a chair should irmnediately proclaim 
that it is made for the purpose of receiving human weight in a sitting 
posttue with comfort and with stability. Most furniture, as bookshelves, 
chairs, tables, or beds, must bear up under weight or pressure of some kind ; 
therefore, the upright structural members should be approximately straight, 
since force, unless interfered with, tends to move in straight lines. A 
piece of furniture showing an elaborately bowed and curved structure 
should be viewed with suspicion; its fancy shape is often obtained at the 
expense of strength. The cost of constructing curved and molded members 
is greater than that of making plain ones; yet the cheapest furniture is 
often of the former fashion, indicating either that the workmanship has 

fifil tbom »frveti/rol Jton ^ ebaa- ia fijsSoDd4 ahov Btnxtvral ekatOTfa 
aimfAtt form- Nd adapted b> tboft of on whkh choir* of tomd con^vethn 
human body o»d weak cfjoinh a ■ A and coafotf are bated- Jeiafa have 
boekMOrJ jilli WoM c/i'tfOTT ffve/iairmb bttp ■sifmgtheaed bg bracey b 
peiufwi ohaun t^ dotted ban. Fig Z end iiet, at C. Sack i» HHtd 

to rear ibe apioe^ 

Fiq i- Xodier_ udh ba:k 
Tig S. A ahaighif cbolr curved fo fit aqiae (u>d 
of *ouad ooo^trvth'en of continuout p*(» uatA 
/if*. ArmA of chair 
zene a» brace*. 

Tiq f Aqracefvl hpti 
of eaa^-chair in t^ueh 
ootitfrtxbva liat^ con 
be eleor/y trooed. 

Fig. 25. — Chairs. A study in construction and 

HousfiHOLD Furnishing io6i 

been slighted or that the material is inferior to what might have been 
used in a plain shape at the same price. 

No piece of furniture is stronger than its weakest joint. A chair may 
have legs that are thick enough to be used as porch posts, but if the seat 
and the legs are not united by sound joints the chair is inefficient and gives 
the lie to its seeming strength. If one tries the experiment of joining a 
horizontal and a vertical strip of w:ood securely at a single point he will 
discover that this is well-nigh impossible. Bracing of some kind must 
therefore be used. Drawer, slides, the arms and rungs of chairs, the 
apron on a table, are in reality braces. 

Any variation in outline, or any decoration, should follow or fit the 
structural shape. Gentle, restrained curves may be introduced to soften 
the outline, and angular comers may be rounded, without impairing the 
strength of the members. 

The structural shape of a chair takes its cue from the human body. 
The back shottld tilt slightly backward and it is sometimes curved to fit 
the spine. Low arms where the elbows nattu^y fall in place may be 
curved or varied in shape to conform to the body. The general lines of 
a chair should be less angular than those of other pieces of furniture. 
The seat is usually made of some elastic material, such as rush, cane, 
leather, or tapestry, unless, as in the case of dining-room chairs, the use 
is for only a short period. 

Any well-constructed piece of fumittu-e containing drawers is expensive 
as compared with a piece having none. This is reasonable, as every 
drawer is made up of at least five pieces of wood and requires a consider- 
able amount of work. An attempt to economize on such a piece of fur- 
niture, whether desk, bureau, or chiffonier, will prove imwise, as the drawers 
in cheap ftimiture sag when opened and are likely to stick and to slide 
in and out unevenly at the comers. 

Successive styles of furniture, — No one knew better than the colonial 
folk the relation between structtire and form. It is not because colonial 
fumitme is old that it is valuable, but because it is sound in workman- 
ship, normal in form, and made of a kind of mahogany that is not on the 
market to-day. The decoration applied by the colonial makers to their 
iumiture, whether carving, inlay, moldings, turnings, or decorative grain, 
with few exceptions enhanced the effect and in no way distorted the natural 
shape. Cherry and birch were used for legs and for uprights requiring 
strength, mahogany being too brittle for this purpose. The fronts of 
hureau drawers, the backs of davenports, and other parts showing beautiful 
grain were merely veneered with a thin layer of mahogany glued to a 
tacking of soft wood. Wood veneer should not be looked on as a sham. 
Since it is used for the purpose of preventing large panels of wood from 


warping; table tops, door panels, and the like would warp out of all 
usefulness unless they were built up of two or more layers of wood 
running in different directions and glued t<^ether, so that the tendency 
of onfi larirft lavw nf wnrxl tn shrink in nne. Htrpfrtirm is ftvMivtmp \yv t.lw> 

Bcton iccker Windsir clmir 

FlO. 26, — Two painted colonial chairs 

be sandpapered down and repainted, making appropriate bedroom fur- 
niture with woodwork painted to match or to harmonize. 

Many old treasures have been pushed aside for newer and less worthy 
furniture. Mahogany bureaus and tables have often become so deadened 
by generations of varnish that the grain cannot be seen. This varnish 
may be removed by applying wood alcohol or some good brand of varnish 
remover, and using a putty knife. Every home-maker should make sure 
that all worthy heirlooms are given an opportunity to remain useful and 
beautiful as long as they can. 

Walnut furniture will never be valuable as a style for the reason that 
it represents a period of poor design. Walnut is in itself a beautiful 

HousBHOLD Furnishing 1063 

wood, glowing in color and fine in grain, but the sort of grooving, piercing, 
carving, and molding to which it was subjected largely robbed it of its 
natural charm. Many pieces were too ponderous to be easily moved 
about. Simple designs in walnut, similar to colonial pieces, would be 
beautiful and valuable, but even mahogany worked into ornate designs 
as was walnut would be artistically valueless. A few of the plainer pieces 
of walnut are good in design and are therefore permanent in worth. Wal- 
nut sets of chairs and sofa may be given a very good appearance by re- 
moving the 'black horsehair and using a lighter^olored upholstery in 
browns, greens, old gold, or old blue. 

Oak, as well as walnut, has been greatly abused in the manufactiu'e of 
furniture. Oak pieces are usually heavier in structure than are mahogany 
pieces, because of the bold, vigorous grain of the wood. Of all styles of 
furniture, the golden oak, or varnished natural oak, of fifteen or twenty 
years ago, was probably the tawdriest and the most insincere ever manu- 
factured. There were several reasons for this, chief among which was the 
perfection of machinery that cotdd produce with great ease all sorts of 
mechanical curves, carvings, and so-called decorations. In this way 
furniture-makers became childishly involved in producing monstrosities, 
instead of using the machinery as a tool for the larger production of normal, 
durable fumittu'e at less cost than was reqtdred for handmade products. 

Stamped decoration of poor pattern, machine carving glued to panels, 
scroll-work brackets, and bended arms ending in animal heads, all these 
distortions have been applied to furniture in the name of decoration. 
But all in vain is the name, for decoration means enhancement. A chair 
or table of plain structure, with straight edges, has at least the dignity 
of being genuine. If the general form is to be softened or refined, a human 
being, not a machine, must have the upper hand. The attempt to beautify 
must be an inspiration, not a nightmare. We must ponder over our 
national sins in furnishing before our homes are purged of the trash that 
represents false ideals. We have wandered far from the goal, we have 
confused the means with the end. As an instance of this, take the morris 
chair. Who could have foreseen that the attempt of William Morris to 
make a plainly-shaped chair comfortable by adding cushions and adjust- 
able back would have been misconstrued into meaning that the cushions 
and back might be placed on any sort of hideous framework? 

The burnt-wood fad created another epoch of avoidable ugliness. Be- 
cause it was discovered that by means of burning grooves in wood with a 
hot tool designs could be made on furniture, a himt was immediately 
begun for things that could be burned. The process involved neither 
skill nor art on the part of the performer, who became literally intoxicated 
^ith the decorative idea and proceeded to damage everything in sight. 

1064 The CoftKftLL Rbading-Coursb8 

Not one piece in one hundred should be left in this half-btnned oonditioii, 
but nearly all should be consigned to the flames for finishing. 

The idea giving rise to mission furniture was amore serious one. Weary 
of sham, shine, and ignoble fonns, the public was ready to accept any sort 
of furniture that appeared plain and genuine. Many of the mission 
pieces are clumsy, crude, uncomfortable, and weak in the joints in spite 
of their solid appearance, and the wood has in many cases been stained 
so dark as to kill the grain; yet this wave of mission design has given 
modem furniture a trend in the right direction. As a result, there may 
now be found on the market durable and appropriate furniture that com- 
pares favorably with colonial work in the solidity of its construction and 
in the refinement of its form and finish. 

Let us now apply these rational ideas to the different parts of the house. 


' The hall is primarily a place of entrance and of passage. It should 
radiate cheer and yet be kept free from lumecessary furnishings. Above 
all, dignity and order must prevail. The smaller the hall, the more 
difficult is the task; hence, it sometimes happens that a small hall appears 
more like an enlarged coat closet than like an3^hing else. Garments 
hanging limply from hooks destroy all attempts at neatness. For this 
reason, the fandily apparel, at least, should be hung out of sight, either in 
a coat closet or on a row of substantial hooks behind a curtain or a screen, 
which may be supplemented by a few exposed hooks in a convenient 
place for the temporary use of visitors. 

The atmosphere of a hall with a limited amount of daylight will prove 
most cheerful if some yellow, tan, or golden brown color is used for the 
walls, provided this harmonizes with the adjoining rooms. Either a plain 
or a two-toned figured paper will be appropriate, the pattern being kept 
small and neat tmless the hall is fairly spacious. A stripe may be relied 
on for dignity of appearance, provided the effect is not too elongated as 
one looks up the stairway. The use of pictures and ornaments in halls 
should be avoided, as they tend to give the place a trivial aspect and, 
except in rare instances, are out of place in a passage. 

Some provision must be made at the threshold for wiping muddy feet, 
and a well-ventilated umbrella jar with drain pan will be needed beside 
the outer door. The main part of the floor should be covered with a 
large heavy-weight rug of mixed weave or of a pattern in grays, browns, 
or some other color that will not show footprints readily. A plainly 
framed minor of ciear, perfect glass should be hung in such a position 
that it will reflect a person standing in a well-lighted spot. A chair, 
settle, or small table may be added, according to the usable space. A 

HousBHOLD Furnishing 1065 

piece of furniture pretending to combine hatrack, mirror, seat, and um- 
brella rack, but performing no function well, should be avoided. Since the 
hooks are placed one above another on each side of the mirror, the gar- 
ments of different persons interfere with one another and hang against 
the umbrellas, which, when removed, bring down a coat or two; while 
the seat, in turn, is usually occupied by hats and gloves. 


The appearance of the family living-room, or sitting-room, influences 
more persons than does any other part of the house. Not only is it con- 
stantly used by members of the family, but it touches the lives of neighbors 
and of friends. Here is the proper place to begin the process of readjust- 
ment. All other parts of the house should await their turn until this room 
is fitted out in the best taste the house can afford. Let there be this one 
room, at least, in which no object violates any one of the principles of 
harmony, comfort, and convenience. Let us set ourselves the problem 
of proving that utility, beauty, and common sense are all compatible in 
home-making. It may be necessary that every part of the house shall 
contribute to this revised living-room, but at all costs let us have it. 

It would be a good plan to think this problem out during the winter 
months when one is house-bound of necessity, and to go searchingly from 
room to room with freshened ideas as to the qualities that constitute worth 
in furnishings, selecting such chairs, tables, pictures, curtains, and 
other objects as have in common the qualities of simplicity or plainness . 
in form, softness in color, and absence of conspicuous ornament. When 
the spring house-cleaning begins, a *' clean' sweep " may be made of every- 
thing in the living-room; the floors and woodwork may be freshened and 
the walls finished in a soft, plain tone or in a neat, modest pattern that 
will make a good background. Since most ftimiture is reddish or brownish, 
some warm brownish or tan color scheme will probably be the easiest 
and most satisfactory to arrange, unless the room is too stmny to stand 
a warm coloring. 

In general, the furniture should be placed so as to outline the room, 
leaving the central space free and open for the use of the occupants. A 
substantial table for the necessary books, magazines, and lamp should be 
the only piece of furniture centrally placed; the remainder of the room 
should be so arranged that persons may move about without dodging the 
furniture. Desks, bookshelves, couches, or other piecesthat belong against 
the wall should be fitted into convenient spaces between doors and win- 
dows, and the chairs should be placed where the light is good for reading 
or where they command a view from the windows. 


io66 Thb Cornell Rbading-Coursbs 

The lai^est and most comfortable chairs should occupy the best and most 
pemianent positions. These may be supplemented by chairs of %hter 
weight that may be shifted from place to place. One or two wicker or 
willow chairs are excellent in a hving-room, as they are light to handle, 
comfortable to sit in, and may be stained to harmonize with any color 
scheme. The value of willow furniture lies in its elasticity. It is especially 
appropriate for chairs, since it yields easily to the shape of the body. 

Willow tables, bookshelves, or desks, are absurdities, since smooth, flat 
surfaces and unyielding uprights form the chief requirements of these 
pieces. Wicker furniture with knobs and with fancy ornamentation 
should be avoided. 

One need not hesitate to use mixed furnishings in the hvii^-room. If 
each piece of furniture is in itself genuine and plain it will harmonize with 
others of like nature, although they may be made of different woods. It 
is true that if we were furnishing entirely with new things, we should not 
mix up all sorts of designs and woods; neither should we have all the new 

Household Furnishing 1067 

pieces identical in pattern, as a certain amount of variety adds interest. 
But in either case, violent contrasts are to be avoided. An old mahogany- 
desk or high-boy would clash with yellow oak, but it might harmonize 
with dark brownish oak or with walnut, A little experimenting will 
jield satisfactory results. 

As soon as possible we should get rid of tufted and tasseled upholstered 
pieces, vphether chairs . or couches, having them recovered with stroi^ 
material stretched tightly over the fiamework. The couch should be 

Fig. 29. — An appropriate curtain for general use. Cream-colored scrim with hemslHched 
border, two inches wide on edge and seven inches wide on bollom. These should be kung 
lo the window siU and pushed apart if niew permits 

provided with enough pillows to make one comfortable but not so many 
as to preclude use. These pillows may be covered with denim, burlap, 
linen, cretonne, or some other figured material, but not with hand-painted 
satin, embroidered violets, heads of ladies or of Indians, or outlines of 
pipes, books, steins, horses, or scenery. All of these ideas are trivial, for 
a cushion is a pillow and not a picture. Such decoration is false and in- 
appropriate for the use intended. The dignity of use should always be 
borne in mind. 

The space in front of the windows should be kept free from such obstruc- 
tions as taborets and gilt stands displaying groups of statuary, Aade 
from ventilation, the object of having the windows at all is to allow the 

io68 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

light to look in and persons to look out. Whatever we can do to induce 
ourselves to look out to nature more constantly will be for the good of 
our souls and of our nervous systems. A room appears larger if it includes 
some of the view. Curtains should be pushed aside with this in mind, 
and not drawn across the window except for reasons of privacy or because 
of an imsightly outlook. Long lace ciutains drawn across the windows 
and hanging to the floor, muffling both light and view with their showy 
patterns, are gradually disappearing because our point of view conoeming 
the use of curtains has changed. The object of curtains is to soften the 
structural shape of the window. In the living-room this is appropriately 
done by plain or neatly figured scrim or net curtains, having a hemstitched 
border and hanging to the sill. 

, Every picture that finds its way into the living-room should have some 
dignified and permanent meaning. The fact that poorly drawn charcoal 
pictiu^es or weakly painted water-color scenes have been executed by 
members of the family or by near friends is not sufficient recommendation 
for using them as decoration. Such pictures can impart neither a serious 
nor an inspiring message. If original paintings are used, they must be 
better than most amateurs can produce or than most of us can afford to 
own. Fancy heads are also usually insipid and meaningless. Better a 
few neatly framed magazine pictures showing the work of good artists 
than a bushel of poor homemade productions. The magazine pictures 
may be either in color or in monotone and may represent the work of old 
or of new masters. 

Amateur photography furnishes one good source for personal, home- 
made picttires; these should consist, not of set groups of individuals wear- 
ing clothes that will soon look out of date, but of views and bits of scenery 
that are always in fashion. Sepia 'prints with tan-colored mats and neat 
brown frames, recording familiar scenes or the memories of pleasant trips, 
will prove a constant source of pleasiire to the family. A mere snapshot 
having high artistic value in composition, showing stmlight and shadows, 
for instance, may be enlarged and become really a work of fine art. 

Family portraits should not be used in the living-room unless they have 
real artistic value. Photographs of persons are kept in better condition 
in a desk drawer, where they are at hand when wanted. If a few of these 
are to be kept in sight, they should be put under glass and arranged in 
an orderly way over the desk or in some personal comer of the room. 
They are more appropriate in a study, office, den, or rest room, if there 
be such a place. 

The use of white mats on pictures should be avoided when posable. 
In general, white is very conspicuous in a room furnished in tones. Pictures 
in browns, grays, and colors, with tinted mats and brown, gray, or gilt 

Household Furnishing 1069 

frames, will give as much variety as is desirable in one room. Pictures 
should not be hung diagonally in steps, but should be arranged horizon- 
tally or vertically according to the wall space in question. The final 
effect of pictures should be one of orderly, dignified arrangement showing 
harmony of color between the wall and the pictures. 

A clock will also be needed in the living-room. This should consist 
of a plain, durable case with a clearly marked dial. An ordinary school- 
room or alarm clock is superior in worth and usefulness to an "art 
nouveau " affair in gilt, showing a great deal of ornament and a very 
small clock face. Candlesticks of brass are always beautiful and may on 
occasion be useful as well. Bowl-shaped or tall vases of earthenware in 
various colors will prove an adornment either with or without flowers. 
The outline of all such ornaments should consist of simple flowing curves 
and should not be full of knobs, handles, and rippled tops. 


The real needs of the dining-room are few. A rag rug, or one of body 
brussels or of some other material not having a deep pile, a plain, sub- 
stantial extension table, comfortable, straight chairs, a serving table or 
a sideboard, and cupboard space for dishes comprise everything required. 
A built-in dish closet with glass doors is preferable to a movable china 
closet. If the latter is needed, however, it should be a modest affair of 
rectangular shape and not a bowed-front, beveled-glass piece like a shop 
window, which suggests display — always a questionable motive in the 
home. Plate rails catch dust and are reasonable only when one possesses 
rare or historic china, pewter, or other ornaments. As our standards 
of domestic art progress, we shall know that in reality much of the so- 
called fine china is very poor art, and is not worthy to be displayed for 
its beauty. At best, orderliness is difficult to preserve in the dining-room 
because of the medley of small objects used in serving meals. Would it 
not be better then, to let the decoration of the walls suffice without using 
pictures, plate rails, and other ornaments to add to the confusion? In- 
stead of indoor pictures, we may make the most of outdoor views through 
all available windows with a good outlook. Dining-room ciutains similar 
to those in the Uving-room will be appropriate. 

All practical housekeepers should realize the value of a waxed top over 
that of a varnished top for a dining-room table. A waxed top is not 
easily damaged by water spots or by hot dishes ; it remains in good condition 
for a long period of time and shows no white rings nor scars as does varnish. 
A wax finish should be insisted on when buying a new table. The finish 
of a table top may be changed from varnish to wax by the following process : 

I070 Tub Cornell Rsading-Coursbs 

Wood alcohol or varnish remover is used, together with a putty knife, 
for removing the varnish; the top is then cleaned evenly and thoroughly 
and sandpapered, after which it is treated as a piece of new wood, being 
stained to match the legs, waxed, and rubbed down long and arduously. 
A library table may be refinisbed in the same way. 

Fig. 30. — A dining-room. What comments have yov to makt? 


The bedroom should be pure, airy, clean, light-colored, and orderly. 
The bed should be placed in such a position that good ventilation with- 
out draughts is assured and that the early morning light does not shine 
in the face of the sleeper. Bureau and chifionier should be placed where 
the light is good by day and by night; and, if posatde, the washstand 

Household Furnishing 1071 

should be provided with a screen for the sake of privacy. After the fur- 
niture is in place, the clear area in the r6bm should be rectangular, leaving 
plenty of space for dressing. 

All articles of wearing apparel should be kept in places where they will 
be out of sight. A closet or a wardrobe will be needed for every bedroom. 
If a room is not provided with this convenience, a wardrobe may be built 
of matched boarding and finished to correspond with the woodwork of 
the room; or it may be made of burlap or of denim stretched tightly over 
a wooden framework, with a curtain at the opening. An ingenious home- 
made device can always be fitted up for a closet, care being taken to make 
it as dustproof as possible. A closet should be at least two feet deep 
and should be provided with a rod supplied with coat and skirt hangers 
for the various garments. Clothing may thus be kept in shape and free 
from wrinkles, and more articles can be himg in a given space than by 
any other arrangement. A long, narrow closet prepared in this way will 
furnish more hanging space than will a square closet of greater size. A 
shelf above for hats and another below for shoes will complete the outfit. 
A closet that one reaches rather than steps into may be provided with a 
strip at the threshold to keep out the dust. The closet should be finished 
white or very light inside, so that garments may be easily seen and selected 
and moths may be detected. Closet space may be supplemented with 
boxes of any desired size, covered with cretonne or matting, fitted with 
hinged lids and made the height of a seat, thus answering two purposes. 
Metal beds are to be preferred to those of wood. Of course, when a 
home is stocked with wooden beds these must be retained; but it is safe 
to say that wood will never again be largely used in the manufacture of 
beds, as the fact that vermin will not hatch on metal has given the latter 
material an indisputable advantage. For the average home, nothing can 
be more sanitary and more inviting in appearance than a plain white iron 
bed with or without brass cappings. The most recent designs in metal 
beds show plain, square posts and railings of low or moderate height at 
head and foot, with only as much framework as is necessary for security 
and strength. Brass beds are more showy than are painted iron ones, 
and for this reason they do not appeal strongly to persons of modest 
taste. Springs should be built on an iron framework. Beds should be 
provided with somewhat low pillows and firm, rather than soft, mattresses. 
This arrangement promotes more complete rest for the body. 

If a bedroom is used merely for dressing and for sleeping, it will be fotmd 
most restful without pictures or ornaments; but if it is used also as a sit- 
ting-room or a sewing-room and is one's special sanctum, photographs of 
friends and other personal decorations, if not used to excess, will have 
their place and meaning. These ornaments should be arranged as neatly as 

107^ Thb Cornell Reading-Courses 

possible in positions where they will be undisturbed by draughts and by 
other movements about the room. Favorite quotations, or a calendar 
of daily texts, may be kept in sight for constant inspiration, for these 
silent sermons have a way of keeping us up to the mark, physically, men- 
tally, and morally. 

In order to live efl5ciently, we must keep ourselves physically freshened 
and mentally poised. The struggle for mere possession of objects should 
not master completely our time and strength. The daily routine of work 
may be our immediate interest, but it is not the goal, for all work, play, 
rest, and hospitality should combine to make of the home a suitable for- 
tress of strength to the commtmity, standing for wholesome living, dean 
ideals, and unselfish public service. 

Listen to Mr. William L. Price in "The house of the democrat": 

" I once built a house for a Democrat — a man who left a money- 
making partnership when he believed he had as much money as he could 
employ profitably to his fellowmen — and his one concern for this house 
was not that it should cost too much, but that it should in no wise embarrass 
his friends; ample enough to contain them; simple enough to leave them 
unoppressed; yet with artistry to please and to lead them, if they would, 
to do likewise. Some of his friends were not well enough off to afford 
such a house, some of them were rich enough to build palaces; yet his 
house was not to make the one envious or the other contemptuous. 

" When at last we build the house of the democrat * * * it 
shall be set in a place of greenery, for the world is a large place and its 
loveliness mostly a wilderness; it shall be far enough away from its next 
for privacy and not too far for neighborliness; it shall have a little space 
knit within a garden wall; flowers shall creep up to its warmth, and flow, 
guided, but unrebuked, over wall and low-drooped eaves. It shall neither 
be built in poverty and haste, nor abandoned in prosperity; it shall grow 
as the family grows; it shall have rooms enough for the privacy of each 
and the fellowship of all. * * * * 

" The rooms of his house shall be ample, and low, wide-windowed, 
deep-seated, spacious, cool by reason of shadows in siunmer, warm by the 
ruddy glow of firesides in winter, open to wistful summer airs, tight closed 
against the wintry blasts; a house, a home, a shrine; a little democracy 
unjealous of the greater world, fenced in, but pouring forth the spirit 
of its own sure justness for the commonwealth. 

" Its walls shall be the quiet backgroimd for the loveliness of life, hung 
over with the few records of our own and others* growth made in the 
playtime of art; its furnishings the product of that art's more serious 
hours; its implements from kitchen-ware to dressing table touched by 
the sane and hallowing hand of purpose and taste," 


Published Semi-monthly by the New York State College of Agricultore at 
Cornell University, Throughout the Year. Application for Entry as 
Second-Class Matter at the Post Office at Ithaca. N. Y., Pending 

L. H. Bailey, Director 

CoimsE FOR THE Pami Home \ JJ^^™^ Van RENSSELAER, Supervisor . 
v^v»i^ *vr* OA X A«« xxKjmLM^ ^ j^j^g jjj^ g Harrington, Assistant Supervisor 

VOU X. Ho. 7 JANUARY I^'l9i2 ^^^^"^ HOUSE SERIES Ho. a 



Every woman enjoys the effort to improve her home, to have a home 
of taste — her taste, to be sure, but always improving — a home in which 
to live and to enjoy living. Emerson refers to such homes as those of 
virtue, sense, and taste. These homes may have snow drifting in at the 
windows and may be without expensive furnishings; but they require an 
ideal that is based on simplicity and refinement. They are based as well 
on a study of principle. Will you discuss with us the making of such 
a home? 

Ruskin says: " If you have sense, and feeling, determine what sort of 
a house will be fit for you; — determine to work for it — to get it — and 
to die in it, if the Lord will. I mean, one that you can entirely enjoy 
and manage; but which you will not be proud of, except as you make it 
charming in its modesty.'* 

I. Describe the simple house-furnishings among which you would like 
to live. 


I074 The Cjuseli. Reaiix->-C v 

2. What are the essentiak of a good piece of fumiime ? 

3. If you had one hundred dollars with which to improve the house, 
how would you spend it? 

Household Furnishing 1075 

4. a) How shall we drape a window so as to make it an effective frame 
for the view outside? 

b) What can we do to make the view more beautiful? 

5. To what extent should we spend money in the reupholstering of 

1076 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

6. Dtist is one of the friends of disease. Modem sanitary home-making 
avoids dust lines. What can we leave out of the household furniture 
for the sake of health and of labor-saving, and stiil have an artistic effect? 

7. If you were furnishing a living-room, what should detennine the 




Published semi-monthly throughou*- the year by the New York State College of 
Agriculture at Cornell University. Entered as second-class matter October 13* 
191 1, ac the post office at Ithaca, N. Y., under the Act of Congress of July 16, 1894 

L. H. Badley, Director 

Course for the Farm Home ( J}^"™^ Van^Rensselaer. Suptrvisar 
vA^v«9» » » *n» * i«u» xxv/.a ^ ^^^ ^^^ g HARRINGTON, AsststatU SupervuoT 

VOL. I. No 9 

FEBRUARY i, 191 2 



Martha Van Rensselabr 


Oh for a booke and a shadie nooke, 

Eyther in doore or out; 
With the grene leaves whispering overhead 

Or the streete cryes all about. 
Where I maie reade all at my ease, 

Both of the newe and old; 
For a jollie goodc booke whereon to looke, 

Is better to me than golde." 

HE character of the farm home depends in great 
measure on the woman who keeps it; and the 
character of the woman depends in good measure 
on the amoimt and the character of her reading. 
A love of the best books gives one a new point of 
view, and strengthens one's hold on life. 

The mother's literary sense needs the most food 
while the children are growing, so that she may be an 
example and a stimulus to her family. He is a happy 
boy whose mother will sit up and read "Arabian nights" 
with him, even though his jacket must be mended at a 
later hour. Better to let the jacket go than to lose 
altogether the companionship afforded by reading together. 
Books are better than bric-a-brac. A bookless house 
has a homeless appearance. A few choice books have 
lent a charm to a home with furnishings both scant 
These books have an element of life in them. The long, 
quiet evenings in the farm home spent with friends in books have 
built up many delightftd associations. History, biography, and poetry 
may be enjoyed in the farm home much more than in the village 
and the dty, where there are interruptions to regular consecutive reading. 


and plain. 

1078 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

Reasons why the reading habit is lost. — A common testimony of house- 
keepers is that the demands of the home are so great that even if they 
find a little time they are too tired to read or to study. Reading has been 
pursued in a perfunctory way, perhaps, and has ceased to be a recreation, 
or the habit has become lost in the too close attention to the practical. 
Perhaps in the effort to provide the home with the comforts of life, books 
have become a luxury. Or it may be that the books composing the 
hbrary are only those once enjoyed and not in line with present tastes 
and demands; they may be volumes that the urgency of the subscription 

Fig. 32. — A boy's comer 

agent has induced the homekeeper to buy, only to be locked behind 
glass doors: books of information, but not of inspiration. 

On the shelves there are books that we often resolve to read, but we await 
an opportunity when we may be able to read for an hour or two at a time, 
Hence the book remains perhaps for years, and it is always a pleasure or 
a task ahead of us, rather than one accomplished or a present enjoyment. 
We should first choose our book, read a chapter or a few pages, and leave 
it at a point where there is interest enough to make the desire to know 
what is coming next irresistible. It is a pleasure to place a book on the 
shelf with the feeling that it is a part of our own life and experience, a 
new and treasured friend. 

Reading in the Farm Home 1079 

children and books 

Read something that the children will like. — Do not try to elevate the 
children to your point of view; if you do, the reading will be "dry" 
and the children will not stay to hear it unless they are obliged to do so. 
If you find that your boy is reading trashy stuff, do not upbraid him, for 
his taste may be partly your own fault. Read him a good story, and one 
that is full of the real, living, jumping, hilarious boy. If you have no such 
story or do not know of one, ask your neighbor or the teacher or the 
minister, or go to .the village library. The boy's or the girl's taste for 
reading is likely to be determined or directed by the mother. Is it not 
possible to inculcate in the children such a taste for good things to read 
that they will not care for dime novels or for hairbreadth escapades? 

Usually the reason why young persons read trashy books is because no 
older person is taking a real live interest in pointing the way to the good 
things in fiction. In order that the children may acquire the habit of 
reading, it is worth while to arouse interest in a subject. It is not enough 
that the children look at the titles of books that mean nothing to them; 
it remains for an older person to interest them in a subject, and perhaps 
to read aloud xmtil a sufficient desire is gained for more. 

That is not an ideal picture which shows the father of the family 
sitting throughout the entire evening reading the newspaper, the mother 
silent, darning and mending, and the children playing games. This is 
a time when the members of the family may be united in one enterprise. 
Older people are pleased with history, biography, and stories that carry 
with them real value and strength, and the children have a lively interest 
in that for which their elders care. It is a mistake to " read down ** to 
children. It is a mistake to ask always whether all parts of a book are 
within the comprehension of the child. He may not imderstand all of 
*' Marmion," but he catches the fire and the spirit of the poem, and he 
enjoys it much more than when, as an older person, he reads from the 
standpoint of a critic. It is surprising how much children will absorb 
from mature books that are read to them. Children enjoy that which is 
strong. Their intellectual tastes will be vitiated by literature that 
has not in it the element to make it aUve. 

An education is desired for children, and too often, in the crowded 
days and nights of striving for their children's welfare, the parents feel 
compelled to lay aside the books. There is danger here of pushing the 
boys and the girls to the front, while the parents go into the background 
and fall behind the times. It is exceedingly wholesome for the boys and 
girls to feel that their parents are in advance of them; they not 
only enjoy their intellectual comradeship, but are benefited by looking 
to the parents for literary and intellectual leadership. There is a larger 

io8o The Cornell Reading-Courses 

amount of sympathy between the mother and the daughter who wash 
the dishes and read " The lady of the lake " together, than between 
the mother who washes the dishes and the daughter who reads ** The lady 
of the lake" alone. The boys and the father will both enjoy "Snow 
bound" more if the father and the son have shoveled snow together. The 
mother may fear to neglect the physical needs of the child in this attention 
to books, but ** the learned eye is still the loving eye." 

Establish the habit of reading aloud. — By means of the reading habit, 
all members of the family are interested for a time in 1;he same thing, and 
good fellowship, copartnership, and sympathy are aroused at the same 
time that the reading habit is being established. Perhaps you think you 
are not a good reader, but that only shows that you have not had practice 
and that your need is so much the greater; one cannot sing nor skate 
without practice. Most persons make too hard work of reading aloud. 
Only read simply and easily, with the least effort possible. 

Read what will make a lasting impression on your hearers, things 
that they will think about afterward. Many of the most entertaining 
stories and poems have this merit. Beside entertaining for the 
time being, they make one feel better, they inspire one, help him 
over hard places, give him information that is desired, make him deter- 
mined to do and to be something. Set aside one evening in the week 
for the family reading. Take turns reading aloud. Let your neighbors 
know that you keep open house that evening, if they wish to drop in. 
Do not try to make an "entertainment," but spend a quiet, restful evening. 

Just as soon as the boy or the girl expresses a desire for a book on any 
practical or rural subject, provide it. If one of the children likes poultry, 
buy a poultry book. You may need one on birds or gardening or trees 
or horses or pets. Remember that a good book well read is a good in- 
vestment. The child that steals away to read in secret sliould be looked 

The desire for good things. — If a boy appreciates good things to eat, 
it is largely because he has had such things at home ; if he likes good things 
to look at, it is because he has seen good pictures and flowers at home; 
if he likes good things to. read, it is because some one has led him to read 
such matter. May not exercise in reading be as much a part of the home 
as exercise in singing or in school-going or in good manners? 


Shall we have fictipn in the home reading? — Men and women are most 
interested in human nature, in its fortunes, its misfortunes, and its pos- 
sibilities. Hence the enormous sale of fiction. There is, however, a large 
amount of fiction bought and read, which, while it may not be pernicious, 

Reading in thb Farm Home ioSi 

fails to inspire one with a nobler ambition; it does not strengthen the 
mind; it does not add culture. It excites, it entertains, it wears very 
smooth the avenues of the brain through which it travels, but it leaves 
no thought-pegs on which to hang ideas. A novel which has led a 
person to think, which creates an appetite for the best literature, and 
which incites to higher and nobler living, is well worth while. Regret 
is often expressed that the book of the day, referring particularly to the 
novel, does not oftener come into the farm home. Perhaps there are 
compensations for this deprivation. Dickens, Scott, and Thackeray have 

Fig. 33.— Now is the lime for the farmer to read 

not wholly given place to the modem novel. Many modern novels that 
have attracted wide attention are not reread, nor are they known for 
many months; their authors must make a new sensation if they would 
live. Other recent books will always hold their place because they are 
sincere and they ring true. 

Too much reading may be a source of harm. — The mind needs very care- 
ful management. It rebels against overcrowding, as the body rebels 
agmnst overeating. Sometimes we do not read because we do not feel 
equal to the task before us; our energy has been spent in other directions. 
Still, there are books that are a recreation and are well worth reading. 

io82 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

One of otir great teachers has said: ''A man is worth to himself what 
he is capable of en jojdng. ' ' We cannot always enjoy books of equal depth. 
Because we cannot on some occasions read a learned book, difficult to 
understand, we need not refuse at such times to read a good book of fic- 
tion, a bit of biography, or a poem. There are suggestions of the working 
of a sieve when the newspapers, the short magazine article, the scrappy 
reading often indulged in, are the sole occupation of the reader. When 
books were fewer, men and women read them more slowly and more 
often, and thought more about them. Their minds were not satiated 
and they had capacity for enjojrment and for reflection. It is true that 
this flood of reading may be made a blessing in that it furnishes a large 
opportunity for a wise selection, but it is a blessing only when the 
literary taste is sufficiently cultivated to be able to choose wisely. The 
reading of a book may be accompanied by a notebook, but one should 
read carefully and should become thoroughly saturated with the subject 
before putting anything into the notebook. 

Memorize good selections, — Our fathers and mothers cultivated this 
habit more than their children have. In earlier days there was less read- 
ing matter. More time was spent on standard works, and attention 
was not dissipated by a large amount of scattered reading. Poetry was 
read and committed to memory. Time was given to allow a thought 
to enter the mind and to become absorbed before the reader rushed to 
the next subject. The habit of memorizing may be easy or it may be 
very laborious to acquire. It may be lasting or only transitory. Words 
should never be committed to memory before the thought has been ab- 
sorbed. Read a selection or a paragraph two or three times in order to 
form the mental pictures. Close the book and recall them in their order; 
never mind the exact wording. If the pictures cannot be recalled 
easily, take a paragraph or a verse at a time. Reread it until the entire 
picture is before you. Then see how easily the words come in their 
order. This method is not mechanical and it is delightful occupation. 
Think of the pleasiu"e to the aged person who, after eyesight has failed, 
can recall incidents and sentiments that have been a pleasure in the 
original reading. 

This cultivation of the memory for literattu-e is aided by recalling events 
and objects seen at a glance. All this helps one to be accurate in his 
observations and in his routine of details. One great cause of inefficiency 
in practical life is a lack of power to remember. A boy that forgets to 
bring in the wood or to put up the bars, a girl that forgets to salt the pota- 
toes or to sew a button on her father's coat, needs to train the memory. 

By practice in memorizing, power may be gained for much enjoyment. 
The day's churning or a walk to the pasture will be much pleasanter if one 

Reading in thb Farm Home X083 

lives over the scenes that were visited in last night's reading. Pleasant 
thcnights are good companions. 

Efficiency in the grange, in the institute, in the lyceum, in the literary 
dtib, is gained by the increase of power to stand before the company and 
speak. It is true that he who ventures may be overcome by fright; but 
let him persevere, take five full breaths, say he does not care what 
anybody thinks as long as he does his best, get on his feet and say some- 
thing, and he has contributed to the success of the meeting, has gained 
power for himself, and is ready for a greater effort next time. Or, in a 
more retiring way, when he is one to be heard because of his gray hairs 
or because he has associated with the writers of the day, has read their 
thoughts and has lived in them, he may recite choice passages of good 
literature, and the yoimg are the happier for his being with 

The life of hurry and rush precludes sufficient meditation and refiec^ 
tion. Books are not thoroughly digested. It is not the number of books 
one has skimmed that cultivates the mind; one's power is lessened by 
reading books or articles that do not require thought. Language and 
thought are so closely related that we cannot express ourselves well un- 
less we have thought as we have read. It is a good habit to write out, 
now and then, what you have read, repeating in your own words, if need 
be, the thought of the author. Improve on it, if possible; make it clear, 
simple, forceful. Too many words hide the thought. Nearly every one 
is called on nowadays to speak in pubHc, to write a notice for the paper 
or for a meeting of some kind, and he needs to read dear, concise, simple 
statements in order to learn to think and to express himself clearly 
and concisely. Literature to be simple need not be devoid of strength 
and of thought. The ablest works are the easiest to read because they 
are clearly expressed, showing that the author was a clear thinker. Strik- 
ing examples are Caesar's three words, ** Veni, vidi, vici*' (**I came, I 
saw, I conquered"), or Lincoln's Gettysburg address, also " And God 
said. Let there be light, and there was Ught." 


Favorable surroundings increase the habit of reading. — A good light, 
properly shaded, an easy-chair, books and magazines convenient to pick 
up, a room comfortable to sit in, a plate of apples at one's elbow, all con- 
tribute to real literary enjoyment. Eveiything possible should be pro- 
vided to increase the literary atmosphere in the home. It is a sad picture 
to see members of the family growing old without the desire to read. 
With the advance of years and the lessening of activity, a person may 
find great comfort in books, while one with folded hands, not interested 


Thb Cornell Rbading-Coursbs 

in books, may simply sit by the fireside, waiting, unemployed in body 
and mind, just rusting out. 

A final word on books. — Old age and the enjoyment of books go well 
together. With hands folded, simply waiting for the end is a sad termina- 
tion to life ; while to be in touch with the story of htmian life and of nature 
and of history is to live out one's Ufe fully and happily. 

" If," says Sir John Herschel, " I were to pray for a taste which should 
stand me in stead under every variety of circumstances, and be a source 
of happiness and cheerfulness to me through life, and a shield against 
its ills, however things might go amiss and the world frown upon me, 
it would be a taste for reading. Give a man this taste, and the means 
of gratifying it, and you can hardly fail of making a happy man, unless, 
indeed, you put into his hands a most perverse selection of books." 


The old prejudice against " book farming " is fast dying out. In the 
new order of things the farmer needs his reading matter on farm subjects, 
the same as the lawyer needs his law books. He will have some farm 
journals, and in addition he will have books of reference on agriculttiral 

List of Agricultural Reference Books 


H. P. J. 
H. P. J. 
H. P. J. 

McGraw and 

Rice, William, 

and Cox 



Progressive poultry culture. The Torch Press, Cedar 

Rapids, la. $1.50 

Ducks and geese. 

Poultry houses and fixtures. 


Profitable poultry production. Orange Judd Company, 

New York. $1 . 50 

Development of the chick. Henry Holt & Co. %^.oo 

Perfected poultry of America. Howard Publishing Com- 
pany, Washington. $2 . 50 

Making poultry pay. Orange Judd Company. $1 .00 

Poultry breeding. Saunders Publishing Company. $1.50 

Squabs for profit. Orange Judd Company. $ . 50 

Poultry-craft. Farm Poultry Publishing Company, Boston. 

Farm poultry. The Macmillan Company. $1 . 2S 

How we make ducks pay. 

Reading in the Farm Home 1085 

Weir, H. W. Poultry book. Doubleday, Page & Co. $5.00 
American standards of perfection. American Poultry Asso- 
ciation, Buffalo. $1 . 50 


Conn, H. W. Practical dairy bacteriology. Orange Judd Company. 

Conn, H. W. Agricultural bacteriology. P. Blakiston & Son, Philadel- 
phia. $2 . 00 
Decker, John Cheese making. Mendota Book Company, Madison, Wis. 

Farrington Testing milk and its products. Mendota Book Co. $1.25 

and Woll 
Lipman Bacteria in relation to country life. The Macmillan Com- 

pany. $1.00 
McKay and Principles and practice of butter. John Wiley & Sons, New 
Larson York. $1.50 

Russell and Dairy bacteriology. Russell, Madison, Wis. $i.oo 

Van Slyke Modem methods of testing milk and its products. Orange 

Judd Company. $.75 

Van Slyke Science and practice of cheese making. Orange Judd Com- 

and Publow pany . $1.75 

Ward, A. R. Pure milk and public health. Carpenter & Co., Ithaca, 

N. Y. $2.00 
Wing, H. H. Milk and its products. The Macmillan Company $.80 
Winslow Production and handling of clean milk. W. R. Jenkins, 

New York. $3.25 


Bailey Nursery book. The Macmillan Company. $.80 

Bailey Principles of fruit growing. The Macmillan Company. 

Bailey Pruning book. The Macmillan Company. $1 . 50 

Bailey Cyclopedia of horticulture. The Macmillan Company. 

Bailey Garden making. The Macmillan Company. $1 . 50 

Bailey Horticulturist's rule book. The Macmillan Company. 

Bailey Principles of vegetable gardening. The Macmillan Com- 

pany. $1.20 
Budd and American horticulttuist's manual. John Wiley & Sons. 
Hansen $1 . 50 


The Cornell Reading-Courses 



Paddock and 




Davidson and 

Elliott, C. S. 


G. T. 





Lynde, C. J. 







Bush fruits. The Macmillan Company. $i . 50 

Insects injurious to vegetables. Orange Judd Company. 

Fungous diseases of plants. Ginn & Co. $2 .00 

Popular fruit growing. Webb Publishing Company, St. 

Paul, Minn. $1.00 
Spraying of plants. The Macmillan Company. $.80 

Fruit growing in arid regions. The Macmillan Company. 

Insects injurious to fruits. J. B. Lippincott Company. 

Philadelphia. $2 . 00 

American apple orchard. Orange Judd Company. $1 .00 

General Agriculture 

Cyclopedia of agriculture. The Macmillan Company- 

Principles of agriculture. Orange Judd Company. $1.25 
Book of alfalfa. Orange Judd Company. $.50 

Farm machinery and farm motors. Orange Judd Company. 

Practical farm drainage. Orange Judd Company. 

Rural wealth and welfare. The Macmillan Company. 


Soils. Orange Judd Company. $2 . 00 

Potato. Orange Judd Company. $.75 

Soil fertility and permanent agriculture. Orange Judd 

Company. $2.25 
Cereals in America. Orange Judd Company. $175 

Forage and fibre crops. Orange Judd Company. $1.75 
Physics of agriculture. King, Madison, Wis. $1 .7s 

The soil. The Macmillan Company. $.60 

Home water works. Sturgis and Walton, New York. $ . 75 
Rural hygiene. The Macmillan Company. $1 .50 

Fertility of the land. The Macmillan Company. $1 . 50 
Farmstead. The Macmillan Company $1.00 

Insects injiuious to staple crops. The Macmillan Company. 

Bean culture. Orange Judd Company. $.40 

Clovers and how to grow them. Orange Judd Company. 


Soiling crops and the silo. Orange Judd Company. |i . 50 

Reading in the Farm Home 1087 

Smith Economic entomology. J. B. Lippincott Company. 

Spillman Grasses. Orange Judd Company. $1 .00 

Stevens and Diseases of economic plants. The Macmillan Company. 

Hall $2.50 

Vivian First principles of soil fertility. Orange Judd Company. 


Voorhees Fertilizers. The Macmillan Company. $1 . 50 

Voorhees Forage crops. The Macmillan Company. $1 . 50 

Warren Elements of agriculture. The Macmillan Company. $1.10 

Wing Alfalfa in America. Saimders Publishing Company. $2 . 00 

Mrs. Anna Botsf ord Comstock, in the * ' Handbook of nattire-study , ' ' says : 
*' Luckily, th\mib-rule agriculture is being pushed to the wall in these 
enlightened days. Thumb rules would work much better if nature did 
not vary her performances in such a confusing way. Government ex- 
periment stations were established because thumb rules for farming were 
unreliable and disappointing; and all the work of all the experiment 
stations has been simply advanced nature-study and its application to 
the practice of agriculture. Both nature-study and agriculture are based 
upon the study of life and the physical conditions which encourage or 
limit life; this is known to the world as the study of the natural sciences; 
and if we see clearly the relation of nature-study to science, we n:iay imder- 
stand better the relation of nature-study to agriculture, which is based 
upon the sciences." 

The value of nature-study books in the home is expressed in the following 
wordsby Mrs. Anna Botsford Comstock in the ** Handbook of nature-study" : 

** Nature-study cultivates the child's imagination since there are so 
many wonderful and true stories that he may read with his own eyes, 
which affect his imagination as much as does fairy lore; at the same time 
nature-study cultivates in him a perception and a regard for what is 
true, and the power to express it. All things seem possible in nature; 
yet this seeming is always guarded by the eager quest of what is true. 
Perhaps, half the falsehood in the world is due to lack of power to detect 
the truth and to express it. Nature-study aids both in discernment and 
expression of things as they are. 

'* Nature-study cultivates in the child a love of the beautiful; it brings 
to him early a perception of color, form and music. He sees whatever 
there is in his environment, whether it be the thtmder-head piled up in 
the western sky, or the golden flash of the oriole in the elm; whether it 
he the purple of the shadows on the snow, or the azure glint on the wing 
of the little butterfly. Also, what there is of soimd, he hears; he reads 
the music score of the bird orchestra, separating each part and knowing 

ioS8 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

which bird sings it. And the patter of the rain, the gurgle of the brook, 
the sighing of the wind in the pine, he notes and loves and beoxnes 
enriched thereby. 

" But, more than all, nature-study gives the child a sense of companion- 
ship with life out of doors and an abiding love of nature. Let this latter 
be the teacher's criterion for judging his or her work. If nature-study 
as taught does not make the child love nature and the out-of-doors, then 
it should cease. I-et us not inflict permanent injiu^ on the child by tum- 

Fia. 34. — A winttr afternoon at the farm firesidt. It was snowing vihen this picture 

v>as taken 

ing him away from nature instead of toward it. However, if the love 
of nature is in the teacher's heart, there is no danger; such a teacher, no 
matter by what method, takes the child gently by the hand and walks 
with him in paths that lead to the seeing and comprehending of what 
he may find beneath his feet or above Ms head. And these paths whether 
they lead among the lowliest plants, or whether to the stars, finally coo- 
verge and bring the wanderer to that serene peace and hopeful faith that 
is the sure inheritance of all those who realize fully that they are wortdog 
units of this wonderful universe." 

Reading in the Farm Home 


" And he wandered away and away, with Nature the dear old nurse, 
Who sang to him night and day, the rhymes of the universe. 
And when the way seemed long, and his heart began to fail, 
She sang a more wonderful song, or told a more wonderful tale." 

Longfellow's poem to Agassiz. 







J. H. 


A. B. 

Edw. H. 
Gaye, Selina 

Gilbert and 


A Suggested List of Nature Books 

First studies of plant life. Ginn & Co., New York. $.70 
The nature study idea. The Macmillan Company, New 

York. $1.25 
The outlook to nature. The Macmillan Company. $1.25 
The manual of gardening. The Macmillan Company. 

Starland. Ginn & Co., New York. $1 .00 

Bird neighbors. Doubleday, Page & Co., New York. $2 . 00 

Handbook of birds of eastern North America. D. Appleton 

& Co., New York. $3.00 

Insect life. D. Appleton & Co. $1.75 

Manual for the study of insects. Comstock Publishing Com- 
pany. $3.75 

Handbook of nature study. Comstock Publishing Com- 
pany. $3.25 

Useful birds and their protection. 

The great world's farm. The Macmillan Company. $1 . 00 
Blossom pests and insect guests. Newson & Co., New York. 

$1 .00 
Introduction to phycical geography. D. Appleton & Co. 

Nature study and life. Ginn & Co., New York. $1 .65 
Nature study. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1 . 50 

Life of animals. The Macmillan Company. $2 . 00 

Wild life in orchard and field. Harper & Brothers. $1 . 50 
Our native trees. Charles Scribner's Sons. $2 . 00 

Our garden flowers. Charles Scribner's Sons. $2.00 

Insect stories. Henry Holt & Co. $1.50 

The friendly stars. Harper & Brothers. $1.25 

Fieldbook of American wild flowers. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Birds of village and field. Houghton MifHin Company. 


1090 Thb Cornbll Rbading-Coursbs 

Parsons How to know the ferns. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.50 

Roth First book of forestry. Ginn & Co. $.75 

Shaler, N. S, Aspects of the earth. Charles Scribner's Sons. $2.00 

Stone and American animals. Doubleday, Page & Co. $4.00 

Stone and Animal life. Doubleday, Page & Co. $4. 00 

Von Amim, Elizabeth and her German garden. 

The bulletins named in the following list may be obtained free by 
writing to the Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. : 
34. Meats: composition and cooking 
42. Facts about milk 
52. The sugar beet 
63. Care of milk on the farm 
74. Milk as food 
85. Fish as food 
93. Sugar as food 
112. Bread and bread-making 
121. Beans, peas, and other legimies as food 
12$. Protection of food products from injurious temperatures 
126. Practical suggestions for farm buildings 
128. Eggs and their uses as food 
131. Household tests for detection of oleomargarine and renovated 

135. Sorghum syrup manufacture 
142. Principles of nutrition and nutritive value of food 

166. Cheese-making on the farm 

167. Cassava 

175. Home manufacture of imfermented grape juice 

182. Poultry as food 

183. Meat on the farm: butchering, curing, and keeping 
185. Beautif3ring the home grounds 

203. Canned fruits, preserves, and jellies 

232. Okra: its use and culture 

234. The guinea fowl 

241. Butter-making on the farm 

249. Cereal breakfast foods 

252. Maple sugar and syrup 

255. The home vegetable garden 

256. The preparation of vegetables for the table 
270. Modem conveniences for the farm home 

Reading in the Farm Home 












Iron in food and its function in nutrition 

Use of fruit as food 

Potatoes and other root crops as food 

The food value of com and com products 

Nuts and their uses as food 

The computation of rations for fami animals by the use of 

energy values 
Bacteria in milk 

Canning vegetables in the home 
Use of milk as food 
Hannfulness of headache mixtures 
Habit-fonning agents 
Canning peaches on the farm 
How a city family managed a farai 
The Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Wooster, Ohio, has avail- 
able the two following bulletins: 

201. The mineral elements in animal nutrition 
213. Specific effect of rations on the development of swine 
Pamphlets on the subjects named below may be obtained by addressing 
the publishers as designated: 
The feeding of children. By Mary Schwartz Rose. Coltmibia University, 

New York. Price 10 cents. 
The principles of jelly making. By N. E. Goldthwaite. University of 

Illinois, Urbana, 111. 
The home canning of fruits and vegetables. North Carolina Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Vol. XXXI, No. 5, May, 19 10. 
Practical directions for preserving native fruits and vegetables. Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, No. 136, April, 1906. 
Study of the methods of canning meats. Bureau of Animal Industry, 

United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 
The perfect art of canning and preserving. The Butterick Publishing 
Company, New York. Price 15 cents. 

Cornell reading-course for farmers* wives: 
Old Series: 

No. 2. Decoration in the farm home 

3. Practical housekeeping 

4. The kitchen garden 

5. Flowers and the flower-garden 

6. The rural school and the farm home 

7. Boys and girls on the farm 

1092 Thb Cornell Rbading-Coursbs 

21. Suggestions to readers 

27. A month of education discussion 

28. Another study in household equipment 
New Series: 

No. 2. Insect pests of house and garden 
4. Household bacteriology 

6. Human nutrition, Part I 

7. Human nutrition, Part II 
Cornell reading-course for the farm home: 

No. I. The care and feeding of children, Part I 

2. The care and feeding of children, Part II 

3. Household decoration 

4. Household furnishing 

Other lessons in preparation for the year 

A Suggested List of Books on Home Economics 

Library of Home Economics, American School of Home 

Economics, Chicago, Illinois. $12 . 00 a set 

Barrows, Anna Principles of cookery 

Bevier, Isabel The house: its plan, decoration and 


Cotton, Dr. A. C. Care of children 

Dodd, Margaret E. Chemistry of the household 

Elliott, S. Maria Household hygiene 

Elliott, S. Maria Household bacteriology 

Le Bosquet, M. Personal hygiene 

Norton, Alice P. Food and dietetics 

Pope, Amy E. Home care of the sick 

Terrill, Bertha M. Household management 

Washbume, Marion F. Study of child life 

Watson, Kate H. Textiles and clothing 

Abbott, E. H. On the training of parents. Houghton Mifflin Company- 
Si. 00 

Addams, Jane The spirit of youth in the city streets — The newer ideals 

of peace. The MacmiUan Company. $1 . 25 each 

Allen, W. H. Civics and health. Ginn & Co., New York 

Balderston, Latmdry manual. Avil Printing Company, Pittsburgh, Pa- 

L. Rae 
Burbank, The htmian plant. The Century Company, New York. 

Luther H. $60 

Call, Annie Power through repose. Little, Brown & Co., Boston 

Payson $i-^ 

Reading in the Farm Home 1093 

Chittenden, The nutrition of man. Frederick A. Stokes Company. 
R. H. $3 . 00 

Conn, H. W. Bacteria, yeasts and molds. Ginn & Co. $1 .00 

Daniels, Furnishing of the modest home. Davis Press, Worcester, 

Fred H. Mass. $1 . 00 

Dodd, Helen The healthful farmhouse. Whitcomb & Barrows, Boston. 

Gulick, The eflScient life. Doubleday, Page & Cq. $1.20 

Luther H. 

Holt, L. E. Care and feeding of children. D. Appleton & Co. $.75 

Lipman, Bacteria in relation to country life. The Macmillan Com- 

Jacob G. pany. $1 . 50 

Mitchell, The fireless cook book. Doubleday, Page & Co. $1.25 

Margaret J. 
Ogden, H. N. Rural hygiene. The Macmillan Company. $1 . 50 

Parloa, Maria Home economics. The Century Company. $1 . 50 

Pattee, Diet in disease. A. F. Pattee, Mt. Vernon, N. Y. $1.50 

Richards, The cost of living. John Wiley •& Sons. $1 . 00 

EUen H. 
Rowe, S. H. The physical nature of the child. The Macmillan Company. 

Saleeby, C. W. Health, strength, and happiness. Mitchell Kennedy, New 

York. $1.50 

Sedgwick, Principles of sanitary science and the public health. The 

W. T. Macmillan Company. $3 . 00 

Snyder, Harry Htiman foods. The Macmillan Company. $1 . 2*5 

Spargo, John The common sense of the milk question. The Macmillan 

Company. $1 . 50 

Wheeler, Principles of home decoration. Doubleday, Page & Co. 

Candace $1.80 

Whipple, Typhoid fever. John Wiley & Sons. $3 . 00 

George C. 
Wilbur, Everyday business for women. Houghton MifHin Com- 

Mary A. pany. $1.25 

1094 The Cornell Reading-Courses 


Caroline Webster 
Library Organizer, New York State Library 
The city dweller, in this age of rush and strain, envies the men and 
the women on the farm their long winter evenings, free from interruption, 
for developing the joy that comes from reading. These leisure hours give: 
a much-coveted opportunity for them to become better acquainted with 
the friends they abeady have in books, to meet new friends, to associate 

PiG- 35- — Siuno without; readini wilkin takes one to all quarters of the earth 
with the greatest men and women of all ages, and to catch a glimpse of 
" the hght that never was on sea or land, the consecration and the poet's 

Reading aUmd. — Whether the family be large or small, the ideal way 
of spending an evening is to have one member of the circle read aloud. 
The difficulty often is to find some book in which all will be interested; 
nevertheless, there are many stories that are especiaUy adapted for reading 
aloud, many biographies that read like fiction, and many poems that must 
be read aloud in order to be enjoyed. Kipling always makes a strong 
appeal to the ear. Eugene Field and James Whitcomb Riley are delight- 

Reading in the Farm Homb 1095 

111, too. The pathos and humor of their poetry, the drawing of things 
* here at home, jes' as they air," explain, if any explanation is needed, 
^hy they are loved in so many American homes. 

In our reading circle we must not forget the children. It is not alwa3rs 
Qecessary to read what are known as children's stories, for children will 
often enjoy the " grown-up " books quite as much as the books that are 
written for them. This is especially true of poetry. And " grown-ups " 
usually enjoy the stories written for children. The man or the woman 
who can no longer read a fairy tale with zest, or who is bored or horrified 
at the pranks of Huck Finn, or who experiences no thrill at the doings of 
Robin Hood or of the Knights of King Arthur, and who has a dry eye 
when he reads Field's ** Little B03'' Blue," is indeed to be pitied. It is 
well for the older members of the family to bear in mind the child's point 
of view, and the best children's stories usually present this point of view 
in a most pleasing way. 

A short list of books that are good for reading aloud is given below. 
The list includes a collection of poetry rather than a volume of poems by 
one author, since this plan gives an opportunity for each member of the 
family to choose his or her favorite poem and also to make new friends. 
There are other collections of poetry as good as the one included in this list. 

Bryant's " New library of poetry and song " and the " Oxford book of 
verse " both can be highly commended. 

*a Andrews Perfect tribute 

Dana Household book of poetry 

Edwards In the Yukon 

*b Graham The golden age 

b Graham Dream days 

a Grenfell Afloat on an ice pan 

a Hale, E. E. Did he take the prince to ride? 

b Hale, L. P. Peterkin papers 

b Harris Unde Remus 

James International episode 

Jones Life of Edison 

a Kipling Incarnation of Krishna Mulvaney 

a Muir Stickeen 

a Opseud, Henry Handbook of Hymen (In his ** Heart of the Wer/t") 

b Pyle Men of iron 

Stuart Sonny 

Wister Seven ages of Washington 

a Wister Ulysses Grant 

*!!?'.*. May be read in an evening. 
b'» Juvenile. 

1096 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

Out-of-door books. — Those of us who live in the country have the op- 
portunity of knowing intimately the world that lies all about us, the 
world of the great out-of-doors. In gaining this knowledge books are 
our most helpful and sympathetic friends. They show us where to go 
and wnat to see and to hear. They express for us the joy that we feel 
but do not know how to put into words. They comfort us when illn^s 
shuts us in, by canying us back in imagination to our favorite haunts. 
Nature herself is of course oiu* best teacher: 

" Many runes the cold has taught me, 
Many lays the rain has brought me. 
Other songs the winds have sung me; 
Many birds from many forests 
Oft have simg me lays in concord." 

The library in the farm home should include a few books that will help 
us to know the trees, the wild flowers, the birds, and the stars. Every 
woman who is fond of wild flowers will take real pleasure in owning Mrs. 
Dana's " How to know the wild flowers"; and Mrs. Ely's " Woman's 
hardy garden " will be the greatest help to any one who desires something 
more than annuals in her garden. Bailey's ** Garden-making " includes 
suggestions for raising both vegetables and flowers, and gives plans for 
laying out grounds. Keeler's " Otir native trees and how to identify them " 
will be useful to the lover of trce^. 

There is such a number of books about birds that it is hard to select 
just one. No one, however, would make a mistake in buying Chapman's 
" Bird life " or Merriam's ** Birds of village and field." For a simple 
book on the habits of birds, a book, perhaps, that the children would enjoy, 
Olive Thome Miller's '* Second book of birds" is very good. 

Martin's " Friendly stars " is a poptilar, entertaining description of the 
twenty brightest stars and the principal constellations, and renders easy 
their identification with the naked eye. 

Books of inspiration. — It is more or less the fashion at present to ca\nl 
at fiction. When we do this we forget that Shakespeare was a wTiter 
of fiction, that Aesop wrote fiction, that it was a novel (** Uncle Tom's 
cabin ") which contributed more toward freeing the slave in this country 
than did any other thing. '* But," you say, " it is the novel of the day 
to which we object." True, many of these are poor and many are more 
than poor — they are weak and bad; but one does not need to read that 
kind unless he is guided entirely by advertisements in his choice of books. 
It is unfortunate to condemn all fiction simply because some is bad. It 
would be a misfortune to have missed knowing ** Bob, son of battle " 
and not to have thrilled at the ** Call of the wild " because one had crossed 

Reading ik the Farm Home 1097 

nodern novels off the list of books worth reading. And one would feel 
iefrauded of two delightful companions if he did not know " Rebecca 
if Sunnybrook Farm " and " Anne of Green Gables." Neyer 
a have felt the charm of Colonel Carter's manners or of Babbie's 
bewitching ways would be a real loss to any lover of womankind. The 
question of fiction reading is a question of selection. We must have 
fiction in our farm libraiy, but it must be carefully selected. 

Poetry, of course, we shall need. " A single poem that warms the 
ifiections, elevates the soul, 
excites the imagination, 
kindles the emotions and 
arouses noble aspirations 
may be worth more to 
myriads of readers than a 
whole library of fact, argu- 
ment, exhortation and 

Among our inspirational 
books, bic^raphy also 
should have a conspicuous 
place. Could any one find 
better food for thought 
than in Franklin's " Auto- 
biography," Booker Wash- 
ingion's"Up from slavery," 
Alice Freeman Palmer's 
" Life," or " The story of 
Helen Keller " ? John 
Graham Brooks' " A story 
of an American citizen : a 
life of William Henry Bald- 

wn, Jr.," published last „ , ^ , 

• J ' ^ _ Fig. 36.— One of our stations 

year, is a book in which 

many young men cannot fail to take a vital interest. It is the story of a 
young man with a "straight and honest life record," a young man who 
succeeded in business and still maintained his high moral integrity: a 
splendid contrast to the type of man that is now figuring so largely in the 
muckraking articles appearing in the magazines. It is the story of a man 
who amassed wealth honestly and who has been described as the " Galahad 
of the market place" — just the sort of person for young men to know. 
Children's books. — There is such a wealth of literature now published 
for children that one is almost bewildered in trying to select for them eiccord- 


Thb Cornell Rbading-Coitrsbs 

ing to their special tastes and needs. We have made out and included 
in this lesson a list of interesting books for boys and girls. This is a tested 
Ust; it has been tested by bo3rs and girls who have found the books in- 
teresting and by mothers and teachers who agree that the stories are good 
tand wholesome. The books are as follows: 











Story of a bad boy. Houghton MifiSin Company. $1.25 

A story of a mischievous, but truly good, natural New 
England boy. 
For the honor of the school. D. Appleton & Co. Si. 50 

A story of school life. 
American boys' handy book. Charles Scribner's Sons. $2.00 

A practical description of sports, games, and amtise- 
ments scdtable for boys of all ages. 
American girls* handy book. Charles Scribner's Sons. $2.00 

Filled with practical directions for work and play of 
every kind. 
Bamaby Lee. The Century Company. $1.50 

A private's story. Scene, New Amsterdam, time of 
English capture, 1664. 
Training of wild animals. The Century Company. $1.00 

Accounts of traits of animals in captivity and of hazard- 
ous lives of trainers. 
Peep-in-the-world. Longmans, Green & Co. $1.25 

Story of a delightful little English girl who spends a 
winter in Germany. This is sure to be a favorite with the girls. 
Famous adventures and prison escapes of the Civil War. 

The Century Company. $1.50 

True and exciting stories collected from the Century 
Legends of King Arthur. Ginn & Co. $.50 

Perhaps the best version from which to read aloud to 

Jack, the young ranchman. Frederick A. Stokes Com- 
pany. $1.25 

A New York boy's six months on a ranch in the Rockies. 
His adventures continued, and much information about 
Indians given in two succeeding stories of the same series: 
" Jack among the Indians " and " Jack in the Rockies." 
Peterldn papers. Houghton MiflBin Company. $150 

The doings of a delightfully topsy-turvy family who are 
rescued from all diflSculties by " the lady from Phila- 
delphia." This book is good for reading aloud. 

Reading in thb Farm Home 




Lodge and 










Jungle book. The Century Company. $1.50 

Short stories about the secrets of animal life in the 
jungle. " Rikki-tikki-tavi *' and " The white seal " seem 
to be especially adapted for reading aloud. 
Nonsense books. Little, Brown & Co. $2.00 

" A little nonsense now and then is relished by the best 
of men." 

Hero tales from ^American history. ^The Century Com- 
pany. $1.50 

Sketches of famous men and descriptions of dramatic 
events in American history. 
Piimochio. Ginn & Co. $.50 

Story of a marionette. An ideal story for reading aloud 
to a group of children six to nine years of age. 
Careers of danger and daring. The Century Company. 

Vivid accounts of the courage and achievements of steeple 
cUmbers, deep-sea divers, balloonists, ocean and river 
pilots, engineers, and the men that handle d3niamite. 
Anne of Green Gables. Doubleday, Page & Co. $1.50 
Toby Tyler; or. Ten weeks with the circus. Harper & 

Brothers. $.60 

This story and its sequel, ** Mr. Stubbs' brother," 
will interest the boy who is not especially fond of 
Some merry adventures of Robin Hood. Charles Scrib- 

ner's Sons. $3.00. Abridged edition, Charles Scribner's 

Sons. $.50 

Episodes in the life of the famous outlaw. 
Dandelion Cottage. Henry Holt & Co. $1.50 

Concerning four little girls that are real housekeepers in 
a real little house. 
Children's book; a collection of the best and most famous 

stories and poems in the EngHsh language. New edition. 

Houghton Mifflin Company. $2.50 
Black Beauty. Grossetand Dunlap. $.50 

Treasure Island. New edition, illustrated by W. Paget. 

Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.50 
Marching against the Iroquois. Houghton Mifflin Com- 
pany. $1.50 
Orcutt girls. W. A. Wilde Company. $1.50 

Magic forest. The Macmillan Company. $1.50 

1 100 Thb Cornell Rbading-Coursbs 

Wiggin and Golden numbers. McClure Company. $2.00 

2k)llinger Widow O'Callaghan's boys. A. C. McClurg & Co. $.80 

Technical books. — Ours is a practical age, as was previously stated. The 
authors of our technical books have worked out in practice the problems 
of which they write. The men and the Women who are familiar with the 
books that have been published in their respective branches of work are 
recognized as leaders. They know what experiments have been 
made, and why some have succeeded and some have failed. It is possible 
for a farmer to have a good technical library and for a farmer's wife to 
collect a valuable Ubrary on household affairs at very small expense. 

The New York State Library includes in its traveling libraries books 
on all the topics mentioned in this lesson. You are thus given an oppor- 
tunity to become familiar with some of these books and to know which 
you wish to own. For $1.00 you may borrow ten books for three 
months. These books may be renewed for three months more on pay- 
ment of so cents. On application of five taxpayers you may have the 
free use for your community of twenty-five books for six months. If 
additional books are desired they may be obtained on the payment of a 
nominal charge. Books should be located in some central spot, such as 
the post office, a store, or a schoolhouse. A grange or a club that desires 
the exclusive use of books may have twenty-five books for $2 .00. For each 
additional twenty-five books there will be a charge of $1.00. These books 
may be kept for six months or longer. Transportation charges are paid 
on all books. For further information, address the Division of Educa- 
tional Extension, State Library, Albany. 

The Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture, which 
is made up of papers on farm subjects, written by experts, may be pro- 
cured free by appl3dng to your congressman or senator. The United 
States Department of Agriculture will send also, on request, a list of the 
publications issued each month by the department, so that a selection 
may be made. Any bulletin which you see mentioned in your farm paper 
as being published by an experiment station, and which you think would 
be helpful to you, may usually be procured by writing to the director of 
the station and asking for the bulletin. 


Published semi-monthly thrcmghoat the year by the New York State College of 
Agriculttire at Cornell University. Entered as second-class matter October 13, 
19 1 If at the post office at Ithaca, N. Y.| under the Act of Congress of July 16, 1894 

L. H. Bailey, Director 

Course for the Farm Home / J{^"?^ Van Rensselaer, Supervisor 
v^ij&oA rxjm. M^EXB, X aaja xx^ma ^ j^^^^ ju^ g HARRINGTON, AsststaiU Supervtsor 


■ ■■■■. ■■ .,■■■ ■!■ I .1. — ,,.^... ■■■. ■-■■■■■■■ »■ ■ ^ — ^^i^^^ 



One is known by the company he keeps. Books are company. 

We desire to know what is read in the farm home. Will you not co- 
operate by telling us what you read, what you find to be best, and how 
you solve the problem of reading in the home? We should be glad to 
have you answer the following questions as best you can, and return them 
to us. Futtire agricultural conditions will depend to a large extent on 
what is read in the farm home and on the amount of reading done. 

I. Give the names of any books or stories that you have enjoyed read- 
ing aloud or that you have enjoyed listening to when read aloud. Mention 
the most enjoyable features of the best book you have read. 

2. Have you added any books on household economy to yotir library 
this year? if so, give their titles. 


1 102 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

3. Have you fotind useful any of the United States Government bulletins 
or the state bulletins on household topics? if so, which are they? 

4. Of the books that you have read this year, which have you liked 

5. Have you purchased during the year any books especially for chil- 
dren? if so, give titles. 

Reading in the Faem Home 1103 

6. What are yotir children's favorite books? Let the children answer 
this question. 

7. Have you ever used one of the traveling libraries sent out by the 
State Library? If so, was it a house library, or a library sent to a group 
of taxpayers, a grange, or a club? (Underiine the word or expression that 
shows the kind of library that you have used.) 

8. Do you still have access to one of the libraries referred to in 
question 7? 

1 104 

The Cornell Reading-Courses 

9. What has been the most serious drawback, within your experience, 
to the reading habit? 

10. Can you, with a group of other women, form a reading club and 
use our bulletins and a traveling library as a basis for study? Make an 
effort to do so and report to us your progress. 



©IjF Cnrn^U 38paJ>ing-fflo«ra?a 


Pubtiabsd (aDl-moDthly thron^raat th* r««r by tin New York SUM Coltcs* of 
Asrii^iiltme iX Comrn ITnivcnity. Enteral u ucond-clua outts October 13, 
191 1, at iha p«t oSca at Ithua, H.Y^ under the Act of OsBgnm <U JvXy I&, iBm 

L. H. Bailby, Director 
CouRSB FOK THE Paku Hohb, Mastha Van Renssblaek, Superviior 

VOL. ,. K^ X. MrH-,^; J; »"« HOUSB S5SISS H,. , 


Flora Rose 

Cleaning is a sanitary measure; without it, health may be endangered 

and life shortened. Dirt in itself may not always be harmful, but its 

Pig. 37. — The family, viashing 

presence at least forecasts harm while its removal may be just that necessary 
"ounce of prevention." One of the most important sanitary measures 

iio6 Thb Cornell ReadingtCourses 

in the home, then, is the weekly washing. It is not merely in order to 
gratify otir sense of the aesthetic that we go to the extreme of upsetting 
family routine for one day each week, but also to prevent soiled clothing 
from becoming dangerous to its wearer. . 

Why is soiled clothing dangerous to its wear erf — The skin acts as a heat- 
regulating apparatus through evaporation of perspiration, and thus reduces 
body heat. It also serves in some measure to eliminate the wastes of the 
body in the form of secretions. Perspiration and secretions are absorbed 
by clothing, and bits of dead skin are continually being rubbed off to find 
their way into the meshes of the fabric. After a time, the limit of absorp- 
tion by the clothing is reached; its pores become clogged. The clothing 
begins to have a damp, sticky, oily feeling. If it has been starched the 
garment becomes limp. In this condition, if clothing is not actually 
dirty it is at least unwholesome to wear, for it prevents proper absorption 
and evaporation of moisture from the body and thus actually increases 
its warmth in sxmmier and its cold in winter. It is a matter of common 
experience to mothers and ntu-ses that the fretting of a small child may 
sometimes be due to clothing that has become damp and sticky with wear. 
A change to clean garments gives the needed relief, by furnishing a fresh 
absorbing surface. 

Washing, then, has a threefold purpose: to remove dirt and thus reopen 
the pores of the cloth; to dry the cloth so as to renew its power of absorp- 
tion ; and to destroy any bacteria that may be in it. As a household process 
latmdering often proves an arduous task instead of an interesting occupa- 
tion, for, unfortunately, many houses are not equipped in a way to remove 
the burdens incident to wash-day. An understanding of conditions will 
greatly aid the person having the washing to do, though such knowledge 
cannot take the place of proper equipment as a labor-saving device. 


A first step toward gaining necessary knowledge of laundry methods is to 
learn something of the natiu^ of the fabrics to be laimdered and how they 
respond to the cleansing agents or solvents generally used in the laundr\^ 
The common fibers used for clothing are of both vegetable and animal 
origin. The chief vegetable fibers are cotton and linen; the animal fibers, 
wool and silk. Among the common latmdry cleansing ^ents, called 
reagents, are two classes of chemicals known as adds and bases. Acids 
were so named because of the sour taste common to many of them. Adds 
and bases possess as a characteristic property the power to unite with 
each other to form a third substance called a salt. Therefore they are 
said to neutralize each other; for the biting add and the eating base have 
through their union become harmless or neutral. For example: if hydro- 

Thb Laundry 

1 107 

chloric acid (muriatic add) and sodium hydroxid (lye), both of which if 
strong can almost instantly eat holes in any fabric and even into flesh itself, 
are imited in certain proportions a harmless salt, common table salt, is 
formed. The bases chiefly used in the laundry are known as alkalis. The 
chief household alkalis are lye, washing soda, ammonia, and borax. 

Cotton and linen 

The soft fibrous material covering the seeds of the cotton plant is known 
as cotton. If a single matiu^ cotton fiber were examined tmder the 
microscope, it would show itself to be a long, flattened, twisted tube, 
thicker at the edges than in the 



Fig. 38. — Cotton fibers 

middle. Its hollow, twisted con- 
dition gives to cotton a character- 
istic lightness and elasticity, 
making it suitable for the manu- 
facture of fine yams. Linen is a 
product of the flax plant. A linen 
fiber tinder the microscope looks 
like a long, transparent tube with 
thick, smooth walls and a central canal. Fabric made from linen is 
stronger and more lustrous than that made from cotton and is a better 
conductor of heat. Both cotton and linen consist for the most part of a 
plant substance, cellulose, and they respond similarly to chemical sub- 
stances or to cleansing agents. 

Action of acids on cotton and linen. — Strong mineral acids have an eating 
(corrosive) action on cotton and linen; if they are allowed to eat for 
any length of time, the fabrics are entirely destroyed. Such eating, or 
corrosion, is greatly increased by heat. Cold dilute mineral adds affect 

the fabrics but little if 

the acid is thoroughly 
washed out immedi- 
ately after its use, but 
the cloth may be seri- 
ously injured if the add 
is allowed to dry on it. 
The appearance of the 
cloth may not undergo 
any change, but its 
durability will be 
affected. The mineral add having the least effect on vegetable fibers 
is hydrochloric add, more commonly known to the housekeeper as muri- 
atic add ; but hydrochloric add also damages fabric if allowed to dry on it. 

Fig. 39. — Linen fibers 


The Cornell Reading-Coursbs 

The organic acids — such as acetic add in vinegar, oxalic add in 
tomatoes, tartaric add in grapes, and dtric add in lemons — have no 
action on cotton and linen imless they are allowed to dry on the fabric 
and are subsequently moistened and ironed dry with a hot iron. Then 
destructive results are produced. 

The presence of starch in the doth lessens the destructive action of any 
of the adds on it. 

Action of alkalis on cotton and Unen. — The action of alkalis on cellulose 
differs from that of adds. Dilute washing-soda solution, borax, and soap 
have little or no harmful action on cotton or linen, but lye is more destruc- 
tive to these fabrics, especially at high temperatures and if allowed to 
act for any length of time in the presence of air. If a fabric made from 
cotton fibers is immersed for two minutes in a strong solution of lye it 
assumes a gelatinous appearance, and if it is then immediately removed 
and washed free of the lye it is found to have shrunken greatly and to have 
become much closer and firmer in texture than it was before the immersion. 
The action of the strong alkali for the limited time mentioned has actually 
strengthened the doth. It was thought at one time that the process just 
described would be very valuable in the manufacture of textile goods, 
but it so increased the strength of the fabric treated that garments were 
slow to wear out ; hence its use was discontinued because it lessened sales 
for the manufacturer. A modification of the process, known as mercer- 
ization, gives to cotton goods a glossy, silky appearance without 
materially increasing its durability. It must not be thought, however, 
that because the limited action of strong alkah strengthens a fabric, its 
long-continued action will be harmless. Its first effect is strengthening. 
but if its action is continued beyond the brief time mentioned it will gradu- 
ally destroy cloth. 


Many animals have a hairy covering, called wool. Wool is the most 

important animal fiber used in the manufacture of clothing. When 

woolen cloth is washed it undergoes a characteristic shrinkage. This 

shrinkage is increased by the use 

of strong soaps, ,by rubbing, by 

quick changes in temperature 

while the fabric is wet, by the use 

of strong alkalis, or by ironing 

with hot irons. 

Wool fiber has a characteristic 
appearance and may readily be 
distinguished under the microscope from any other textile fiber. 
Its surface is covered with little homy scales, all laid in one direction. 

Fig. 40. — Wm^en fibers 

Thb Laundry 1109 

According to the source of the wool from which the fiber is obtained, 
its surface is comparatively smooth or its serrated edge is very conspicuous. 
Wool fiber has been shown to be composed of ntunerous small segments, 
called cells, the overlapping edges of which give a characteristic external 
homy layer. When woolen cloth is wet, its fibers expand somewhat and 
there is a loosening of the projecting edges of their segments. As the 
cloth dries, the projections of adjacent fibers interlock, drawing the fibers 
closer together. If the cloth is dried slowly the interlocking is slight. 
If the cloth is rubbed briskly while wet, or if a hot iron is used in ironing 
it, the interlocking of its fibers is increased and the shrinkage is corre- 
spondingly greater. The use of strong soap on woolen goods greatly 
increases the amount of shrinkage ; for the alkali of the soap acts chemically 
on the woolen fiber, softens it, and causes the toothed edges to become 
more prominent. A marked interlocking of fibers occurs, causing the 
characteristic decrease in the size of the garment, with the attendant 
thickening of its fibers resulting in the board-like condition of badly- 
washed wool. 

Action of alkalis on wool. — Strong solutions of alkali, such as lye or 
washing soda, have a softening effect on wool; if allowed to act on it for 
any length of time they reduce it to a soapy-like liquid. 

Dilute solutions of borax, or a mild soap, if not much hotter than blood 
heat, have only a slightly injurious action on wool. In cleaning woolen 
fabrics a good mild soap is the least injurious form in which to use an 

Action of acids on wool, — Dilute acid does not affect wool materials, 
but strong mineral acids will decompose them. In no case is the action 
of acids on wool so destructive as on cotton. Dilute acid may be dried on 
wool with no noticeable weakening of the fiber. 

Comparative action of acids and alkalis on cotton and wool. — ^A graphic 
illustration of the comparative action of acids and of alkalis on wool and 
on cotton and linen is furnished by an experiment that may be performed 
to determine whether a fabric is all wool, or part wool and part cotton: 

Saturate a piece of the cloth to be tested in dilute sulphuric acid. Dry 
it without washing. Rub it briskly between the hands. If cotton is 
present it will fall out in the form of grayish white powder. Or weigh a 
small sample of the material and boil it for four or five minutes in a 4 per 
cent solution of lye. Dry and weigh it again. The final weighing will 
show how much of the material is wool, for the lost wool will have decreased 
the weight of the piece of cloth correspondingly. 


Silk is the most delicate of all fabrics and stands halfway between 
cotton and wool in its reaction toward both acids and alkalis. 

mo The Cornell Reading-Courses 

Action of acids on silk, — Silk is readily attacked and disintegrated by 
a concentrated add solution. Dilute add solutions weaken the fabric, 
but not so seriously as they weaken cotton. 

Action of alkalis on silk. — Concentrated alkali solutions act on silk 
vigorously, but a little less vigorously than on wool. Dilute alkali solu- 
tions weaken silk and destroy its luster. 

As laundering concerns itself continually with the action of alkalis and 
adds on fabrics, the preceding outline should aid one in grasping some of 
the reasons for the several latmdry processes. 


A bountiful supply of water good for laundry ptirposes is an important 
factor in successful laundering. Water is the natural solvent for much 
of the dirt that accumulates on clothing; moreover, it acts as a carrier 
to rid the clothing of all forms of dirt, both soluble and insoluble. Unfor- 
tunately, good drinking water is not necessarily equally good for laundry 
purposes, as water may hold in solution substances not hurtful to health 
but very detrimental to cleaning processes. A water good for the laundry 
should be clean, soft, clear, odorless, free from discoloration, free from 
iron, free from organic matter. 

Hard and soft water 

The very characteristic (its solvent power) that renders water valuable 
as a cleansing agent (detergent) is the cause of its greatest shortcomings; 
for on its way to us water may pass over, or through, soils that contain 
soluble substances of an undesirable nature. The characteristic known as 
hardness, possessed by some waters, is due to the presence of lime salts 
gathered in the way described. Hard water is not the best for laundry 
piuposes, as lime salts decompose the soap used and form in its place an 
insoluble lime soap, which collects as a curd on the surface of the water. 
Such soap decomposition takes place as long as any lime remains in the 
water and the cleansing (detergent) properties of soap are not in operation 
tmtil every bit of lime has combined with soap to form lime soap. By 
leaving minute particles of Ume soap in its pores, hard watei; is said to 
weaken a fabric. If the available supply of water is hard, then, the prob- 
lem of the housekeeper is to find some means of removing lime or of reducing 
its ill effects. 

Temporary and permanent hardness, — According to the nature of the 
lime salts present, water is said to be dther temporarily or permanently 
hard. Temporary hardness is caused by the presence of carbonate of 
lime, and such water may be softened by boiling. If the boiled water is 

The Laundry mi 

allowed to stand, the lime settles at the bottom of the receptacle and the 
softened water may be drawn from the top of it. Permanent hardness 
is due to the presence of sulfate of lime. Boiling has no softening effect 
on permanently hard water. 

Another salt often very obnoxious in laundry waterisiron. Its presence, 
even in very small amounts, may give a yellow tinge to clothing, owing 
to the deposit of minute particles of iron rust in the pores of the fabric. 

Organic matter may be present in the water used for latindry purposes, 
which causes clothing washed in it to become dangerous to the wearer. 
It is very desirable in all the cited cases to eliminate mischievous substances. 

A ntimber of materials for softening water are on the market. The 
cheax>est and best of them are alkalis, known as washing soda, lye, borax, 
and ammonia. In softening water the objection to the use of any chemical 
is the injury it may do to the fabric. 

Materials for softening water 

Washing soda (sodium carbonate). — Washing soda is the best alkali to 
soften water for general household use, for, while effective in its action, it 
is not so corrosive as to render its handling diffictdt or its use unduly 
harmful, nor is it expensive. It should never be used in its dry form, 
however, for it is an alkali sufficiently strong to eat holes in a fabric if it 
is used in full strength, and wherever a particle of the dry substance falls 
a strong solution is formed. Carelessness causes many of the complaints 
against present-day laundry methods. 

Lye (sodium hydroxid or caustic soda). — Lye is an alkali of far greater 
strength than washing soda; one pound of lye being equal to about twelve 
pounds of washing soda, it should be used with just so much the greater 
caution. It should never be used save in solution and, as the solution 
deteriorates very rapidly on exposure "to air, if any quantity is made 
it should be kept in bottles or jars tightly stoppered with rubber stoppers. 
The compound formed by exposing lye to the action of air and water, is 
washing soda, so there is no advantage in using it after aU. Lye is much 
more difficult to handle, and its action is so much more corrosive than is 
that of other alkalis that it is not advisable to use it in the home laundry. 

Borax (sodium biborate) . — One of the mildest alkalis to use in the latmdry 
is borax. This alkali is more expensive than either lye or washing soda 
and is not so vigorous in its action; but in some instances it is greatly to 
be preferred to either lye or washing soda. Washing soda and lye, unless 
they are thoroughly rinsed from clothing, have a tendency to cause yel- 
lowing, particularly when starch is used afterward. Borax, on the other 
hand, has a tendency to whiten fabrics and is added directly to starch, 
m order to give it good color and to increase its clearness. When colored 

1 1 12 Thb Cornell Rsading-Coursbs 

fabrics or wools are to be washed in hard water, borax is otie of the best 
alkalis to use for softening the water; therefore it shotild be on the laamdiy 
shelf for that purpose if for no other. 

Ammonia {ammonium hydroxid). — Ammonia is another good alkali for 
softening water when it is not advisable to use stronger alkalis. Ammonia 
is a very volatile substance, consequently it should be used only when the 
laundry process is to be conducted quickly. It is better and cheaper to 
purchase the full-strength ammonia from a druggist and then dilute it, 
than to buy the article known as household ammonia, which is of unknown 

To soften water. — Both permanently and temporarily hard water may 
be softened by distillation, but that method involves apparatus not prac- 
ticable for the average home. 

If water is temporarily hard, however, it may be softened by being 
boiled, then allowed to stand imtil the lime settles. The top water is 
afterward drawn off. The method of boiling water to soften it is without 
doubt the best if it softens the water sufficiently, as no harmful chemicals 
are left in the water to injure fabrics. 

Either temporarily or permanently hard water may be softened by adding 
lime or washing soda to the water, then allowing it to stand in open kegs 
for several days before its use. The water should then be drawn from the 
top. If the water is boiled after the addition of the softening agent, the 
time for standing may be considerably lessened. Neither of the two proc- 
esses just described is much in use in the household, as the time con- 
sumed by them is often considered unwarranted. The more common 
method is to add washing soda, lye, borax, or ammonia at the time of 
washing. The addition of one of those substances at that time prevents 
the action of the lime on the soap. A good suds may thus quickly be pro- 
cured, but it does not rid the water of the lime-soap curd which forms and 
which, in part at least, becomes entangled in the pores of the doth. The 
entangled curd has a weakening action on the fabric and gives it a close, 
filled-in appearance. 

The only satisfactory method of getting rid of iron is to add washing 
soda to the water, then let the water settle for five or six days before using 
it. The top water is afterward drawn off. 

Water may be softened by any of the following methods: 

1. For each gallon of water, use two tablespoons of a solution made 
by dissolving one pound of washing soda in one quart of boiling water. 
The solution should be bottled and kept on hand, as it is a useful cleansing 
agent (detergent). 

2. For each gallon of water use one fourth tablespoon of lye dissolved 
in one cup of water. 

The Laundry 1113 

3. For each gallon of water use one tablespoon of borax dissolved in 
one cup of water. 

If water is very hard, increase the amount of alkali used. 

Organic matter 

Organic material may be precipitated by the use of alum in the form 
of an alum-borax mixture. The sediment should be allowed to settle and 
the water may then be drawn from the top. 

To remove organic matter, — For each gallon of water use one tablespoon 
of a mixture made up of two thirds borax and one third alum. If the water 
is rich in organic matter, use more than one tablespoon of the mixture. 
When water is very scarce, alum is sometimes used to separate the dirt 
from the water and the water is then filtered and used again. 


, In the " good old days " when the home was the center of larger indus- 
trial activities, soap-making was conducted as a household process. In 
the spring it was a familiar sight to see the winter supply of wood ashes 
pounded down into a barrel and set on a platform ready for "leaching." 
A hole was made in the compacted ashes and water was poured into it. 
The water leached down through the ashes into Kttle troughs in the plat- 
form. Then it was collected in kettles, ready to be used for making soap. 
The resulting liquid was the homemade lye of the housekeeper of old. A. 
kettle of melted fat hung near the barrel on a big iron tripod, and to the 
contents of the kettle the housewife added the lye, boiled the two together, 
and tested the mixture now with an egg, now with a feather, in order to 
see if it was of the proper strength. After two or three days of anxious 
effort her task was completed, and the resulting mixttire, called soft soap, 
was put away in barrels for winter use. 

Alkalis, — Among the alkalis familiar to the housekeeper is that known 
as lye. Lye is a term that is used loosely to describe two substances similar 
in properties but different in composition. Caustic soda and caustic 
potash are names that better describe what we commonly call lye. Both 
kinds of lye have a strong eating (corrosive) action, caustic potash being 
stronger than caustic soda; both have the power of imiting with fats to 
form soaps soluble in water. Soap is a convenient and effective form in 
which to use the caustic lye in either of its two forms, as the corrosive nature 
of lye is so modified as to render it useftd without being unduly injurious 
to fabrics. 

There is much difference of opinion as to which kind of lye produces 
the better soap. That question is settled " practically " in favor of the 

Thb Laundry 1115 

sodimn lye, for it can be produced at a smaller cost. It is safe to say 
that xQuch of the soap on the market is made from sodium lye. 

Fats. — Fats are compoimds formed by the tmion of a class of sub- 
stances known as fatty acids, with glycerin. The nature of a fat depends 
on the fatty acids that enter into its composition. For example, in tallow 
the chief fatty add is stearic acid. Tallow, in common with other fats 
containing relatively large proportions of stearic add, has the property 
of " hardness " and a high melting point. The chief fatty add in olive 
oil is oleic acid, which gives to the oil the diaracteristic softness and low 
melting point of fats rich in oldc add. 

When lye is mixed with a fat it breaks the fat up into the fatty adds 
and glycerin, of which it is composed. The lye unites with the fatty adds 
to form a new compound, called soap, and glycerin remains. This is the 
process of soap-making called saponification. As may readily be seen, the 
nature of the soap formed will depend, first, on the nature of the fats 
used, whether they are hard or soft, clean or randd; second, on tlie kind 
of alkali used, whether potash lye or soda lye; third, on the nature and 
amount of impurities contained in both fat and alkali; fourth, on the com- 
pleteness of the process of soap-making (saponification). If the operation 
of soajvmaking is not properly conducted, the reaction between the fat 
and the lye is incomplete and a soap is produced that contains free fat 
and an undue amount of free alkali. Such soap is greasy, tmdtily active, 
and a poor cleansing agent. 

The adulteration of soap, — It is not xmcommon to find some foreign, 
insoluble substances in soap, which have been added merely to increase 
its wdght and bulk. In cheap soaps resin is often added as an adulterant. 
It is rather difficult to say when resin may be considered an adulterant, 
for in small quantities it is of value in laundry soaps because it whitens 
the dothing. Resin gives a brown color to soap, therefore a dark brown 
soap may safely be rejected as containing an excess of resin. 

The best advice to give the housekeeper is: Select soap manufac- 
tured by a reliable firm and give it a trial. It is not economy to use cheap, 
poorly-made soaps in the latmdry. A common mistake is to think that 
the use of one kind of soap will prove satisfactory for all purposes; this 
common belief possibly accounts for much of the dissatisfaction that exists 
regarding the various soaps on the market. In the manufacture of soap, 
when just suffident alkali is used to change completely all the fat present 
into soap, the soap is known as a mild soap. If an excess of alkali is used, 
either a medium or a strong soap is produced, the degree of strength 
depending on the amount of free alkali left in the soap. Every latmdry 
should contain all three grades of soap, mild, medium, strong. A mild 
soap should always be used when the presence of even a small amoimt of 

iii6 TBb Cornbll Rbading-Coursbs 

free lye 'would be injurious in washing flannels, woolen goods, or fabrics I 
either frail or delicate in color. A medium soap should be used for the I 
more durable colored goods. A strong soap is best for most white goods, | 
both cotton and linen. 

Action of soap, — This leads lis to consider the way in which soap acts 
as a cleansing agent. Much of the dirt in clothing is due to the adher- 
ence of particles of dust to the fatty impurities that have accumulate 
on the fabric. While rubbing and water alone will loosen and remove 
much of ordinary dirt, the process of removal is greatly facilitated by the 
use of a soap solution. Soapsuds penetrates the pores of a fabric more 
completely than does water alone: thus, first, it softens dirt; second, it 
emulsifies the fats, that is, soapy water acts to divide fatty material into 
very minute particles, which are removed from clothing by nibbing and 
pounding. The particles are then held in suspension in the suds. The 
adherent dirt is caught in the emulsion and the whole is carried away in 
the washing process. When free alkali is present it unites with the fatty 
impurities present to form more soluble soap; this action removes a i>aTt 
of the fat and aidsin removingmorein the process of emulsification. These 
facts serve to illustrate the desirability of the use of strong soaps when much 
grease is present. 

Aside from its use in removing dirt, soap has antiseptic properties. It 
is not safe to depend on it as the only disinfectant in cases of contagious 
diseases, but it is a valuable purifier for the ordinary household washing. 

A question often arises as to the advisability of using kitchen-waste 
fats in making homemade soap. While some housekeepers may find such 
use an economy, the fact remains that homemade soaps are generally 
poorly made and of inferior quality. The inferiority of homemade soaps 
may be owing to several causes. The so-called cold process is usually 
followed in making homemade soaps, and rarely is the union of the fat 
with the lye complete. The fat used in homemade soap is often filled with 
imptuities and they are not always removed before the soap is made. As 
the fat in kitchen waste varies greatly in composition, it is impossible to 
give the exact amount of alkali required for homemade soap. It is evident, 
then, that homemade soap is likely to be filled with impurities and to be 
both greasy and excessively caustic, ** eating, " because of the presence of 
free fat and an undue amount of free alkali. For the benefit of those 
housekeepers who wish to try its manufacture, however, some formulas 
are given on pages 122 and 123. 

Soap substitutes and accessories 

Soap is the best all-round cleansing agent to use in the laundry, but 
there are other substances with similar cleansing properties that may be 
used with good results in its place : 

The Laundry 1117 


Soap hark, — In the leaves, stems, roots, or bark of some plants occurs 
i soap-Uke substance that is closely allied to soap in its power to remove 
dirt. Soap bark (qtdllaia bark) is a familiar example of this kind of deans- 
bg agent. When powdered soap-bark is put into water it gives a good 
lather, and it acts quickly and effectively to remove dirt and stains. 

Ox gall, — Another substance with soap-like characteristics, but of animal 
origin, is known as ox bile, or ox gall. Soap bark and ox gall are doubt- 
less well known to the housekeeper, for they are often used to wash garments 
easily injtired by the strong alkalis, as, for instance, woolens, and fabrics 
printed in delicate colors. 

Additional soap substitutes, — Bran, rice, potatoes, and starch are fre- 
quently recommended as good substitutes for soaps in washing delicate 
fabrics and colors. A story is told of one laundress who replaced soap 
altogether with a well-cooked potato mixture. 

Substances that facilitate the washing process. — Various substances are 
used with, soap to facilitate or accelerate the washing process. Among 
them may be mentioned lye, washing soda, borax, and ammonia; turpen- 
tine, paraffin, kerosene, and benzine; and fuUer's earth. 

We have already considered the action of the alkalis in softening water, 
their value in soap-making, and the effects of their use on various textile 
fabrics. Theyareoftenusedinconnectionwithsoap,inexcessof theamount 
needed to soften hard water, to faciHtate the removal of dirt by their 
direct action on it. In many cases it is a mistake to pursue such a course 
if the alkali used is lye. The same objections may hold with washing soda, 
but in lesser degree. If the fabric is of such nature that limited amounts 
of lye or washing soda will not seriously injure it, a strong soap will con- 
tain all the free lye that it is safe to use. Borax and ammonia are mild 
alkalis and may be very useful when the presence of some free alkali is 
needed and the effect of a strong soap would be injurious. They are often 
utilized in connection with a neutral or mild soap for washing fiaimels 
and delicately colored fabrics. 

Turpentine, paraffin, kerosene, and benzine all are valuable aids to the 
laundress, for they exert a solvent action on matter of a fatty nature and 
thus soften and loosen dirt, materially facilitating the washing process. 
The disadvantage in the use of turpentine, paraffin, and kerosene is, that 
clothing in the washing of which they have been used may be insufficiently 
rinsed afterward and retain the odor of them. Benzine is dangerous to 
handle because of its inflammability, and cannot be used with very hot 
'^ater because it evaporates. 

Fuller's earth is a valuable adjunct in cleaning, and is sometimes used 
partly to replace soap in the washing process when the articles to be washed 
are in a very greasy condition and the use of a strong soap is not suffident, 
and when the use of a strong alkali is not advisable. 

iii8 The Cornell Reading-Courses 


Manufacturers have put on the market various soaps and powders 
that have incorporated with them some one or more of the above sub- 
stances. Naphtha and borax soaps and soaps containing fuller's earth 
may be purchased and give satisfaction. Good results may be obtained 
at less cost by the use of soap and the accessory material uncombined, 
though it may often be more convenient to use the manufacttired article 
that is a combination of the two. 

Washing powders. — Something should be said of washing powders. 
They are mixtures of soap and some alkali such as lye, washing soda, and 
borax, and may have incorporated with them some one or more of the 
substances of the nature of turpentine, paraffin, fuller's. earth. In the case 
of the poorer powders a ** filler " is used, that is, a substance giving weight 
to the powder and very properly considered an adulterant. The best 
powders contain large amounts of soap and only small amounts of alkali. 
A report is made of one of the poorer varieties of washing powder con- 
taining only lo per cent of soap.. Enough has been said in connection 
with the effect of alkalis and their use to guide the housekeeper in her 
purchase and use of these powders. There may be occasions when a 
washing powder is desirable, but indiscriminate use of these strong cleansing 
agents is inadvisable and should not be generally indtilged in. 

Directions and formulas 

Homemade soap: 

I pound can lye dissolved in 3 pints cold water 
5 pounds fat melted, 1} tablespoons borax, J cup ammonia 
When lye mixture has cooled add it to fat, stir until as thick as honey pour into 
wooden or pasteboard boxes lined with oiled or waxed paper, set away to harden. 

Soap bark: 

I pound soap bark equals 2 pounds soft soap. Use in place of soap. 


I cup bran 
I quart water 

Boil i hour. Strain, boil bran in a second quart water } hour. When needed, 
reduce with warm water. 

Potato water: 

Grate two lai^e-sized potatoes into i pint clean, clear, soft water. Strain into 
I gallon water, let liquid settle. Pour off and use. 

Soap solution for washing colored goods: 

} pound mild or medium soap to i gallon water 

Thb Laundry 1119 

Soap solution Jar ordinary purposes: 

1 bar ordinary washing soap 

2 to 3 quarts water 

Shave soap, and put into saucepan with cold water. Heat gradually until soap 
is dissolved (about i hour). 

Soap solution Jor soaking clothes: 

I bar ordinary soap 

3 gallons water 

i to I tablespoon turpentine 
X to 3 tablespoons ammonia 

Soap solution for washing much-soiled woolens and delicate colors: 

} pound very mild or neutral soap 
i pound borax 
3 quarts water 

Soap jelly with turpentine incorporated: 

I bar soap 

I quart water 

I teaspoon turpentine or kerosene 

A liquid for washing delicate fabrics and colors may be made from 
laundry starch, grated potatoes, rice, flour, etc. The water in which rice 
has boiled may be saved and utilized for the same purpose. The cleansing 
liquid after cooking shotdd be as thick as cream and shotdd be diluted from 
one to four times, according to the amotmt of dirt in the clothing. Rinse 
clothing in a more dilute solution, which may be blued for white clothes. 


Starch is in the form of minute compact granules, insoluble in water, 
obtained from many plant tissues. We are familiar with the powder that 
a mass of these granules forms. When starch granules are subjected to the 
action of heat and moisture, the heat causes the moisture to penetrate 
the granules; they swell, burst, and form a thick, sticky mass known as 
starch paste. Starch has the power of penetrating the pores of a fabric. 
The kind of starch used determines its penetrative power. On drying, 
it gives to clothing a characteristic stiffness. 

There is a twofold reason for the use of starch in laundry operations: 
first, the glazed surface of a starched garment keeps clean longer than an 
unglazed (unstarched) surface; second, the increase in body of the starched 
garment gives it increased resistance to moisture and the garment is con- 
sidered correspondingly more attractive in appearance. In the commercial 
laundry and in those industries in which the finishing of fabrics is a con- 
sideration, use is made, not of one kind of starch, but of several, according 
to the nature of the work to be done. We are all familiar with the especially 

1 120 Thb Cornell Rbading-Coursbs 

attractive appearance of the nicely laundered new garment as it comes 
to us fresh from the factory. Starching in the factory and in the com- 
mercial laundry has been reduced to a science, in which intelUgent knowl- 
edge and skill in the use of materials play an important part. 

The three kinds of starch chiefly used in the conrniiercial laimdry are 
rice starch, wheat starch, and cornstarch. In Belgitun and France, as well 
as in other European countries where laundry work is of noted excellence, 
rice starch is used almost exclusively. The finer quality of the work done 
seems to justify the purchase of the higher-priced rice starjch. 

Little rice starch is used in this country except in the textile industries 
for finishing fine fabrics, such as lawns and organdies. It is not used 
because of its cost, because of the greater convenience of using the starches 
that are locally produced in large quantities, the possibility of getting 
very good and nearly similar results with wheat starch, and the American 
preference for the greater body that wheat starch and cornstarch give. 

The American housekeeper uses, as a rule, only cornstarch, because of 
the cheapness of cornstarch and a lack of knowledge of the different 
characteristics of the other starches. It is interesting to note how the 
exclusive household use of cornstarch has withdrawn other varieties of 
starch from the shelves of the retail grocery, until it is practically impossible 
for the housekeeper to obtain wheat starch unless she buys it from the big 
laundry-supply companies. 

The purpose of the launderer is to blend starch with the fabric in such 
a way as to make the starch a natural part of the cloth; to give the desired 
degree of stiffness and yet keep the fabric pliable; to give a body as endur- 
ing as possible and capable of resisting moisture; to give clearness, good 
color, and any desired finish, whether duU or glazed. That purpose can 
be accomplished only with a knowledge of the materials to be used. 

The several varieties of starch vary considerably in their ability to 
penetrate fabrics. The reason for the use of rice starch with finer fabrics 
by those considered to do a superior grade of laundry work, is because 
of its penetrative quality. It is said to penetrate the pores of a fabric more 
completely than does any other starch and to give a finer, smoother finish. 
Next to rice starch in penetrability comes wheat starch. Com starch is 
the poorest of the three starches; it has a tendency to lump and show 
starch spots after ironing. 

Rice starch gives a natural, pure white color to fabrics, while cornstarch 
gives a yellow color, and wheat starch a color between the two. Since 
wheat starch and cornstarch are the practical possibilities in the American 
household, further comparison will be between these two. When good 
color, smoothness of surface, pliability, and fine finish are desired, wheat 
starch gives the better results; moreover, it is said to hold up better in 
damp climates. Cornstarch gives the greater stiffness, or body, to a fabric. 

Thb Laundry 1121 


Accordii^ to the finish desired, advantage is taken of the different 
characteristics of wheat starch and cornstarch. When flexibility and 
finish are the main objects, wheat starch is used alone; if stiffness is the 
chief consideration and finish may be overlooked, cornstarch is used alone; 
when it is desirable to combine stiffness with flexibility and good finish, 
a mixture of cornstarch and wheat starch is used. There is no reason 
why the use of wheat starch should not extend to the home laundry, and 
it is to be hoped that the time will come when the retail trade will place 
wheat starch on the grocery shelf. 

Various substances are used with starch to increase its penetrability 
and prevent it from sticking to the iron, as well as to give pliability to the 
cloth, increase its body, and improve its color. Of these substances may 
be mentioned borax, alimi, paraffin, wax, turpentine, kerosene, gum 
arabic, glue, and dextrin. 

Borax in starch, — Borax increases the penetrability of starch and aids 

in preventing it from sticking to the iron. Moreover, starch containing 

borax adds gloss to a garment, increases its whiteness, and gives it greater 

body, together with more lasting stiffness, than it would otherwise have. 

Alum, — Alum is used alone, or with borax, in starch to improve color, to 

increase penetrability and pliability, and, last but not least, to thin the 

starch mixtiure. When alum is cooked with a starch paste it causes the 

paste to become thinner. "Cooking thin" with altun does not affect the 

strength of the starch mixture and is an advantage when a stiff starch is 

desirable and the thick mixture would be inconvenient to handle. By 

the use of alum, starch may be made thin without dilution. Alum has 

been objected to by some persons as being somewhat injurious to fabrics. 

Wax^ paraffin^ turpentine^ lard, butter. — Oily substances are used to add 

a smoothness, gloss, and finish, to prevent the starch from sticking to the 

iron, and to aid in preventing the absorption of moisture. 

Gum arable, glue, and dextrin. — Substances resembling glue are used with 
starch toincrease its stiffening power. They are sometimes used alone 
when the white color of starch is considered a disadvantage in stiffening 
colored fabrics. 

Directions for using starch, starch substitutes, and starch accessories. — 
In making starch a naturally soft water is greatly to be desired, but if 
the water furnished is hard it should be softened with borax, not with 
washing soda nor lye, since washing soda and lye tend to produce a yellow 
color with starch: 

1. } cttp wheat starch to i quart water gives flexible, Ught, durable finish. 

2. i cup cornstarch to i quart water gives moderate body stifExiess. 

3. } cup wheat starch to i quart water gives flexible, firm finish. 

4. i cup cornstarch to i quart water gives s%iS, body finiah. 

1122 Thb Cornell Reading-Courses 

A mixture of the two starches may be varied, to produce any desired 

Directions for cooking starch. — Starch should first be mixed with a little 
cold water and then stirred slowly into boiling water and cooked in 
accordance with the following directions: 

1. If wheat starch is used, cook slowly at least 25 or 30 minutes. 

2. If cornstarch is used, cook slowly 15 or 20 minutes. 

3. If a mixtiu^ of wheat starch and cornstarch is used, the wheat starch should 
be added first and cooked 15 minutes. The cornstarch should then be added and 
the mixture cooked 15 minutes longer. Stir mixture frequently, to prevent stick- 
ing and formation of a skin. 

Thorough cooking of starch is very desirable in latmdry practice, for it 
increases the penetrability of the starch and decreases its tendency to 
stick to the iron. If borax, lard, butter, kerosene, or other like sub- 
stance is used it shotild be cooked with the starch, to insure thorough 

Thick starch: 

i cup starch, mixed with } cup cold water 
I quart boiling water 
I to I level tablespoon borax 

} level tablespoonful lard or butter or kerosene or turpentine; or {-inch-square 
wax or paraffin 
Mix, and cook as directed under directions for cooking starch. 

Thin starch: 

i cup starch, mixed with | cup cold water 

3 quarts boiling water 

Other ingredients, same as for thick starch 

Mix, cook as directed under directions for cooking starch. 

Clear starch: 

Dilute i cup thick starch with i quart hot water. 

Qear starch is used for thin muslins, infants' dresses, etc 

Raw starch: 

Same proportions as for thick starch. 
Use borax but omit fatty substances. 
Stir thoroughly before using. 

Raw starch is often used with very thick or very thin goods, to increase 
their stiffness. A fabric will take up a greater amount of starch in the 
raw form than in the cooked form. The desired stiffness is produced by 
the cooking given the raw starch by the heat of the iron. The diflSculty 

The Laundry 1123 

of ironing is increased by tising raw starch, for unless the ironer is sidllftil 
the starch cooks on the iron and starch specks are then produced on the 
clothes. Moreover, raw starch gives a less durable finish than does 
cooked starch. 

Rice starch: 

J cup rice 

I quart boiling water 

Wash rice, cook in water until very soft. 

As water evaporates, add more to keep quantity up to x quart. 

When cooked add another quart boiling water. 

Strain, without squeezing, through double thickness cheesecloth or through 
flannel. Use while hot. The most satisfactory starch for delicate fabrics is rice 
starch, and it may be used in place of dear starch. 

Glue for stijffening dark clothes: 

12 ounces dark glue 

I quart water 

Boil together until glue is dissolved, cool somewhat. Dip the garment to be 
stiffened into glue and wipe off excess of glue with piece of black cheesecloth, 
sateen, or calico. After sprinkling roll garment in black cloth and iron on ironing 
board covered with black cloth. Any glue left over may be saved and tised again. 

To increase stiffness: 

1. Partly dry garment before starching. 

2. Add I tablespoon powdered gimi arabic reduced to liquid in } cup boiling 
water, to the sti£E starch mixture. 

3. Use borax. 

4. Add a small amount of glue to starch mixture. 

5. Dry quickly. 

Gum arabic as a starch substitute: 

4 tablespoons pulverized gum aralnc 

I pint cold water 

3 tablespoons alcohol 

Put water and gum arabic in saucepan and set into saucepan containing boiling 

When dissolved, strain through cheesecloth, cool, add alcohol, pour into a bottle, 
cork, set away for use. The alcohol acts as a preservative and the mixture may 
be kept for any length of time. 


White fabrics have naturally a creamy tint, which may be deepened to 
an unpleasant pale yellow by careless washing, by insufficient rinsing, or 
by lack of exposure to the bleaching influence of sunlight and fresh air. 
Bluing is used to hide the yellow color, because blue and yellow are com- 

1 1 24 The Corkbll Reading-Courses 

plementary colors and when used together in proper proportions give the 
effect of whiteness. Bitting is unwarrantably used to hide a yellowness 
which comes from careless washing. 

Indigo. — Indigo (originally of plant origin^ to-day manufactured artifi- 
cially) was at one time the chief source of bluing compounds, but now is 
very little used in the laundry. 

Prussian blue. — Prussian blue gives a better color than does indigo 
and is easier to use. The objection to prussian blue is that it is an iron 
compound, is decomposed by alkalis, and yields iron rust. If all soap or 
other alkali is not carefully xinsedfrom clothes and they are then blued with 
Prussian blue, they may become yeUow or covered with tiny rust spots. 
If, however, prussian blue is used after the precaution of careful rinsing, 
it gives satisfactory results. As it is one of the chief liquid blues on the 
market, careful rinsing has become a laundry rule. 

Ultramarine. — Ultramarine (originally finely ground lapis lazuli, but 
now artificially manufactured) is also a satisfactory blue. Finely ground 
it is put upin the form of small ballsorsquares. It is very generally used in 
the home. The better the product, the more finely ground it is. It is 
poor economy in buying ultramarine to get a cheap article, as its particles 
are coarse and show on the blued garment. 

Aniline blue. — Aniline blue is a coal-tar product and its action in bluing 
is that of a dye. It is the blue used by nearly all commercial laundries, 
but it is not much used in the home. It will not set in an alkaline liquid 
and requires add to bring out its color. Being a dye, it is difficult to wash 
out of clothing. 

No one kind of bluing may be recommended to the housekeeper. She 
must experiment for herself, choose one good variety, and learn to use 
that one properly. 

Sufficient bluing shotild be used to make a little of the bluing water 
taken up in the cup of the hand show a pale sky-blue color. More than 
that amount of bluing should not be needed. It is always best to make 
a small amotmt of strong bluing in a bowl of water, then draw from it 
to color the water in the tub. 


The ordinary washing process is sufficient to get rid of most of the dirt 
in clothing, but certain stains may require special treatment in order to 
insure their complete removal. Some stains are insoluble in water, or 
in soap and water, or they may be made so by the action of heat and thus 
become permanently set dtuing the washing. It is wise always to look 
over clothing for such stains and to remove them before the washing 
begins. Such examination will often save time, and wear and tear on 

Thb Laundry 1125 

gaxments, even when it is possible to remove the stain in washing, as only 
tJie part of the garment most affected is then treated and the removal 
of the stain does not involve severe treatment of the whole garment. 

The process of removing stains is ftmdamentally the same as that of 
removing other forms of dirt, that is, to find some substance in which the 
stain is soluble or which will aid in its mechanical removal. The chief 
solvents valxiable in removing stains that resist ordinary washing processes 

Turpentioe (inflammable) Javelle water 

Benzine, naphtha, or gasoline (inflam- Benzol 

mable) Hydrogen peroxid 

C^bona Sunshine 

Kerosene (inflammable) Ammonia 

Ether (inflammable and an anaesthetic) Borax 

Chloroform (anasthetic and a poison) Salt 

Alcohol (inflammable) Vinegar 

Olive oil, lard, etc. Lemon juice 

Puller's earth and f rench chalk> Hydrochloric add (a strong acid very 
Naphtha soaps corrosive to fabrics and to flesh) 

Water, both hot and cold Ink eradicator 

Oxalic add (a poison) Milk 

Method of removing stains 

1. Wash in cold water until stain turns brown, then rub with naphtha soap and 
soak in warm water. 

2. Rub with common soap, then soak in water to which a teaspoon of turpentine 
has been added. 

3. If the goods is thick apply a paste of raw starch to the stain. Renew paste 
from time to time imtil stain disappears. 



Sprinkle with borax and soak in cold water. 


Spread stained surface of the doth over bowl or tub. Pour boiling water through 
the stained part of the doth. Pour the water from a hdght so as to strike the 
stain with force. 


Wash in cold water, then with soap and water. 

Fruit and wine stains: 

1. Treat with boiling water as for coffee. 

2. If the stain resists the boiling-water treatment, soak the stained part of the 
doth for a few minutes in a solution made from equal parts of javdle water and 
bdling water. Rinse thoroughly with boiling water to which a little dilute ammonia 
water has been added. Repeat if necessary. 

1 1 26 Thb Cornell Rbading-Coursbs 

Grass stains: 

1. Soak in alcohol. 

2. Wash with naphtha soap and warm water. 

3. If the fabric has no delicate colors and the stain is fresh, treat with ammonia 

4. For colored fabrics, apply molasses or a paste of soap and cooking soda. 
Let stand over night. 

Grease spots: 

1. Wash thoroughly with naphtha soap and water. 

2. Soften old grease spots with turpentine, oil, or lard before washing the doth. 

3. Dissolve the grease in benzine, alcohol, chloroform, ether, carbona, or benzoL 

4. For delicate fabrics dissolve grease spots in ether or chloroform. Chlorc^arm 
and carbona are useful because noninflammable. 

5. Apply a paste of fuller's earth or chalk to absorb grease. 


Treat as for coffee. 


Ink is often diiGcult to remove, as it varies greatly in composition. 
It is well to experiment with a comer of the spot before operating on the 

1. If the stain is fresh, soak the stained portion of the doth in milk. Use fresh 
milk, as the old becomes discolored. 

2. Wet the stain with cold water. Apply a ten per cent solution of oxalic add 
to stain, let stand a few minutes, and rinse. Repeat imtil stain disappears. Rinse 
in water to which borax or ammonia has been added. (Oxalic add is a very poison- 
ous substance.) 

3. Javelle water will remove some ink stains. Apply as for rust stains. 

4. Treat with hydrochloric add as for iron rust. 

5. Treat with lemon juice and salt, as for iron rust. 

6. Use alcohol for some ink stains. 

Milk is the only reagent given that does not remove color. 

Iodine stains: 

Soak in alcohol, chloroform, or ether. 

Iron riist: 


I. Wet the stained part with borax and water, or ammonia, and spread over a 
bowl of boiling water. Apply a ten per cent solution of hydrochloric add, drop 
by drop, until the stain begins to brighten. Dip at once into alkaline water. If 
the stain does not disappear add more acid and rinse again. After the stain is 
removed, rinse at once thoroughly in water to which borax or ammonia has been 
added. The borax or anmionia is to neutralize any add that may linger. Less 
dilute add may be used if the operator is sldllf uL 

ThB LaUNDRT 1 127 

2. Proceed as with hydrochloric add, but use a ten per cent solution of oxalic 
acid instead of hydrochloric add. Oxalic add is not so detrimental to fabrics 
as is hydrochloric add, but it is a deadly poison even in dilute solution. 

3. Wet the stained part with a paste made of lemon juice, salt, starch, and soap, 
and expose it to sunlight. This is a siniple method to employ, but it takes longer 
and is often not effective. 

4. Soak stain in javdle water for a few minutes, then wash. Repeat until 
stain disappears. Javelle water is weaker in action than is hydrochloric add. 
All the iron-rust-removing substances destroy color, and unless care is taken wiU 
greatly weaken the fabric. 


Saturate spot with kerosene. Wash with naphtha soap and water. 

Machine oil: 

1. Wash with soap and cold water. 

2. If the stain does not respond to the soap-and-water treatment, use turpentine 
as directed for paint stains. 

Meat juice: 

Wash in cold water, then with soap and water. 

Medicine stains: 

Soak in alcohoL 

Mildew is very difficult to remove if of long standing. 

1. Wet stains with lemon juice and expose to sun. 

2. Wet with paste made of one tablespoon of starch, juice of one lemon, soft 
soap, and salt, and expose to action of sun. 

3. Treat with paste made of powdered chalk and expose to action of sun. 


Treat as directed under cream. 


Soak in ammonia water or in salt and water, then wash with soap and cold water. 


1. Wet the spot with turpentine, benzine, or alcohol, let it stand a few minutes. 
Wet again and sponge or pat with a clean cloth. Continue until stain disappears. 

2. For delicate colors treat with chloroform. 

3. If the paint is old it may take some time to soften. Treat old paint stains 
with equal parts of ammonia and turpentine. 

1 128 Thb Corkbll Rbaoimg-Coussbs 


I. Wash in aoapsods and expose to the action of wnwhine. 
3. Treat with javeUe water as directed for iron mst. 
3. Treat with oxalic add as directed for iron mst. 


Scorched fabrics can be restoqed if the threads are uninjured. 

1. Wet the stained portioa and expose to the action of the sun. Repeat several 

2. Extract juice of two onions, add one cup vinegar, two ounces fuller's earth. 
and half an ounce soap. BoiL Spread paste over scorched surface. Let it dry 
in sun. Wash out thoroughly. 

Stove polish: 

1. If fresh, remove by washing. 

2. If the stain is old, treat as directed for tar and lampblack. 


Treat as directed for lampblack. 


1. Treat as directed for chocolate. 

2. Soak the stain in glycerin, then wash« 


Treat as directed for paint. 


Wash with turpentine. Boiling sets this stain. 

Wagon grease: 

Soften with lard or oil and wash in soap and water. 


While Monday has long been chosen as the home day for washing, there 
may be good reason to postpone the process until Tuesday. Before 
washing day, clothing should be thoroughly gone over to discover rents 
and stains, carefully sorted, and the white clothes put to soak. This pre- 
liminary work requires time which it may be inconvenient to give on Sat- 
urday and which may not be justified on Sunday. 

The following outline is suggested for the preparation of clothes for 

I. Sort the clothes according to Idnd: 
a. White cotton and linen clothing 

The Laundry 

1 129 

Table linen and dean towels 

Bed and body linen 


Soiled towels and cloths 

b. Colored clothing 

c. Flannels 

2. Mend rents, except in stockings. 

3. Remove stains. 

4* Put as many white clothes to soak as is practicable. Some 
colored clothes having fast colors may be soaked if very 
much soiled. 

The purpose of soaking soiled clothes before washing them is to soften 
and separate the fibers of cloth in order to loosen dirt. Water alone ac* 
compHshes this purpose to a great extent; but the use of a soap solution, 
or a soap solution to which has been added borax, ammonia, or other alkali, 
and turpentine, kerosene, or benzine, makes the washing process both 
easier and quicker. 

It is well before beginning the washing to make a soap solution, as it 
gives a quick suds and is more easily handled, and its use will therefore 
save time. 

All the clothing should not be put to soak in the same tub. If three 
tubs are available, soak table linen and clean towels in one, bed linen and 
body linen in a second, soiled towels and cloths in a third. If only two 
tubs are available, wash table linen and cle^ towels ijWthout preliminary 
soaking. Soiled towels and cloths should always be soaked before washing. 

If colds have prevailed in a family, the handkerchiefs should be put to 
soak in a solution of boric add in a basin by themselves, and should be 
separately cashed and boiled for twenty minutes. 

Wet the garment to be soaked, rub the more soiled part with soap solu- 
tion, and fold that part in. Fold and roll each garment separately and 
pack it into the tub with the other garments. Folding and rolling pre- 
vents the dirt in the soiled parts from spreading. Cover the clothes with 
warm soapy water, to which may have been added an alkali such as borax 
or ammonia, and an oily substance, perhaps turpentine, kerosene, or ben- 
zine. Directions for making soap solutions are given imder the heading 
"Soap" (p. 117). Cover the tub, and if possible let the clothing soak in 
it during several hours or over night. If colored clothes are to be soaked, 
cover with warm water or with water very slightly soapy. No alkali 
should be used with the colored clothing. 

No arbitrary order can be recommended for washing clothes, but 
flaimels, white goods, and colored goods should be washed separately as 
the washing process diifers somewhat for each case. 

1 1 30 The Cornell Reading-Coussbs 

A few simple explanations may aid the housekeeper in solving some d 
her problems. Heat tends to expand the threads of the cloth, and the 
expansion aids in removing dirt caught between the threads. If the doth 
is cooled during the washing process, the thread contracts and the dirt 
is again entangled; consequently, after the doth has once been warmed, 
one of the objects of the launderer should be to maintain an even or a 
rising temperature. In the commercial laundry an even temperature is 
kept by turning the right amount of steam into the washing machine. In 
the home laundry, boiling water added from time to time will aid in keep- 
ing an even temperature. A good suds is necessary in the washing 
process. As the suds falls, that is, as it is used up by uniting with dirt, 
more suds should be supplied by adding more soap or soap solution. If 
insufiident soap is used, insoluble black specks are often left oa the 

All utensils, receptades, and apparatus should be immaculatdy dean. 

Outline for washing white linen and cotton clothes 

1. Put water on to heat. 

2. Make soap solution. 

3. Rinse dothes from water in which they have soaked. 

4. Wash clothes in warm suds in following order: 

a. Table linen and dean towels 

b. Bed linen 

c. Body linen 

d. Handkerchiefs 

e. Soiled towels and doths 

f . Stockings 

5. Wash again in clean suds. Wring. 

6. Boil in clean, slightly soapy water. 

7. Rinse in clean, dear water. Wring. 

8. Rinse in bluing water. Wring. 

9. Starch. 

ic. Hang to dry. 

II. Remove from line, dampen, and fold. 

Directions for washing: 

1. Have plenty of hot water before beginning the washix]^. If possible 
the water should be soft; if it is not, soften it as directed on p. 115. 

2. Make a soap solution; use one cake of soap to two or three quarts 
of water. 

3. Rinse the clothes from water in which they were soaked, removing 
as much of the dirt as possible. Parts of the dothing that are very much 

The Laundry 1131 

soiled should be rubbed a little and rinsed in fresh water before the gar- 
ments are put into a tub or a washing machine. The precaution of rinsing 
saves wear and tear on the whole garment. 

4. Potir warm water into tub or washing machine; if the water is hard, 
soften it with washing-soda solution or borax. Add enough soap solution 
or soap to make a good suds. A tablespoon of turpentine, kerosene, or 
benzine may be added to the washing water as well as to the water in which 
clothing has soaked. Put in clothes to be washed. Rubbing is essential 
for soiled garments. It may be accomplished in one of two ways: by 
using the washboard and old-fashioned tub, or by using a washing machine. 
It is well to have a board for very soiled parts, such as hems and edges, 
but the washing machine is a great improvement on the older method. 

Whenever the water becomes dirty, use fresh suds. Clothes cannot 
be made clean without the use of plenty of water. Keep up a good suds 
while washing, and add hot water from time to time. If a washing machine 
is used, do not put enough water in the machine to float the clothes; if 
you should, they would escape the mechanical action of the dasher and 
would not be sufficiently rubbed. Clothes should be wrung from the wash 
water through the wringer. The screws of the wringer should be adjusted 
to bring its rolls close together and clothing should be folded so as to give 
it an even thickness in passing through the wringer, for heavier garments 
loosen the screws of the wringer. Fold in buttons and hooks and turn the 
wringer slowly. 

5- A second suds is generally necessary, though it may be omitted if 
the clothing has been only slightly soiled. Shake out clothes wrung from 
the first suds, look them over for soiled parts, turn them wrong side out, 
and drop them into second suds. Wash and wring them ready for boiling. 

6. Clothes should be clean before they are boiled, as the boiling process 
is intended not so much to remove visible dirt as to destroy germs and 
purify the clothing as well as to whiten it. Boiling is omitt^i when a 
naphtha soap is used, as the soap loses its effect in very hot water; it is 
asserted that boiling is not needed because naphtha itself is a purifier. 
Nevertheless, at least once a month, the clothing washed at other times 
with naphtha soap should be boiled. 

Fill the boiler half full of cold water; if the water is hard, soften it. 
Add enough soap solution to make a light suds. Half fill the boiler 
with clothes, wrung and shaken out from the last suds. Use plenty of 
water and do not put too many clothes into the boiler. Bring the water 
very gradually to the boiling point and boil ten minutes. 

Kerosene or turpentine is sometimes added to the boiler water to coimter- 
act the yellow color given clothing by the use of the dark resin soaps. 
It is better to avoid kerosene and turpentine at this point if possible, as 

1 1 32 Thb Cornell Rbading-Coursbs 

clothing tiieated by them requires very thorough rinsing to remove the 
odor. Each boilerful of clothes should be started with clean cold water. 
Cloths or clothes containing lampblack or machine oil may be placed 
in the hot water left in the boiler after the last clothes have been ^wrung 
from it. Kerosene or turpentine should then be added, as they are the 
solvents for such dirt. 

7. Rinsing is an important part of the washing process, for if soap or 
some of the strong alkalis are left in the cloth, they may be very detri- 
mental in the bluing or starching process. 

If water is hard it should be softened for rinsing with either borax or 
ammonia and not with washing soda. The rinsing water should be hot. 
The clothes should be slowly lifted with a clean stick from the boiler into 
a dishpan, and drained or wrung and shaken before being put into the rinse 
water. It is not always practicable to use more than one rinse water 
before bluing the clothes, but better results are obtained when the clothes 
are rinsed more than once. With some kinds of bluing, the presence of 
soap or an alkali precipitates the blue as iron rust. If the starch used is 
not pure, and any lye or washing soda or soap has been left in the cloth, 
a yellow color is produced from the starch impurities by the action of those 
alkalis. Wring from the rinsing water and shak^ out the garments. 
I 8. Bluing. — It is impossible to give any rule for the amotmt of bitiing 
to use or the depth of color to be decided upon. Some fabrics, such as 
soft, loosely-woven fabrics, absorb more bluing than others. The amount 
of bluing to be used is a matter for experimentation by the launderer. 
Clothes should not be allowed to stand in the bluing water, as they might 
become streaked. 

If a ball bluing is used, tie it in a thick cloth, wet, and squeeze it into 
a bowlful of hot water. Use a part of the resulting solution for bluing 
the water. More of the bluing in the bowl should be added to the bluing 
in the tub from time to time as the clothing takes it up. As some kinds 
of bluing are in the form of minute particles, the bluing water should be 
stirred each time before adding clothes to it. After they are wrung, 
tmstarched clothes will then be ready for dr3dng. 

9. Starching. — Make the starch according to directions previously given. 
Starch those garments requiring thick starch first, as moisture from the 
clothing gradually thins the starch and a medium stiff, medium thin, and 
thin starch gradually result. 

Stiff starch. — Collars, cuffs, shirt bosoms. 

Medium stiff starch. — Shirt waists, collars and cuffs, coarse lace curtams. 
Medium thin starch. — White petticoats, duck skirts, and some dresses. 
Thin starch. — Skirts and dresses when a stiff finish is not desired; shirt waists. 
Clear starch. — Infants' dresses, fine laces, curtains, light-weight table linen 
when it is desirable to give it som6 body. 

The Laundry 1133 

Raw starch. — Collars, cuffs, shirt bosoms when an extra stiffness is deared; some 
light curtains. 

The starch should be thorougWy worked into the cloth so as to distribute 
it evenly through the threads of the fabric. Such working insures a smooth, 
even stifEness and prevents starch spots in ironing. All garments starched 
with boiled starch should be dried thoroughly before being dampened. 
They should be dampened several hours before being ironed. If articles 
are to be raw-starched they should be thoroughly dried first. They are 
then dipped into the raw starch and rubbed as for washing, squeezed dry, 
and spread out on a clean sheet or doth, but not one over the other. 
They should cover only half the sheet. The other half of the sheet should 
be folded over them. Then the sheet with its contents should be rolled 
tightly and allowed to stand for two or three hours to insure even distri- 
bution of moisture. 

10. Drying. — When possible the process of drying should accomplish 
more than the mere removal of moisture. Clothing should be hung 
where it will be freely exposed to the action of fresh air and sunshine. 
Such exposure purifies and bleaches at the same time. In many 
commercial laundries a chemical bleach is used to whiten clothing that is 
necessarily dried ia steam closets, and consequently does not have the 
beneficial bleaching action of sunshine. The horre launderer does not 
often have to consider the need for commercial bleaching agents. 

The launderer should be provided with a clothespin bag or, better still, 
with a clothespin apron having a deep wide pocket. 

When possible, lines should be taken down each week, but when they 
cannot be they should be well wiped with a damp cloth before hanging 
up clothes. The clothespins should be clean. Each article should be 
turned wrong side out and himg with the threads of the material straight ; 
the garment should be shaped as nearly as possible in its natural shape. 
Avcrid hanging pieces by comers, for thus htmg they would be pulled out 
of shape. Fasten garments by their bands when possible. Table Unen, 
bed linen, and towels should be well stretched and hung very straight; 
the larger pieces should be piimed in at least four places, as it is nearly 
inipossible to iron properly a piece that was improperly hung. Careful 
hanging g:reatly reduces the labor of ironing. When the clothes are brought 
in from the line the clothespins should be put into the apron or basket 
kept for that piu^ose and placed where they will be kept clean. 

Starched pieces shotdd not be allowed to freeze and should be removed 
from the line as soon as dry. Long hanging reduces their stiffness. If 
flannel tmderwear is properly stretched and himg it may be folded and put 
away without fiuther treatment. 

1 134 Thb Cornell Rbading-Coursbs 

1 1 . Dampening. — Clothes should be dampened some hours before being 
ironed, because during the interval between moistening and ironing the 
moisture becomes distributed evenly and does away with the necessity 
of using a superfluous amount of water. The dampening is best done at 
night, but only as many articles should be sprinkled as can be ironed 
next day, for damp fabric will mildew if left wet for a few 6a,ys, especially 
in hot weather. Although clothes should be well dampened, they should 
not be drenched. Very often, trouble in ironing starched pieces is owing 
to overwetting. The starched part is soaked and made limp and sticky. 
A clean whisk broom kept for the ptirpose is the best thing to use fo'* 
sprinkling clothes. Some persons have used a toy sprinkling pot. There 
is, however, a danger in its use, for it may rust and give rise to rust spots 
on clothing. Large pieces should be sprinkled and folded separately. 
Small pieces may be sprinkled and laid together before folding. Care 
should be taken to fold and roll garments smoothly, as this aids in their 
ironing. The rolls of dampened pieces should be packed closely in a basket 
lined with a clean doth and covered with a clean doth. 

Table linen and other linen should be made very damp, not wet. If 
table linen is sprinkled with a mixture of one part alcohol and four parts 
water, the result after ironing will be a slight stiffness resembling that of 
new linen. 

If an ironing machine is used, unstarched pieces may be removed from 
the line while still damp and ironed immediately without the preliminary 

Washing colored clothing 

The processes of dyeing have so improved that almost all wash goods 
are now considered to have fast colors. This is particnilarly true of the 
better grades of fabrics, in which the dye seems to attach itself with especial 
firmness to the fibers of the cloth. Though a color may be said to be fast, 
it is only relatively fast. Colored goods require more careftil treatment 
than do white goods. The conditions that most affect the stability of 
colors in fabrics are: long-continued action of water and soap; strong 
alkalis or adds; strong sunlight, which is a powerful bleaching agent and 
is used frequently for bleaching. 

In washing colored clothing, the factors just enumerated should be kept 
in nnind. Colored clothing should not be soaked for any length of time 
unless its color is known to be very stable. Any soap used in the washing 
process should be a mild soap in solution, or if the color of the goods to 
be washed is very delicate the soap solution should be replaced by soap 
bark, bran, rice water, potato water, or cooked-starch water. The washing 
process should be conducted quickly, and in water not very hot. After 
washing, colored garments should be turned inside out and hung in a 

Thb Laundry 113S 

very shady or dark place, and should be taken in as soon as dry. Fading 
is more often owing to careless drying than to any fault in washing. Wash- 
ing powders and strong alkalis should never be used with colored clothing. 
If the water needs softening, use borax. If starch, bran, rice water, etc., 
are substituted for soap, use the mixture as if it were soapsuds. 

In starching colored clothes, rub the starch in thoroughly and wipe 
off any excess of it; no diflSculty will then be experienced with white 
starch spots. 

To set color. — Sometimes a fabric shows a decided tenden9y to fade 
even under the best washing conditions. It is always well if there is any 
doubt about fadii^ to test a small piece of the doth before washing it. 
If the color fades, then an attempt should be made to set it. With most 
colors, the dyer uses chemical substances which cause a firmer tuiion 
between the color and the cloth. Such substances are called mordants. 
The x>rocess of making a color fast may sometimes satisfactorily be used 
by the housekeeper to strengthen weak colors. The household mordants 
are brine, vinegar, sugar of lead, and alum, used in the following pro- 

To I gallon water add 
t cup mild vinegar, or 
2 cups salt, or 
I tablespoon alum, or 
X tablespoon sugar of lead (poison) 

Vinegar is best for pinks. Small pieces of cloth should be tested in 
each of the above solutions and a choice made after the test. The cloth 
of which the color is to be made fast should be left in the mordant solution 
over night and may be left in for several days with good results. It 
should be thoroughly dried before being washed. Even with relatively 
strong colors, seaking a fabric over night in a brine solution before washing 
it for the first time may render it far less susceptible to fading influences 
than it otherwise would be. The effect of brine, however, is said not to 
be lasting. Colored goods are often rinsed in a dilute salt solution j^st 
before drying them. 

Washing woolens 

The action of water and alkalis upon wool has akeady been explained 
in describing the characteristics of the wool fiber. 

Strong soaps should never be tised in washing woolens, nor should soap 
be applied directly to the garment. The soap should be used in solution. 
A great deal of stress is laid upon having the water used in washing flannels 
not much more than lukewarm, for at a lukewarm temperature soap 
and water have a less detrimental action on wool than at any other tem- 
perature. It is even more important than the lukewarm water to have 

1 1 36 Thb Cornbll Reading-Courses 

all the waters used of the same temperature, in order to avoid changes 
from hot to cold water, or vice versa, as sudden changes in temperature 
cause shrinkage. 

Have two receptacles ready for washing flannels. Pour into one of them 
water not too hot for the hand to bear comfortably. Add enough soap 
solution made from a neutral or mild soap or a wool soap to make a good 
suds. If the water is hard, or the clothing is very much soiled, add a 
tablespoon of borax or ammonia for each gallon of water used. Shake 
or brush the garments free from dust, and put them into the water to soak 
for ten or fifteen minutes. Before beginning to wash the flannels, prepare 
a second tub of water having the same temperature as that of the first 
or a slightly higher temperature. Wash one garment at a time by drawing 
through the hands and washing up and down in the water; avoid rubbing 
if possible. Pass the garments from the first to the second water; the 
second water should be a suds if the first suds has not removed all the soil. 
Rinse free of soap in several waters; be sure to keep the temperature con- 
stant. Wring through a loosely set wringer. Turn wrong side out and 
hang in a warm place, but not near a fire as heat will catise shrinkage. 
When nearly dry, turn. When drying, shape by pulling and stretching. 

It is a mistake to ascribe all the shrinkage in woolen garments to wash- 
ing. The moisture, heat, and movements of the body may cause a marked 

If flannels are to be pressed, they should be allowed to dry first and should 
then be covered with a slightly dampened piece of cheesecloth and ironed 
with a moderately hot iron. The cheesecloth draws up the fibers of the 
flannel, giving it the fluffy appearance of a new garment. Underwear 
and woolen stocldngs shovdd be stretched into shape and should not be 
ironed. For very soiled garments the soap formula given under the head- 
ing ** Soap " will be useful. 

: Blankets are washed in the same way as other woolen articles, except 
that, because of their size, only two blankets or only one pair of them 
are washed at a time, and fresh water is used for each pair. After wring- 
ing, they may be stretched and dried on curtain stretchers. If stretchers 
are not available, blankets should hang on the line until perfectly dry, 
and occasionally the water should be squeezed from the hanging ends. 
To press them, fold them evenly and carefully and wrap them in a sheet. 
Keep them smooth and imwrinkled and place a flat board over them. 
Weight heavily and let them remain thus for several days. 

Washing silk 

Silk should be washed in much the same way as wool. While it is not 
so strongly affected by soaps and alkalis as is wool, its gloss is destroyed 

The Laundry 1137 

by the use of strong deansing agents. The delicacy of the fiber makes 
hard rubbing impossible, for it breaks the fibers and destroys not only 
their durability but also their silkiness. In wringing silk, place 
it between dry towels or heavy cloths and put it through a loosely adjusted 
wringer. Iron it on the wrong side while still damp, with a moderately 
hot iron. Silk is very easily scorched and, if the iron is too hot, the silk 
will be stiff. Push the iron back and forth with a wriggling motion to 
give softness and pliability to the silk. It is often best to iron silk under 
a cloth; to do so gives less body and a softer finish. 

Ribbons, if of good quality, may be very successftdly washed. To iron 
them, cover them with a dry cloth and move the iron frequently back and 
forth over the surface of the doth above them. 

Wfishing laces 

It is often best to dry-dean fine laces, as they thicken slightly in washing. 
To wash them, use a warm neutral soap-solution to which has been added 
animonia or borax. Squeeze out the dkt by pressing the lace in the hands 
but do not rub it; rubbing breaks the ddicate threads. A good way to 
wash fine lace is to baste it to strips of cheesedoth, being careful to catch 
down all its points. Put it to soak over night in warm soapy water con- 
taining a little borax or ammonia. Wash it, by squeezing, then rinse it 
free of soap. Old yellow lace may be bleached by stretching it, while 
wet, around a bottle, and standing it in the sun, rewetting the lace occa- 
sionally. Javelle water may be used to bleach lace. Lace may be stiff- 
ened by rinsing in a mixture of two tablespoons of alcohol to one cup of 
water; by rinsing in borax water, two tablespoons to a cup; or by using 
gum arabic, one eighth teaspoon to a cup of water. If a yellow color is 
desired, dip the lace in coffee or tea. 

Black lace should be cleaned by squeezing it repeatedly in a mixture 
of one cup of strong coffee and one tablespoon of ammonia. RiJise m 
gum arable water made with coffee, to give nat\iral stifiness. 

Lace ctutains shotild be washed with as near an approach to the care 
given to lace as is practicable. Clear-starch them, stretch them, and pm 
them out on sheets, one curtain over another. If available, it is 
better to use curtain stretchers than sheets, but if care is taken to square 
off the first curtain and stretch it straight and even, good results may be 
obtained by pinning the curtains to sheets. 


In former times, dependence was placed on sunshine, fresh air, and a 
green sward for bleaching all manufactured cottons and linens. Such 

1 1 38 The Cornbll Rbading-Coursbs 

dependence on natural agents has been obviated by the ability to procure 
similar results from the use of chemicals. 

In the home laundry, we still use natural agents to whiten and purify 
household linen. That is the greatest advantage which the home laundry 
has over the commercial laundry; in the latter, in a majority of cases, 
clothes are dried in steam closets, and some chemical must replace the 
stm's rays to bleach a garment left yellow by washing. The action of the 
sim and air is not merely to bleach but to disinfect, and dothes thus dried 
have a freshness and sweetness that cannot be duplicated by any other 

Occasionally, even in the household, it may be necessary to supplement 
the natural bleaching process by the use of chemicals. If a garment has 
yellowed by age or by being packed away with starch in it, it may be 
expedient to use a chemical bleach. 

The best bleach to use is javelle water, which should be made as follows: 

I pound washing soda 
i pound chlorid of lime 

1 quart boiling water 

2 quarts cold water 

Put soda in granite pan; add boiling water and stir until dissolved; let cool. 

Dissolve chlorid of lime in cold water; let settle and pour the dear liquid into 
the soda; let settle. Pour off clear liquid, bottle, and put away in dark place. 

Use, mixed with equal parts or more of water, and do not let the garments 
stay in over i hour. Rinse thoroughly in several waters and lastly in dilute 
ammonia water. 

Moisture is necessary if clothes are to be bleached by the action of the 
sun. After a garment dries, it shotdd be made wet again and hui^ out. 
It may be necessary to repeat the wetting operation a number of times 
before the yellow tinge yields. It is said that clothes are whitened if 
they are allowed to freeze out of doors on the line. The reason given for 
the bleaching action is that freezing causes the clothes to retain moisture, 
hence the time of their bleaching is prolonged. 


While a knowledge of conditions aids greatly in ironing as in other 
operations, experience and skill are necessary to accomplish good results. 
Ease of ironing and the quality of the product depend on the skill of the 
operator, on the care that has been used in starching, drying, sprinkling, 
and folding the clothes to be ironed, and on the kind and condition of the 
irons. If the garments have been poorly and carelessly starched, the work 
of ironing is greatly increased. Starchy lumps cook on the iron and damage 
its smoothness, even when the lumps are immediately removed. The 


reason for allowing dothes to stand over night after sprinkling is to give 
them an even dampness that makes ironing easy and successful. If 
starched goods have been 
over-dampened, the starch 
is brought to the surface and 
a result is produced similar 
to that of careless starching. 
If linen is too dry it tannot 
be made smooth and free 
from wrinkles. If it is too 
wet, the process of ironing 
is laborious. 

It is said that irons that 
are to be used for starched 
garments should not be 
polished by rubbii^ them on 
salt or emery paper. A 
better method is to procure 
a good yellow pine board, 
free from all sand and dirt, 
and rub it with a hot iron 
until a hard coat of burned 
resin is produced. The board 
should occasionally be 

Fic 42, — Mtihods of folding undenvear 

may be used for polishing the iron. The 

wiped with a piece of wax or paraffin and then with a clean cloth. 

Have ready and at hand: a fiat, firm, unwarped ironing board or table, 
tightly covered with a blanket and clean sheet, securely fastened under- 
neath; clean irons; an iron stand, which may well consist of a clean brick; 
two pieces of old cloth 
for cleaning irons; a 
piece of paper folded 
several times for test- 
ing irons; a piece of 
beeswax or paraffin 
tied in a cloth, for 
keeping irons smooth ; 
a bowl of water and 
a clean cloth for 
moistening parts dried 
by exposure to air. 
Spread a large paper or place a basket under the ironing board to 
receive the clothes while they are being ironed. 

Pig. 43.— a m'tftod 0} folding shtets or labUcSolks 

1 1 40 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

For ordinary ironing a good firm surface is desirable. A thin woolen 
blanket and an outside linen cover are sufficient. For embroideries or 
wool, a thick covering is better, as tlie fabric should sink into a soft founda- 
tion to bring out the pattern in one case and to give a soft finish in the 

The following simple rules for ironing may be followed: 

Iron first that part of the garment which will be least mussed by further 
handling or in which a little wrinkling will not seriously interfere with 
good resxilts. 

If the garment is trimmed, iron laces and embroideries first, as they dry 
out quickly because of their porous nature. 

Leave as much of a garment folded as possible, to keep it moist. 
Sometimes it may be convenient to lay a piece of dampened cheesedoth 
over any unironed part to keep it moist. 

A series of illustrations appended will give some of the methods of folding 
various garments. 

Method and order for ironing 
Night dresses: 

I, Embroidery; 2, sleeves; 3, yoke; 4, body. 


I, Trimming; 2, tucks; 3, body; 4, band. 


I, Ruffle; 2, hem; 3, body. 

Shirt waists: 

I, CufiEs; 2, collar band; 3, sleeves; 4, yoke; 5, back; 6, front. 

Silk waist: 

Iron as above on wrong side while still damp. 


Iron on wrong side on soft foundation, to allow design to stand out. 


Lay on piece of flannel covered with a piece of cheesecloth. Iron on 
wrong side and pull out points with tip of iron. Lace should be stretched 
and pinned out on a hard surface. Pull out at each point and catch down 
with a pin; or stretch and roll on a bottle. 


Use heavy irons, iron on both sides, iron partly dry on wrong side and 
complete process on right side, to bring out pattern. The illustration 
shows methods of folding diuing ironing. Fold selvages together first. 

The Laundrt 


Fig. 44. — Amilher method of foldini 

Fold all edges evenly, except when folding the lengthwise folds in half. 
Draw upper half back about one half inch in making the last fold, or that 
part ^^tU be pushed out of place, giving a 
uneven edge. The same rule applies to 
sheets, napkins, handkerchiefs, etc. Table- 
cloths may be folded lengthwise twice and 
then rolled to avoid creases. 
Napkins, handkerchiefs, and towels: 
Iron and fold as for tablecloths. 

The hems of sheets must be smoothly ironed. It is a good plan to 
iron only that part of the sheet when time is a consideration. 

Iron after laying a dampened cheesecloth over them. If they are not 
covered with a damp cloth, iron on wrong side; have the iron only moder- 
ately hot. 
Pillow cases: 

Iron smooth. 
Colored garments: 

Iron on wrong side, as to do so prevents fading. Do not have irons too 

Silk garments: 
Iron on wrong side; to do so prevents shininess. 

After ironing, each 

,-] J— \npT^ article should be hung 

^-J p-* on a frame or clothes- 

[ J horse to dry and air 

before it is put away. 
If hung in a poorly 
ventilated room the 
clothes will have a bad 

Sprinkling may. not 
be necessary when an 
ironing machine is 
used for ironing, if the 
operator will remove 
the clothes from the 
line just at the right 
time, that is, while they are stitl damp. The process can be carried 
through so quickly that it is unnecessary to keep one garment damp while 

401^, Pfc.^ 

Fig. 45.— j1 method of folding 

, while they are stitl damp. 

1 142 Tbb Cormbll Reading-Courses 

the other is being ironed. One woman, a member of a family of eight per- 
sons, reports that with the help of one other person she is able to iron with 
her hot-roll power ironing-machine all the sheets and pillow cases for eight 
beds, all the towels, table linen, handkerchiefs, as well as many plain 
garments for five persons, in one and one-hall to two hours. Another 
woman having a cold-roll power ironing-machine is able, with the help 
of a second person, to iron the sheets and pillow cases for eleven beds, as 
well as towels and handkerchiefs in proportion, in twenty to thirty minutes. 

A great deal may be said on the subject of laundry equipment- In no 
part of the house is the amount of labor so modified by the possession of 
proper equipment as in-the laundry. If the water must all be carried into 
the house from the outside, heated on the stove, used, then carried outside 
to be emptied, the task is 
indeed heavy. If tubs and 
benches must be lifted in and 
adjusted, and if a washing 
machine does not take the 
place of a washboard, the 
labor is unnecessarily and 
unwisely increased. A great 
deal more thought should be 
given to laundry conveniences 
in the farm home, for laundry 
work is hard and trying under 
the conditions just described 
and in the majority of cases 
such conditions are un- 
necessary. Laundry work may 
be made comparatively easy 
and interesting. 

Washing machine. — The 

home laundry should be 

equipped with a washing 

Fic.46.-Thecold-raaironint-m<Kkint ma^e and at least one 

stationary tub. It may be 

that running water has not yet been introduced into house and bam, 

but at least it is possible to provide a drain for kitchen sink and laundry 

tub. This makes easier the problem of getting rid of dirty water. 

There are now on the market washing machines with wringer attached, 
which nm by power. On many farms the gasoline engine has already 

The Laundry 1143 

become a fixture for grinding corn, separating milk, etc. Why may not 
the same source of power be used to ran the washing machine and tiom the 
wringer? If running water is brought to the bam it should certainly 
be continued to the house, and, if the water power is sufficient, a water 
motor may be purchased that can be used for running the washing 
machine. Some farmhouses are already making the improvements that 
have been described. 

The ironing machine. — The ironing machine, or, as it is often called, the 

Fig. 47. — The Hot-roll ironini-mackine 

mangle, is another device for making laundry work easier than it has been. 
It may successfully take the place of the hand iron for a larger part of the 
family ironing. There are two types of ironing machines on the market : 
(i) cold-roll ironing machines, in which the rollers between which the 
garment passes are made of wood and are unheated, depending on their 
weight and pressure to remove wrinkles; (2} hot-roU ironing machines, in 
which one roll is cold and is covered with a blanket and cloth, just as for 
an ironing board, and the other roll or concave plate is made of smooth 
iron and is heated. The cold roll revolves against the heated metal plate. 


Thb Cornell Reading-Courses 

This is really the more economical and satisfactory ironing machine, 
although its original cost is greater. The plate may be heated by gas or 
gasoline. Both kinds of ironing machines are shown in Pigs. 46 and 47. 
The hot-roll ironing machine shown in Fig. 47 may be heated by gas or 
gasoline by a slight change involving a small expense. If power is available 
the ironing machine may be run by power. The use of one of these 
machines reduces greatly the time required to iron in che usual way. 
Garments with gathers and sleeves cannot be thus ironed to look perfectly 
smooth and well shaped, but all bed and table linen, towels, handker- 
chiefs, stockings, such underwear as may not require perfect smoothness, 
kitchen aprons, etc., may be done successfully and satisfactorily. 

Irons. — A number of irons are now on the market for summer use when 
it is not desirable to have suJfficient fire in the range to heat the irons. 
Some of these are: electric irons, gas irons, and, most practical of all for 
the country home, denatured-alcohol irons. 

For general laundry purposes one size of the ordinary sadiron is suflB- 

FlG. 48. — Types of laundry irons 

cient, but it is advisable to put several irons into a well-equipped laundry, 
to use for the various kinds of work to be done. Among them should be 
heavy, medium heavy, and small-pointed irons, the last for ironing ruflSes, 
laces, etc. 

A frequent cause of poor ironing is the condition of the irons. They 
must be kept clean and free from rust to do good work. New irons should 
be heated thoroughly and rubbed with wax or grease before using. If 
irons are to be put away for any length of time they should be covered 
with a thin coating of vaseline, clean grease, or paraffin, or wrapped in 
waxed paper. If starch cooks on, it should be removed immediately with 
a dull knife. If irons become dirty from careless use, or from being left 
on the stove during the preparation of the meals, they should be thor- 
oughly washed with soap and water and carefully dried. To keep irons 
smooth while using them, rub with wax or paraffin and wipe immediately 
with a clean cloth. They improve with wear, if they have good treatment. 

The Laundry ii45 

tifbs. — Although a washing machine maybe used, there should be one 
or more tubs in a laiiodry. Stationary tubs are best, even though ninning 
water is not available, for some simple method of draining them can be 
devised. The tubs are better made of porcelain, enameled iron, or alberine 
stone. Wooden tubs may be more cheaply constructed; but there is 
danger of the wooden tub becoming unsanitary from careless handling. 

A stationary tub should always be set with regard to the height o£ the 

FlO. 49. — Laundry equipment in an improvised laundry 

person who is to use it most. Many tubs are set far too low and neces- 
sitate too much back bending on the part of the operator. 

If stationary tubs are not available, fiber tubs are the best to buy for 
the laundry, as they are light and easy to care for. Galvanized iron and 
wooden tubs are cheaper. 

Laundry bench. — The laundry bench for holding tubs should be of the 
proper height. Most such benches are far too low, involving effort out 
of proportion to the task to be accomplished. 

Wringer. — A wringer should be a part of the laundry equipment, and 
the best on the market is always the cheapest. After using a wringer, 


The Cornell Reading-Courses 

It should be carefully dried and the screws pressing the rollers should be 
loosened. When not in use it should be kept covered with a doth to pro- 
tect it from dust and dirt. The bearings should be oiled occasioDally. 
Oil dissolves rubber, and that property of oil is taken advantage of in 
cleaning the rubber rollers. They are carefully wiped with a little kerosene 
which eats away a thin film of the rubber, exposing a fresh surface. The 
operation should not be performed frequently, however, and the oil should 
be carefully and completely removed immediately after its use. 

Ironing board. — An ironing board, which has its broader end attached 
by hinges to the wall, is a great convenience, for then it is always in place 
and can be put out of the way by folding up against the wall. 

Ironing blanket. — The ironing blanket and sheet should be put on 
smoothly and tacked securely under the board, using short brass-headed 
tacks. It is a good plan to have a separate blanket and sheet also, which 
fit the table used in the laimdry, as a table is a convenient place for ironing 
large pieces. The ironing sheet should be kept clean. 

Sleeve board. — A sleeve board 
is good not only for sleeves, 
but for gathers and for small 
dresses. It is not difficult to 
manufacture at home. 

Character of utensils. — As far 
as possible, all utensils that are 
to come in contact with clothing 
or to contain material to be used on the clothing, shotild be nonrustable. 
Tinware is not good for laundry use because of the ease with which it 
rusts. The boiler should have a copper bottom at least, and is best made 
entirely of copper. It then conducts heat better and does not rust. 

Fig. 50. — Sleeve board 

Further supplies. — 

Rubbing board 
Wooden spoon 

Dishpan, enamel 
Tea kettle 
Measuring cup 
Quart measure 
Iron holder 
Clothes basket 
Strainer for starch 

Beeswax or paraffin wrapped in cloths 
to keep irons smooth 

Laundry bags 
Clothes stick 
Pail, enamel or fiber, for emptying water 

and carrying clothes 
2 saucepans, enamel, one for starch and 

one for soap solution 
Iron stand 
Case knife 
Scrubbing brushes 

Clothespin aprons, best made of ticking 

The Laundry 1147 

It is always best, when possible, to have a separate room for laundry 

purposes. Much of the apparatus can then be made stationary and many 

little labor-saving conveniences devised. Some dairy farms have running 

water, drains, power, steam, and cement floors. It would be a simple matter 

on such a farm to equip a small room in the bam with the necessary laundry 

apparatus. One western man has already provided such an equipment 

and the power and steam used in his dairy are also used in his laundry. 

He may be quoted as follows: "A laimdry provided with stationary 

wash tubs, vrith washer and wringer for power use, is an innovation. 

But why shotdd not the woman of the farm be provided with modem 

appliances ? Why should she be compelled to toil as her great grandmother 

did? The farmer no longer reaps with a sickle, or even with a cradle. 

He rides his plow, and often his harrow. He rides his grain drill and com 

planter and cc»:ii cultivator. He rides his grain harvester and his com 

harvester. He loads hay by machinery and pitches it into the bam by 

horsepower. The time is come When it is positive cruelty to compel, or 

even allow, the woman to toil on without running water or machine power 

in the house. The same steam, water, and sewerage system that must be 

present for the dairy will take care of the laundry. The same power used 

for grinding feed and separating milk and pumping water and sawing wood 

will turn the washer and the wringer. Such a latmdry is to be desired, 

also, because it will practically insure dean garments worn by the milkers. 

A power laundry like this may be rented to the neighbors for, say, 50 cents 

a day, they to come over and do the work. Such an arrangement will in 

a measure lighten the burden now resting so heavily on the woman of 

the farm." The above is quoted from First Annual Report, State Dairy 

and Food Commissioner, Missouri, 1907. 

1 148 The Cornkll Readinc-CouRw^es 



Farmers' Wives* Reading-Course: 

No. I. Saving steps. Martha Van Rensselaer. 

No. 3. Practical housekeeping. Martha Van Rensselaer. 

No. 4. The kitchen-garden. John Craig. 

No. 5. Flowers and the flower-garden. Compiled. 

No. 6. The rural school and the farm home. Martha Van Rensselaer. 

No. 7. Eoys and girls on the farm. Martha Van Rensselaer. 

New Series 

No. 4. Bacteriology of the household. Martha Van Rensselaer. 
No. 6. Human nutrition, Part I. Flora Rose. 
No. 7. Human nutrition, Part II. Flora Rose. 

Reading-Course for the Farm Home: 

No. I. The care and feeding of children. — Part I. Flora Rose. 

No. 3. The care and feeding of children. — Part II. Flora Rose. 

No. 5. Household decoration. Helen Binkerd Young. 

No. 7. Household furnishing. Helen Binkerd Yoimg. 

No. 9. Reading in the farm home. Martha Van Rensselaer. 

No. II. The laundry. Flora Rose. 

No. 13. Cornell study clubs. (On the press.) Martha Van Rensselaer. 

No. 15. Personal decoration. (In preparation.) Gratia L. Rice. 

The bulletins listed under the Farmers' Wives* Reading-Course can 
no longer be sent at poimd rates. In writing for them, please send one 
cent postage for each bulletin asked for. The bulletins listed tmder the 
Reading-Course for the Farm Home will be mailed without remittance. 

The lessons are free of charge. The work is under state appropria- 
tion and is available only to residents of New York State. Numerous 
requests are made from out of the State; we regret that these caimot be 
filled. It is our custom, however, to place an out-of-state Ubrary or the 
name of a teacher of home economics on our list when requested to do so. 

There is no provision for selling the lessons of the reading-course. 


^ift (Hmntli Staining -Ql0ttrBM 


Published semi-monthly throughout the year by the Hew York Sute College of 
Aexicultiire at Cornell University. Entered as second-class matter October I3« 
19 X I, at the post office at Ithaca, N. Y., under the Act of Congress of July 16, 1894 

L. H. Bailey, Director 
CouRSB FOR THB Faru Houb, Martha Van RsNSSELAEft, Supervisor 

VOL. X. Ko. IX IT][^/?u' ^* ^* 'ARM HOUSE SERIES No. 3 

MARCH I, 191 2 



By means of the discussion papers we have an opportunity to become 
acquainted. We shall take it as an indication on your part that you are 
interested if you answer the questions and return them to us. The staff 
of the Department of Home Economics is ready to assist in yoiu" study of 
scientific home-making. We want your assistance as well. Ask questions, 
offer suggestions, let us have the benefit of your experience. You thus 
become a vital part of the work of the State College in its efforts for rural 

Will you please send your opinions on the following points to the 
Supervisor of the Cornell Reading-Course for the Farm Home? 

I- Suggest three ways for making the wash day easier. 

2. Compare the. cost of having the washing done at home with the cost 
of having it done at the laundry, taking into consideration the value of 
the woman's time, the cost of water, soap, heat, and wear and tear of 


1 150 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

3. What laundry eqtiipment have you in your house? Is any part of 
it run by power? What is your opinion of it? 

4. Give your ideas of a well-equipped lattndry; if possible, draw a floor 
plan for a small home laundry, showing where each piece of equipment 
should be placed to save steps and labor. 

5. Is washing good exercise? May it be made bo? How shotdd a 
person stand over the washtub? 



©Iff (Hamtll S?a&tng-Ql0urafa 


PnUliboI aanl-iocottily thnwsboat U)« yw by the Ne* York Stkts CoUe«a of 
Asriciiltuia at Comill Ucivenily. Eotcnd u ucond-daH nutter Octobs 13, 
1011, at the port offics at Itbaca, N. Y., under the Act of Coogttu oC July 16, IBM 

L. H. Bailey, Director 

CouKSK FOK THE Faui Home. Maktba Van Rbhsselaex, Supervisor 

VOl. I. Ho. IS ^aS)i9*' ^' ^' WniAL LIFB SERIBS Ho. j 


Martha Van Rensselaer 

" IVe htae reached the point where no woman dares say that her education 

is finished." 

The Cornell Reading-Course for the Farm Home is for individual or 

club study. Ten or twenty persons in the same neighborhood or vil- 

FiG. 51. — A Cornell study dub 

lage may be reading the lessons of the course, but not readii^ them together. 
If they would unite in a group, read and discuss the lessons, and afterward 
" have a little visit " together, they would probably learn more than if 


115a The Cornell Reading-Courses 

each person studied alone; they would surely enjoy more. They mi^ht 
first discuss the subjects of the lessons and afterward have a social hour 
with something worth while to talk about. In themselves the lessons are 
not sufficient to give a thorough understanding of the subjects of which 
they treat. They do, however, introduce those subjects and stimulate 
to a fvirther acquaintance with them. For such wider acquaintance 
provision is made by reference to books, so many afid so carefully selected 
that any desired phase of the various subjects may be studied. That • 
the Reading-Course is not only profitable but necessary, has been repeat- 1 
edly shown by correspondence. 

Let me tell you why one woman organized a study club. " I had told 
my husband all I knew," she said, ** and he had told me all he knew; so 
there was nothing left but for me in the evening to dam stockings and for 
him to read the papers. Sometimes we were too tired to do even this and 
went to bed, to get up to go over the same program the next day. Afraid 
of the monotony of such routine, I asked my husband to drive with me to 
all the neighbors* houses. When I suggested the formation of a dub, 
one neighbor said, * I am too old, I have forgotten all my schooling and 
could not take any part in a program.* Another woman declared: * I 
am too busy to spend any time in study.' Still another said, ' I am sure 
we would have trouble and I guess I will keep out of it.' Nevertheless, 
I invited all the neighbors to my home. Enough came to elect officers 
and arrange for future programs. The number grew tmtil both men and 
women organized for a study of subjects relating to their work. Acquaint- 
ance was renewed among those who did not often meet; women who had 
once been musical practiced again and contributed to the program; and 
it must be said that refreshments added not a little to the interest of our 
meetings. One member gave this testimony: ' I feel younger ever since 
I began to think of something besides getting the meals and washing 
dishes and cooking and cleaning.' Another said, * I have only just begun 
to be interested in farm work. Since studying for the club I like to think 
my housework is scientific just the same as the farm work. I like knowing 
the reason why I do things.' " 

It may not always be expedient, however, to organize a new group. 
There may already be a good grange in the commtmity, or there may be 
other means to keep up mental stimulus and to provide for the social 
side of life. If there is reason for forming a club, some one should assume 
its leadership, see others in the community, and arrange for a time and 
place for meeting. The meetings may be started in a home. Members 
may take ttuns in inviting the club to their homes. In some cases mem- 
bership in such clubs as have been described has increased so rapidly that 
the schoolhouse, the church, or the hall is used as a place of meeting. 

Cornell Study Clubs 1153 

Study-club meetings should be held frequently enough to keep up 
nterest in them; twice a month is usually considered sufficiently often. 
iome clubs that began with only winter meetings are holding a monthly 
neeting during the summer; thus, interest in the club is kept up. It is 
iuggested that each meeting be divided into two parts : the first hour may 
ne devoted to a study of the Cornell Lessons for the Farm Home ; the second 
lOur may be given to travel (page 186), study of music, literature, history, 
JT current topics.' The meeting should be made formal enough to observe 

Pig. 52. — The social himr 

rules of order (page 331) and to secure strict attention to the program 
until the time for the social hour. 

While it is desirable that men and women work together on the farm 
lessons, as well as on the farm home lessons, in some cases men and women 
have met in the same building on the same evening but have separately 
discussed the farm and the farm home; later in the same evening the two 
meetings have come together, to enjoy a literary program. 

club organization 
Small gatherings often get along very well informally; but when more 
or less vital questions are to be settled in either large or small meetings, 
every one is happier if the meeting follows nilings based on adopted princi- 

1 1 54 Thb Cornell Reading*Coursbs 

pies. It is easier to conduct a meeting with some established rules d 
order than one without such rules. Besides, the businesslike CQnduct 
of a meeting lends dignity to it. 

The following constitution has been adopted by several Cornell study 
dubs. It may be varied sufficiently to meet the individual needs of any 
club. A discussion on the adoption of the constitution and on other 
parliamentary usage will be found at the end of this lesson and should be 
made a frequent study. 


Article I 
The dub shall be known as the Cornell Study Club of 

Article II 

The object of the dub is to study sdentific ways of conducting 
home work in order to preserve the best interests of the family; to discuss 
the best expenditure of time, strength, and money to secure the highest 
eflSdency ; to broaden the outlook of the family through the culture of the 
mother of the household; to encourage a social spirit in the community 
while working together for the good of the family; to consider the home 
as a part of the community and therefore having rdations with church, 
school, and sodal well-being; to elevate the character of rural life to the 
end that the farm home shall be the best in America and most attractive 
to the rising generation. 

Any person interested in the foregoing objects for study is eligible for 

Artide III 

The officers shall be a President, a Vice-President, a Secretary, a Treas- 
tu'er, and a Corresponding Secretary. 

The duty of the President shall be to preside at all meetings and to 
call extra sessions whenever practicable. 

The duty of the Vice-President is to act for the President in the absence 
of the latter or whenever she is unable to attend to her duties. 

The duties of the Secretary and the Treasurer shall be, respectivdy, to 
keep minutes of the meetings, and to care for the finances of the dub if 
there be any. 

The Corresponding Secretaiy shall give notice of meetings, conduct the 
correspondence of the dub, send a report of meetings to the Department 
of Home Economics of the New York State College of Agriculture, Cor- 
nell University, and write for state and government bulletins that shall 
aid in the study of the dub. 

Cornell Study Clubs 1155 

Article IV 

The majority o£ the members present at a meeting shall constitute a 

Article V 

The officers of the dub shall constitute an executive council, which shall 
determine the place of meeting and the time and number of meetings, 
and arrange for the year's program. 

Article VI 

The club shall be under the supervision of the Department of Home 
Economics at the New York State College of Agriculture, which depart- 
ment will be ready to assist by answering questions, by aiding in the 
preparation of a program, by visiting the club for purposes of teaching. 

The club shall have for a basis of work the lessons of the Cornell Reading- 
Course for the Farm Home, with whatever related work may be deemed 
advisable. The club is to have correspondence with the Department of 
Home Economics along lines that shall be of helpful interest to the dub. 

At least some of the members shall answer the questions of the dis- 
cussion papers in the Farmers' Wives' Reading-Course, and they shall 
be forwarded regularly to that department by the secretary. 

Article VII 
" Roberts' Rules " shall be the guide to parliamentary usage. 


In most instances clubs should prefer to make their own programs. 
Appoint a program committee before the end of a year to prepare a pro- 
gram for the next year. Preparing a program takes a good deal of time 
and thought on the part of a committee, but it is excellent mental exercise. 
Programs should be outlined six months in advance, in order that every 
one may know in time what preparation to make for her own part in 
them. Each member of the club is able to take some part in a program. 
Fear discourages many, but fear can be overcome. • When Theodore 
Roosevelt was a lad in school he attempted to recite the poem, ** When 
Greece her knees in suppliance bent." He bravely began: "When 
Greece her knees" — he stopped, unable to proceed. He began again: 

When Greece her knees ' ' — . After his third effort with no more progress, 
the schoolmaster called out to him, *' Grease her knees once more, Teddy, 
then she'll go." He greased her knees once more and has been govag 
ever since. 

1 156 The Cormbll Reading-Courses 

When called on to say something at a public meeting, take ten foil 
breaths and go ahead. That was John B. Gough's remedy for stage 
fright. We learn to speak by speaking, not by dreading the necessai>' 
effort and putting it off. 

The music on the program is of too much importance not to recei\-e 
special attention. The town and city furnish concerts given by artists. 
which custom helps to establish a high standard of music. The amotmt 

Fig. 53. — The good ckeer of a meeting wkere men and children are not left out 

of professional music that is heard in rural communities is necessarily 
limited. Music, however, is a means of expression fully as fitting among 
pastoral as among urban scenes. The birds sing among trees and by 
meadow brooks; their song is sweeter there than in a cage. Doubtless 
many of our artist singers would enjoy listening oftener to- the thrush, 
the skylark, and the rippling brook. Why should not those who arc 
brought up in the country pay especial attention to their musical tal- 

The selection of music is important. On every counter of a music 
store may be found " ragtime " and flippant sentimental songs, but it is 
also possible to find " Annie Laurie," " Auld Lang Syne," " Robin Adair," 

Cornell Study Clubs 1157 

* Suwanee River." Music is not named in the programs here printed, 
tt is left for the program cxwnmittee to supply, since that committee will 
know the possibilities of the club. 

Another feature not repeated here, but one that should be found at the 
beginning of every program, is the reading of the minutes of the last 
meeting and of the treasurer's report. Parliamentary drill also may form 
a part of the program. That is still another feature omitted from the 
programs printed in this lesson, but a drill may be introduced whenever 
the president thinks it advisable. 

Most clubs frequently serve refreshments. There is a psychology in 
the custom not to be ignored. It is said that the way to a man's heart 
is through his stomach; but this is probably a human trait, not merely 
masculine. The practice of " breaking bread " together is very old; the 
poetic justice of it is lost, however, if the menu is so elaborate that women 
find it a hardship to prepare refreshments for social occasions. Unless 
the refreshments served are to take the place of a regular meal, the bill 
of fare may be discarded which embraces cold meats, salads, pickles, rolls, 
pie, several kinds of cake, ice cream, and coffee. Good cheer may be easily 
obtained by coffee or cocoa with sandwiches, by ice cream and cake, or by 
fruit salad and sandwiches. The writer has enjoyed such delicious 
elaborate meals at the Cornell clubs that she hesitates to make suggestions. 
Such feasts are good for hungry travelers, but are hard on the women 
who have to prepare them and who then hurry home to get supper for the 
family. The service may be made simple and should be so. Paper 
napkins and paper plates save washing, while white paper, bought in the 
roll or large sheet, may cover the table. Always, daintiness is an asset. 
Daintiness of service with wholesome food, plentiftd but not too elaborate, 
makes for good cheer. 

Perhaps there is more than is needed in the programs suggested in the 
following pages. Take that which pleases you most. 

Register as a dub by addressing Reading-Course for the Farm Home, 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. Have the secretary keep the dub in 
dose touch with the University. Possibly the Supervisor of the Reading- 
Course may be able to visit the club at a regular meeting. 

Unless you prefer to buy the books, a travding library will be quite 
indispensable to the carrying out of the programs. Apply soon for the 
library. It is not connected with the College of Agriculture, but with 
the Libraries Division, Department of Education, Albany, N. Y., where 
application should be made. . The library may be kept six months, and a 
fee of $1 for ten books pays transportation both ways. See Reading- 
Course Lesson No. 9, ** Reading in the Farm Home." 

1 158 

The Cornell Reax>ing-Courses 

programs for study clubs 
Saving Steps 

(Fanners' Wives' Bulletin No. i) 

" The care of the body and the care of the soul are not two duties, but two parts 

of one duty.** 

Reading minutes and treasurer's report 

ROLL CALL Response by members, each member mentioning her 

. favorite labor-saving device 

PAPER* Plan of a house to save time and strength. Mrs 

To what extent are labor-saving devices economical? Dis- 
cussion led by Mrs 

In the economy of the house what occupation can better 
be cared for outside? Consider baking, canning, laundr}-. 
Consider the advisability of a public laundry at the 
creamery. Discussion led by Mrs 

Saving Strength 

(Fanners' Wives' Bulletin No. i) 

" Cling to your youth. It is the artisfs stock in. trade. Don't give up that 

you are aging and you won*t age." — Stevenson. 
ROLL CALL Each member responds and illustrates a physical exercise 

that is beneficial to health 
PAPER The effect of play on health; how can housekeepers have 

more stimulating recreation? Mrs 

PAPER How to adjust household work so as to avoid monotony 

and instu'e recreation? Mrs 

Physical attitudes in household work. Bad postures in 

standing, sweeping, etc. Discussion led by Mrs 

At the end of the hour, try some of the exercises suggested in the bulletin 
on ** Saving Strength." Appoint a leader, preferably some one who has 
given special attention to the study. Exercises improperly taken may 
bring undue strain and lead to unnatural attitudes. 

Bishop, Emily M. Daily wajrs to health — The road to "seventy 

years young." B. W. Huebsch, New York. $1.50 
CsJl, A. P. Power through repose. Little, Brown & Co., Boston. $1 .00 
Gulick, L. H. The efficient life. Doubleday, Page & Co., New York. $1 .20 

Cornell Study Clubs 1159 

Saleeby, C. W. Health, strength and happiness. Mitchell Kennerly, 
New York. $1.50 
Pamphlets from the Russell Sage Fotmdation, i Madison Avenue, New 
Brown, Elmer. Health, morality, and the playground. No. 48. 

5 cents 
Gulick, Luther H. Folk and national dances. No. 28. 5 cents 

Exercise and rest. No. 76. 5 cents 
Perry, C. A. Organized athletics, games, and folk dancing. No. 86. 

5 cents 
Recreation the basis of association between parents and 

teachers. No. 87. 5 cents 
The unused recreational resources of the average com- 
munity. No. 104. 5 cents 
Roessing, Mrs. Frank M., and Burchenal, Elizabeth. Athletics for 
girls. No. 37. 5 cents 
From the Psychological Clinic Press, Philadelphia, Pa. : 
Johnson, George E. The playgroimd as a factor in school hygiene. 
No. 39. 5 cents 

Household Decoration 

(Cornell Reading-Course Lesson for the Farm Home, No. s) 

roll call Each member responds, names her favorite color, and 

states where it could be properly used in household deco- 
PAPER How the purpose of a room determines its furnishing : a boy's 

room, a girl's room, a living-room. Mrs 

Household furnishings that save labor. Discussion led .by 

Household Furnishing 

(Cornell Reading-Course Lesson for the Farm Home, No. 7) 

ROLL CALL Each member responds and gives some principle of good 

DISCUSSION Making the rough places smooth. How to treat walls and 

floors. Led by Mrs . . 

PAPER Things we want and things we do not want in oiu: dimng- 

rooms. Mrs 

PAPER Bric-a-brac^ what to do with it. Mrs 

Household Conveniences 
ROLL CALL Each member responds by giving the name of her favorite 

household labor-saving device 



The Cornell Reading-Courses 

Question: Resolved, That the woman of to-day has wort 
to do tbsin had the woman of one hundred years ago 





Saving time and steps in the household 

1 How to save the time and strength of the help. Led by 
Mrs — 

2 How to make the children as helpful as possible. 
Led by Mrs 

3 Cooperation between the housekeeper and her husband in 
saving time and strength. Led by Mrs 

What engineering has done for the household. 

The Fireless Cooker and Paper Bag Cookbrt 

ROLL call Each member responds and gives a written fireless 

cooker recipe 
paper The principles and history of the fireless cooker. 


Demonstration of a fireless cooker. Mrs 

Demonstration of paper bag cookery. Mrs. 

Mitchell, Margaret J. The fireless cooker. Doubleday, Pkge & Co., 

New York 
Soyer, Nicolas. Paper bag cookery. Whitcomb & Barrows, Boston 

Bacteriology op the Household 

(Farmers' Wives' Reading-Course Bulletin No. 4) 

roll call Response by members, each member stating a good or 

bad use of bacteria in the household 
PAPER Methods of harmless preservation to conquer bacteria. 


PAPER Germs and fimiigation. Mrs ^ 

PAPER The relation of bacteriology to sanitation, to bread-making, 

and to butter- and cheese-making. Mrs 

PAPER The germ theory of disease. Mrs 

Cornell Study Clubs ii6i 

Insect Pests op House and Garden 

(Fanners* Wives' Reading-Course Bulletin No. a) 

' And ihere*s never a leaf nor a blade too mean to be some happy creature^s 


ioll call Members respond by each naming a pest and telling how to 

eradicate it 

'aper Insects as carriers of disease. Mrs 

>aper Ftmaigation and other methods of exterminating insects. 


>EBATB Question: Resolved, That insect pests of the house have 

caused more expense than have those of the garden and 


Affirmative Negative 
Mrs Mrs 


The principal household insects of the United States. Bulletin No. 4, 

Bureau of Entomology, United States Department of Agriculttire, 

Washington, D. C. 
How insects affect health in rural districts. Farmers' Bulletin No. 

155, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 
House flies. Circular No. 35, Btu-eau of Entomology, United States 

Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 
House ants. Circular No. 34, Bxireau of Entomology, United States 

Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 
The true clothes moths. Circular No. 36, Bureau of Entomology, 

United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 
The carpet beetle, or " Buffalo moth." Circular No. 5, Bureau of 

Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 
Cockroaches. Circular No. 51, Bureau of Entomology, United States 

Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 
Control of flies and other household insects. Education Department 

Bulletin, February 15, igio. Albany, N. Y. 
Control of household insects. Ephraim Porter Felt. Education 

Department Bulletin, May i, 1909. Albany, N. Y. 




«»V1 rP^ :"• publications can be obUined at a nominal price. In ordering publications, i>e careiui w 
rri"«f only the number of the document, but the kind of publication (farmers' bulletin, circular, 
Jl^^K reprint, or docunwat), the name of the isauiag bureau when indicated in the list, and the iiti© 



1 1 62 Thb Cornell Rbading-Coursbs 

Injurious and other insects. 25th Report of New York State Entomol- 
ogist. Education Department Bulletin, July 15,1910. Albany, N. Y. 

The principal household insects of the United States. L. O. Howard and 
C. L. Marlatt, Division of Entomology, United States Department 
of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Remedies and preventives against mosquitoes. L. O. Howard 
Farmers' Bulletin No. 444, United States Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. 

Economic loss to the people of the United States through insects that 
carry disease. L. O. Howard. Bulletin No. 78 (revised). Bureau 
of Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

House ants. C. L. Marlatt, Bureau of Entomology, United States 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Preventive and remedial work against mosquitoes. L. O. Howard, 
Bureau of Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture. 
Washington, D. C. 

The bedbug. C. L. Marlatt, Bureau of Entomology, United States 
Department of Agricultiu^, Washington, D. C. 

House flies. L. O. Howard, Farmers' Bulletin No. 459, United States 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Thb Rural School 
Program No. i 

(Farmers' Wives' Reading-Course Bulletin No. 9) 

ROLL CALL Each member responds with a suggestion for improving 

the rural school 
PAPER The educational system of New York State 

Review of Cornell bulletin, " The Rural School and the 

Farm Home." Mrs 

DISCUSSION How to make the rural school a healthier place for children 

than it is now. Mrs 

Thb Rural School 
Program No. 2 

ROLL CALL Each member responds, giving the name of an educator 

and the work for which he is noted 

PAPER Medical inspection in the schools. Mrs 

PAPER How the school building and grounds can be made more 

artistic. Mrs 

Cornell Study Clubs 1163 

'APBR How can domestic science be taught in a rural school? 

Mrs ^. 

•APER Agriculture in the public schools. Mrs 

Farmers' Wives' Bulletin No. 9. The rural school and the farm home. 
New York State College of Agriculture, Cornell University, Ithaca, 
N. Y. 
Dean, A. D. The worker and the state. Chapter V. The Century 

Company, New York 
Gulick, Luther H. , and Ayers, Leonard P. Medical inspection of schools. 

Charities Publication Committee, New York 
Draper, Andrew S. Addresses and papers, 1908-9. State Education 

Department, Albany, N. Y. 
Elementary syllabus. Manual and household arts — Agriculture. 

State Education Department, Albany, N. Y. 
Hunt, Caroline L. The daily meals of school children. 1909. United 

States Bureau of Education, Bulletin No. 3 
Burrage and Bailey. School sanitation and decoration. D. C. Heath 
& Co., New York 
Fanners' bulletins. United States Department of Agriculture: 
134 Tree planting on rural school grotmds 
218 The school garden 
409 School lessons on com 

428 Testing farm seeds in the home and in the rural school 
Office of Experiment Stations circular: 

60 The teaching of agriculture in the rural common schools 
Forest Service circulars : 
96 Arbor day 

130 Forestry in the public schools 

382 The use of illustrative material in teaching agriculture in rural 

Care and Feeding op Children 
(Lessons for the Farm Home, Nos. i and 3) 

Program No. i 

^OLL CALL Each member responds and suggests a balanced meal for 

a child, giving age of child 
^^PER or TALK How to plan the meals for the family so that the needs 

of each member may be cared for. Mrs 

^^PBR How the study of animal feeding may help in the study of 

the feeding of children. Mrs 

^^PER How to dress children. Mrs 


Thb Cornell Rbading-Courses 

Cars and Feeding op Children 

Program No. 2 

ROLL CALL Each member responds and states a false theory 

regarding the feeding of children and how it has 
been disproved 
PAPER School Itmches, how the child's diet affects his 

school work as well as his health. Mrs _ 

REVIEW OP BOOK " On the Training of Parents," by E. H. Abbott 

Does the health of the average person indicate the right 
diet during childhood? Discussion led by Alis. 


Government laws that are for the good of children. 



It IS suggested that a part of the hour be given to a domestic subject 
and a part to history, literature, science, or art. An example is given 
in the following programs covering New York State history. The Library 
Bureau of the State Department of Education, Albany, N. Y., will furnish 
very helpful suggestions on program making, together with aid in securing 
a traveling library on subjects related to the program. 

Early History op New York State and op Home Economics 


ROLL CALL Members respond, each giving an Indian name and its 

papers The Indians of New York: 

In savagery. Mrs 

At the present time. Mrs 

Housekeeping customs of the Indian women. Mrs 


ROLL CALL Members respond, naming a good substitute for meat 

papers Henry Hudson. Mrs 

The legend of Rip Van Winkle. Mrs 

DISCUSSION Is vegetarianism desirable? 

Leader, afBrmative, Mrs 

Leader, negative, Mrs 

Cornell Study Clubs 1165 


OL.L CALX Each member to give a simple menu plamied on the basis 
of the hundred-calorie portion. See Human Nutrition 

APBRS The New Netherlands. Mrs 

Colonial difficulties. Mrs 

Dutch New York. Mrs 

>iscussiON Will the menus given in Human Nutrition, Part II, supply a 
suifident amount of food for a farm family ? 

Leader, affirmative, Mrs 

Leader, negative, Mrs. 

ROLt. CALL Members respond, giving names of famous men and women 

in colonial times and for what they were famous 

PAPER Colonial life in the i8th century. Mrs 

RBADiNG or PAPER The French and Indian War. Mrs. 

DISCUSSION What part shall 

the garden play 

in the family ' 

dietary? Led 

by Mrs 

Who shall care for , 

the garden? 

Led by Mrs 

What helps may 

be had from the I 

State and from 

the Federal I 

Government I 

for instruction p,j. ^^.—Housekeeping in other day* 

in g arden- 

making? Led by Mrs 

ROLL CALL cAch member responds by giving the name of a book, with 
author, on early New York life in Indian or colonial times 

PAPERS Homes of the colonists. Mrs 

The lights and stoves of the colonists. Mrs - 

Kitchens and servii^ of meals in colonial days. Mrs - 

Food of the colonists. Mrs 

1 1 66 Thb Cornell Rbading-Coursbs 


ROLL CALL Each member responds by giving a favorite recipe 
PAPERS The Stamp Act. Mrs 

The Mohawk Valley and its history. Mrs 

Story of weaving and similar handwork. Mrs 

Comparison of past and present in the handwork of women. 


ROLL CALL Each member responds by naming some economy in food 


PAPER Taxation and colonial oppodtion. Mrs 

Reading from Hugh Wynne or description of book. 


The best methods in canning fruit. Discussion led by 


ROLL CALL Each member responds by naming a natural wonder of the 


PAPERS Benedict Arnold. Mrs 

George Washington. Mrs 


PAPER The cannii^ of vegetables. Mrs 


ROLL CALL Each member responds by telling what value the club has 

for her 

PAPERS New York after the Revolution. Mrs 

The women of revolutionary days. Mrs 

DEBATE Question: Resolved, That women are just as busy now as 

women were a hundred years ago 

Leader, aflSrmative, Mrs 

Leader, negative, Mrs 


ROLL CALL Members respond, naming agencies for the improvement of 

home conditions 
PAPERS The national constitution and its effect on New York 

State. Mrs 

The domestic science movement. Mrs 

How can domestic science be taught in a rural school? 

Cornell Study Clubs 1167 


ROLL CALL Members give names associated with the War of 181 2 and 

an interesting fact connected with each name 

PAPERS New York's part in the War of 1812. Mrs 

Food adtdteration and the warfare against it. Mrs 



PAPER Some inventors of New York State (Robert Fulton, etc.). 


What benefits may be derived in the home and on the farm 
from the New York State College of Agriculture? 
Discussion led by Mrs 


ROLL CALL Members respond, naming means of saving the income by 

more expert buying 

PAPERS Dewitt Clinton. Mrs 

A journey on the Erie Canal: 

In 1825. Mrs 

In 191 2. Mrs 

The waifare on false weights and measures. Mrs 


ROLL CALL McmbcTS rcspond, giving personal reminiscences of the 

Civil War 

PAPER The sanitary commission during the Civil War. Mrs 

How to make a model kitchen. Discussion led by 


ROLL CALL Members respond, naming a favorite household labor-saver 

PAPERS Results of the Civil War. Mrs 

Improvements in housekeeping since the Civil War. 

ROLL CALL Members respond, giving names of historic towns in New 

York State, and for what they are famous 
PAPERS Famous women in New York State and their work. 


Woman's share in the cost of living. Mrs 


Thb Cornell Rbading-Courses 




Members respond by suggesting means of improving New 

York State 
The commercial development of New York State. 


The Consumers' League. Mrs 

What is Farmers' Week at Cornell? Mrs 


ROLL CALL Members respond, naming prominent educators of New 

York State and what they have accomplished 

PAPERS Schools of New York State in early days and to-day. 


How to improve the rural school. Mrs 

DISCUSSION Is as much done for the girl to make her contented with rural 

life as is done for the boy? Led by Mrs 



Some New York State institutions: 
Health department 
Charitable organizations 
Prevention of cruelty to animals 
Prevention of cruelty to children 
State asyliuns and hospitals 
Prisons, etc. 


What to do till the doctor comes. Mrs 

(If preferred, a local physician may take the subject) 
How a knowledge of home-making decreases the number of 

dependents and defectives. Mrs 


ROLL CALL Members respond, giving a suitable bill of fare for the supper 

of a child, naming the child's age 
PAPERS New York City one himdred years ago. Mrs 

New York City to-day. Mrs 

The children's bill of fare. Mrs 

Cornell Study Clubs 1169 


roll call Members respond by telling an amusing story 

PAPER How to entertain one's friends simply. Mrs... — 

Refreshments and social hour 

This meeting may have invited guests. 


There are several sources of material for dub study: not only the book, 
the magazine, the government and state bulletins, but one's own experi- 
ence and observation. The final outcome of study should be so to digest 
printed material as to make it a part of one's self. Added to life experi- 
ence and to observation, study properly done helps to make a cultured 


The btilletins sent to the clubs from month to month are not a sufficient 
study of any subject. We are therefore giving references to books, which 
may be secured from dealers, borrowed from a library, or included in a 

traveling library.* 

After reading thoroughly a subject for a talk, a paper, or a discussion, 
it is helpful to have an outline furnished suggesting material to be pre- 
sented. We are giving outlines of various subjects that have been pre- 
sented in the ComeU Reading-Course, as a help to club officers in the 
preparation of programs for their clubs or as a help to individuals m 
preparing papers: 

Household Furnishing 

Helen Binkerd Young 
The problem of furnishing 

1 Objects to be discardec* 

2 Objects to be retained 

3 The value of sentiment ana association 

A point of view 

1 Personality vital in home surroundings 

2 Virtue in furnishing 

3 What qualities constitute good taste 

4 Readjustment and rearrangement 

5 Harmony of decoration and ftunishings 

Floor coverings 

1 Value of rugs versus carpets 

2 The weight of the rug 

3 Where to use large and small rugs 

•See ComeU Reading-Course Lesson for the Farm Home. No. 9. " Reading in the farm home. 

I I/O The Cornbll Rsadino-Coursbs 

4 Bare or covered stairs 

5 Color and pattern in rugs 

6 How to use old carpets 

7 Rag rugs; sorted for color and woven into harmonious designs 

8 Comparative expense and satisfaction of various weaves of rugs: 

ingrain, body brussels, velvet, axminster, and straw, or matting 

9 Oriental rugs 

Furniture: its construction and decoration 

1 Object of furniture 

2 Study carefully the illustrations on page 72 of Cornell Reading- 

Course Lesson for the Farm Home, No. 7, " Household Furnish- 
ing/' showing studies in construction and decoration, and test 
two or three pieces of furniture at the club meeting 

3 Vital points to consider in selecting furniture 

4 How to tell the difference between true decoration that beautifies, 

and false decoration that cheapens 

5 Furniture built with drawers 

6 Relation of chair to bodily form 

Styles and fads in furniture 

1 Characteristics of colonial work: sound workmanship, simple forms, 

beautiful wood, appropriate and restrained decoration 

2 Repainting or refinishing old pieces 

3 Walnut furniture: beautiful wood; designs too ornate; less valuable 

than colonial work 

4 Varnished oak furniture: excellent wood, abused by machinery, 

manufacttu'e, and cheap finish; machine decoration; false ideals 
of beauty 

5 Burnt-wood fad. Decoration substituted for form and usefulness. 

Tawdry products. Poor art 

6 Mission or craftsman furniture: an answer to the craving for plain, 

geuuine forms; wholesome and permanent influence of the style 

Furnishing the hall 

1 Atmosphere of orderliness and cheet 

2 Color scheme 

3 Rug 

4 Coat closet, hatrack, or other furniture 

5 Absence of pictures and ornaments 

Furnishing the living-room 

1 Atmosphere of comfort and harmony 

2 Influence of this room especially on lives of others 

3 Nothing that is not useftd and beautiful in this room 

Cornell Study Clubs 1171 

4 Color scheme of entire effect: harmony of walls, woodwork, floors, 

and furnishing 

5 General arrangement 

6 To what extent mixed furnishings may be used 

7 The passing of elaborately upholstered pieces 

8 Furniture selected for simple forms, well-finished wood, restrained 

decoration, and ease of care « 

9 Curtains: the purpose of the window; the use of curtains; the 

passing of the long lace curtains; appropriate materials; how to 
hang the curtains; the mental and spiritual effect of a good view 

10 Purix>se and worth of pictures; what to do with photographs of 


1 1 Good taste in clocks and vases 

Furnishing the dining-room 

1 The necessary ftimiture: table, chairs, sideboard, dish closet; 

advantage of wax-top table 

2 Plate rails: decorations, or dust catchers 

3 Pictures 

4 How to avoid confused appearance in dining-room 

5 May not the wall treatment be sufficient decoration? 

Furnishing the bedroom 

1 Atmosphere of repose 

2 General color scheme 

3 Arrangement of furniture 

4 Placing of rug or rugs 

5 Closets: homemade and purchased 

6 Advantage of metal over wooden beds 

7 The equipment of the bed: springs, mattress, pillows, and bedding 

8 Pictures and ornaments, depending on use of room 

9 The personal touch. The inspiration of favorite quotations 

The aim of a true home: efficient family Ufe; imselfish service to com- 


Priestman, Mabel Tuke. Artistic homes. A. C. McClurg & Co.. 
Chicago. $2.00 

Handcrafts in the home. $2.00 «- 

• Art and economy in home decoration. John Lane Company, JNew 

York . 

Daniels, Fred Hamilton. The furnishing of a modest home. The Davis 

Press, Worcester, Mass. $.85 . , . 

Crane, Lucy. Art and the formation of taste. Educational PubUsmng 

Company, Boston and New York 

117:3 Thb Cornell Reading-Courses 

Wheeler, Mrs. Candace. Principles of home decoration, Doubleday. 

Page & Co., New York. $i.8o 
— — Inexpensive homes of individuality. McBride, Nast & Co. 

Distinctive homes of moderate cost. McBride, Nast & Co. 


— Bungalows 

Craftsman homes. The Craftsman, 41 West 34th Street, New 

York. $2.00 

Studio year book of decorative art. John Lane Company, no- 114 

West 32d Street, New York. $5.00 

Magazines far household art subjects 

Country life in America. Doubleday, Page & Co., New York 

The house beautiful. House Beautiful Company, 315 Fourth Avenue, 

New York. $3 per year 
House and garden. McBride, Nast & Co. $3 per year 
The craftsman. Craftsman Publishing Company, 41 West 34th Street, 

New York. $3 per year 
Suburban life. The Suburban Press, 200-210 Crescent Street, Harrisburg, 

Pa. $3 per year 
American homes and gardens. Winston, McBride & Co., Philadelphia. 

$3 per year 
Ladies' home journal. Curtis Publishing Company, Philadelphia. $1.50 

per year 
International studio. John Lane Company, New York. $4.50 per year 

Care and Feeding of Children 
Flora Rose 

Care of the mother before the birth of the baby 

1 Effect of poor conditions for the mother on the child, such as 

overwork, underexercise, wrong feeding 

2 How the mother may care for the baby before its birth 

3 What is meant by prenatal influence and how it affects the child 

Care of the child after birth 

1 The newborn baby 

2 Care of the child 

a Clothing 
b Bathing 
c Exercise 

Cornell Study Clubs 1173 

3 EfiEects of poor care on the baby 

4 Training the child 

a .What effect the formation of good physical habits in baby- 
hood, such as regular meal times and sleeping hours, may 
have in developing self-controlled, well-poised men and 

b The need of the child for quiet and freedom from the con- 
stant attention of grown persons 

c Play, games, and toys as factors in the training of children 

Method of infant feeding 

1 Natural method, or breast feeding 

a Composition and characteristics of mother's milk as com- 
pared with the milk of other animals 
b Relative feebleness of the baby and of other young animals 
c Reasons for better results obtained by using mother's milk 
d Causes of the inability of the mother to nurse her baby and 

of the failure of the child to flotuish 
•e How these causes may be remedied 

f Has the State any responsibility to legislate so as to secure 
to the working woman the privilege of niu^g her children ? 

2 Artificial feeding 

a Milk of some other animal 
(i) Cow's milk 

Characteristics as compared with htiman milk 
Reasons for difficulties in using cow's milk for 

infant feeding 
Underlying principles in modifying milk 
Methods of adapting cow's milk to suit the baby 
The use of various gruels in making modified milk 

Causes of differences in results obtained by using 

milk from various breeds of cattle 
Clean milk 
Relative cleanness of cow's milk and human 

milk when it reaches the child 
Possibilities of infecting cow's milk on its way 

to the child 
Practical problems in producing dean wSSk 
Sterilization and pastexirization 
Sterilized milk, pastetuized milk, or milk pro- 
duced under dean conditions — the best dioice 

1 1 74 'I'hb Cornell Reading-Courses 

(2) Goat's milk, etc. 
b Patent or proprietary foods 

(i) Comparative compositicm of variot;s foods and 
htixnan milk 

(2) Reasons for the tise of patent foods 

(3) Their use and abuse 

(4) Possible injury from ignorant use of patent foods 
(s) Reasons for advantages of cow's milk over other 

foods in artificial feeding 

Feeding of children after weaning 

1 Underlying principle in feeding children 

2 Food for children of various ages 

3 Effects of wrong nutrition on children 

4 Disorders caused by malnutrition 

5 Comparative value of milk and eggs, and of meat, as foods for the 

growing child 

6 The use of sugar in the child's dietary 

7 Fruits and vegetables for children 

8 Mineral matter in the diet of the growing child 

9 What is to be learned about feeding children, from feeding experi- 

ments performed on animals? 

10 The interrelation of right food, exercise, fresh air, and rest 

11 What about eating between meals? 

12 Shall children share the family meal? 

13 Plan a week's meals for yptir family, considering the needs of each 

member and arranging the meals as far as possible so that 
most of the food may be partaken of by all 

Cornell Reading-Course Lessons for the Farm Home, Nos. i and 3. 

The care and feeding of children 
Abbott, E. H. On the training of parents. Houghton, MifiOin & Co., 

Boston. $1.00 
Addams, Jane. The newer ideals of peace. The Macmillan Company, 

New York. $1.25 
The spirit of youth and the dty streets. The Mac- 
millan Company, New York. $1.25 
Bateson, W. Mendel's principles of heredity. G. P. Putnam's Sons, 

New York 
Burbank, Luther. The training of the human plant. The Century 

Company. $.60 
Comstock, Anna B. Handbook of nature study. Comstock Publishing 
Company, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Cornell Study Clubs 1175 

Dock, L. L. Hygiene and morality. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. 

Gtdick, Luther H. The efficient life. Doubleday, Page & Co. $1.20 

Morley, M. W. The renewal of life. A. C. McClurg & Co., New York. 

Needham, James G. General biology. Comstock Publishing Company, 

Ithaca, N. Y. 


Flora Rose 

The elements that compose the body 

The compounds that feed the body — the foodstuffs 

1 Protein 

a Composition of protein 
b Sources of protein 
c Uses of protein in the dietary 

d Effects of too much or too little protein in the dietary 
e Relative merit of proteins supplied by milk, eggs, meat, 
cereals, legumes, nuts 

2 Carbohydrates 

a Composition of carbohydrates 

b Kinds of carbohydrates 

c Sources of carbohydrates 

d Uses of carbohydrates in the dietary 

e Sugar and starch compared: food value, use of each, and 

power of one to replace the other 
f Effects of eating too much or too little carbohydrate 
g Best way of including carbohydrates in the dietary 
h Cellulose, its food value and its fxmction in the body 

3 Fats 

a Composition of fat 

b Sources of fat 

c Characteristics of fat obtained from different sources 

d Function of fat in the body 

e The relative merits of different types of fat, such as cream, 

butter, suet, olive oil, cottonseed oil, bacon, tallow 
f Effects of eating too much fat 
g Relation of carbohydrates and fats in the diet 
Mineral matter 

a Chief elements of mineral matter 

b Sources of iron, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, sodi\un» 


jiy6 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

c The chief functions of mineral matter as a whole and of each 

of the above elements in particular 
d Effects of a lack of each of the above elements 
. e Relative merits of various sources of mineral matter 
The relation of the foodstuffs to one another in the dietary 
The body's food needs and how they are measured 
Dietary standards 
Planning the family dietary 

1 Occupation and age of each member of the family 

2 Season, climate, sex, vigor, etc. 

3 Total food requirements 

4 Balance of foodstuffs 


The well-planned meal 

The relation of right nutrition to welfare 

Disorders caused by wrong diet 

Diet in disease 

Care of food 

1 Cause of spoiling of food 

2 How to prevent it 

3 Rules for caring for typical foods 
Preparation of food 

1 Characteristics of the foodstuffs and the relation they bear to 

a Proteins 
b Starches 
c Sugars 
d Fats 
e Cellulose 

2 Cookery of typical foods, such as meat, eggs, cheese, cereals, 

sauces, puddings, vegetables, fruits 

3 Leavening agents 

a Baking powders 

b Use of soda with acid 

c Yeast 

4 Bread, cake, and pastry making 

5 The breakfast, the dinner, the luncheon: what they should con- 

tain; how they should be prepared; how they should be served 

6 The school luncheon : what it should contain ; how it should be packed 

7 The social ftmction: the tea; the supper; the reception; the dinner; 

the banquet 

References: Farmers' Wives' Bulletins Nos. 6 and 7. Human nutrition. 
Parts I and II 

CoRNBLL Study Clubs ii 77 


WTiat the study of bacteriology has done for science, agriculture, com- 
merce, the household 

Bacteria as friends and as foes 

Bread-making an agricultural process in miniature: crop bacteria and 
weed bacteria 

The making of butter, cheese, and vinegar 

Bacteria as scavengers; septic tanks; filtration beds 

The fight against harmful bacteria 

1 Times and methods of cleaning 

2 Consideration of the dust problem in house planning 

3 Safeguarding food against bacteria: by drying, by cold storage, 

by preservatives, harmful and harmless, by canning, by packing 

4 Methods of destroying bacteria: disinfectants, germicides, fumi- 

gation, sterilization 

5 How should the house be cleaned? 

Conn, H. W. Bacteria, yeasts, and molds in the home. D. Appleton 

& Co., New York. $1.00 
Courses in bacteriology for home economics. Journal of 

Home Economics, December, 19 10 
Practical dairy bacteriology. Orange Judd Company, 

New York. $1.25 
The story of germ life. D. Appleton & Co., New York. 

Elliott, S. Maria. Household bacteriology. American School of Home 

Economics, Chicago. $1.25 
Lipman, Jacob G. Bacteria in relation to country life. The Mac- 

millan Company, New York. $1.50 
Wagner, E. Recipes for the preserving of fruit, vegetables, and meat 

The leavening agent in salt-rising bread. Jotirnal of 

Home Economics, February, 191 1 
Mildew, mould, and fungous growth National Laundry 
Journal, November 15, 1909 

Household Dbcoration 
The principles of home decoration 

1 Unity of effect 

2 Atmosphere 

3 Harmony 

4 Simplicity 

1 1 78 Thb Cornell RBADiNG-CouitsBs 

How to carry out the principles 

1 Walls: their importance in the scheme of decoration 

a They shut in space and act as background 
b They should be quiet and restful 
c Colors 

(i) Primary colors: red, blue, yellow 

(2) Their differing effect on persons, as shown by experi- 


(3) Nervous strain from being surrounded by glaring 


(4) Soothing influence of softened and subdued colors, 

called tones 

(5) How tones made up of several colors unite and 

harmonize mixed furnishings 

(6) The color influence of nature: shifting masses of 

brown and green that nature uses, a good sug- 
gestion for interior color scheme 

(7) Warm and cool colors 

(8) Crude colors, when used in home decoration, are 

gradually faded, or toned, by nature 

(9) Bright colors used in nature only to accent effects 
d Figures and patterns for walls 

(i) Walls, as flat surfaces, should represent only length 
and breadth, not thickness 

(2) Paint a better treatment for shelves than shdf paper 

(3) Oilcloth or varnished tile paper as wall coverings 

2 Floors and woodwork 

a Treatment of old floors: if slightly cracked; if badly cracked 

b Mattings 

c Flooring strips 

d Wood carpeting 

e Colors and finishes 

f Kitchen and bathroom floors: how to make nonabsorbent; 

treatment of linoletim for best service 
g Woodwork: proper finish depends on grain; time, labor, and 

patience necessary to achieve lasting effect 

Bailey, L. H. The outlook to nature. The Macmillan Company. 

Burrage and Bailey. School sanitation and decoration. D. C. Heath 


Cornell Study Clubs 1179 

Crane, Lucy. Art and the formation of taste. Educational Publishing 

Company, Boston and New York 
Daniels, Fred Hamilton. The furnishing of a modest home. The Davis 

Press, Worcester, Mass. $.85 
Kellogg, Alice M. Home furnishing, practical and artistic. Frederick 

A. Stokes Company, Philadelphia, Pa. $1.50 
Priestman, Mabel Tuke. Art and economy in home decoration. John 

Lfane Company, New York 
Ruskin, John. Seven lamps of architectiu-e. Longmans, Green & 

Co. New York. $2.40 
Wheeler, Candace. Principles of home decoration. Doubleday, Page 

& Co., New York. $1.80 

Thb Laundry 

Flora Rose 

1 Kinds of fabrics, and their characteristics 

2 Effects of strong cleansing agents on fabrics 

Cleansing agents 

1 Water: water best for latmdry ptirposes and how to obtain it 

2 Soap : what it is, how it acts, kinds best to use, how to make soap 

3 Soap substitutes : what they are, how they act, and when they should 

be used 

4 Alkalis: what they are, how they act, time for using each kind, 

precaution in their use 

5 Materials for removing various stains: how they act to remove 

the stain; what effect they have on fabrics and on colors; how 
they should be used 
Methods of washing 

1 When to wash 

2 How the washing is accomplished in the best way 

3 Various processes, such as soaking, washing, rinsing, bluing, starch- 

ing, and drying 
Ironing ' 

1 The easiest way of ironing 

2 Shall all clothes be ironed? 

Labor-saving latmdry machinery 

1 Stationary tubs 

2 A drain 

3 Rtuming water 

4 Hot and cold water 

ii8o The Cornbll Reading-Coussbs 

5 Washing machines 

a Hand power 

b Mechanical power 

6 Irons: gas, electrical, alcohol 

7 Ironing marhiniy 

Cornell Reading-Course Lesson for the Farm Home, No. ii. The 

Balderston, Ray, and Limerick, M. C. Laundry mAmtal, Balderstoo 

and Limerick, 1224 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia 

Pood Preservation 

Flora Rose 

Reasons for the spoiling of food 

Methods of retarding or preventing the spoiling of food 

1 Packing methods 

a Trenching vegetables 
b Packing fruit in paper 

2 Low temperature maintained by 

a Cold storage 

b Use of refrigerators 

c Ice houses 

d Cellars 

e Cold water 

3 High temperature: canned food 

4 Removal of moisture 

a Drying 

b Evaporating 

5 Use of preserving substances 

a Harmful 

(i) Borax and boradc add 

(2) Salicylic acid and the salicylates 

(3) Benzoic add and the benzoates 

(4) Formaldehyde 

(5) Sulfur and the sulfates 

(6) Copper 
b Harmless 

(i) Sugar 

(2) Salt 

(3) Vinegar 

(4) Some spices 

Cornell Study Clubs Ii8i 

c Doubtful 

(i) Saltpeter 
(2) Smoke 

Full discussion of reasons for each of the methods named, their effective- 
ness, and conditions indicating their use. 

Laws governing the use of preservatives and government reports concern- 
ing the preservatives 
Canned food 

1 Underlying principle of canning foods 

2 Methods of canning foods 

a By use of hot water bath 
(i) On the stove 
Single process 
Intermittent process 

(2) In the oven 

(3) In the fireless cooker, or a modification of it 
b Stewing 

c Baking 

d The autoclave 

3 Reasons for intermittent process in canning vegetables 

4 Types of cans best for household use 

5 Amounts of sugar or salt, water, etc., to use and best method to 

follow in canning typical foods such as peaches, pears, plums, 
strawberries, tomatoes, beets, carrots, com, beans, cherries, 
meat, asparagus 

6 Are recipes necessary in canning fruit if the principle of canning is 


7 Causes for spoiling or deterioration of canned foods 

8 Discussion of the cost of home-canned food as compared with the 

cost of the commercial product 

9 Discussion: May fruits and vegetables be canned profitably on a 

commercial scale in the home or on the farm? 
a What is the cost of an outfit? 
b Where is a market for home-canned goods? 
c Should such canning be done in glass? 
10 The effect of foods on the tin cans containing them, and the efrect 
of tin salts on health 

Preserving foods 

I Pood preserved in sugar 

a Methods of making preserves, marmalades, and jams 
b Reasons for their keeping 

1 1 82 The Cornell Rbading-Coxtrsbs 

2 Use of vinegar 

3 Smoking, salting, and pickling foods 

4 Discussion of home-dried foods 

5 Use of water glass for preserving eggs 

Jelly Making 

Pectin, its sources and characteristics 
Essentials for a good fruit jelly 
Methods of extracting fruit juices 

1 First extract 

2 Second extract 

3 Third extract 

4 Fourth extract 

Classification of fruit juices according to juiciness of fruit 
Possibility of canning fruit juice for futiu^e use 
Conditions to consider in jelly-making 

1 Type of fruit juice 

2 Nimiber of extract 

3 Time of boiling before adding sugar 

4 Amotmt of sugar according to type of juice used 

5 Time of boiling after addition of sugar 
How to test jelly 

1 Causes of failure to jelly 

2 Causes of formation of crystals in jelly and how to avoid 

Farmers' Bulletins, United States Department of Agriculture, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 
Bigelow, W. D. Fruits and fruit products. Bulletin 66, Biu^au of 

Breazeale, J. F. Canning vegetables in the home. Bulletin 359 
Gould, H. P., and Fletcher, W. F. Canning peaches on the farm. 

Bulletin 426 
Husman, G. C. Home manufacture and use of unfermented grape 

juice. Bulletin 175 
Parloa, Maria. Canned fruits, preserves, and jellies. Bulletin 203 
Wiley, H. W. Influence of food preservatives and artificial colors 
I Boric acid and borax 
II Salicylic add and salicylates 

III Sulphurous add and sulphites 

IV Benzoic add and benzoates 
V Formaldehyde 

Cornell Study Clubs 1183 

CorneU Reading-Course for the Farm Home. Preservation of food (in 

From University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

Goldthwaite, N. E. Principles of jelly-maldng. Vol. VIII, No. 7 
From North Carolina Department of Agriculture, Raleigh, N. C. 

Shaw, S. B. The home canning of fruits and vegetables. Vol. XXXI, 

No. 5 

From University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 
Adams, Mrs. L. H., and Sandsten, E. P. Practical directions for 

preserving native fruits and vegetables. Bulletin 136 
The perfect art of canning and preserving. From Butterick Publishing 

Company, New York 

Trees in Their Relation to Mankind 
Elizabeth H. Spalding 

The friendliness of trees 

I Man's instinctive choice of them as a refuge 
a In storms 
b From heat 
a Their power to comfort. See 

a Lowell's " The birdi-tree " 

b George Macdonald's " David Elginbrod " 

c Sidney Lanier's " The marshes of Glynn ' 

" The ballad of the trees and the master 

The gifts of trees 

1 A Ust of practical benefits 

a Banana, date pabn, breadfruit, cocoanut palm, etc. 

b Fans, doth, rubber, etc. ^. 

2 The tributes of poets to the generosity of trees; for example, Hia 

tha's building of his canoe 
Trees in history and in literature 

1 The stories of Absalom, King Charles, the Charter Oak. etc. 

2 George Macdonald's " Phantastes " 
Shakespeare's " As you Uke it," etc. 

3 Trees in the Bible . -.^ 1. 
Conclusion: " And he shall be as a tree planted by the river ot lit 

□84 The Cornell Readinc-Coukses 


EuKABETH H. Spalding 

The great steamship swings off. We watch her. She beais away. I 
away, away — to the shores of Araby the Blest, to far Cathay, to s 

land of our heart's desire. If we could only go. I 
too! Shall we? Let us do it. Let us ini 
three or five or seven others to go with us. Le; I 
us form a Travelers' Club. Here is a, plan for it. 


First of all, it will be frankly acknowledged 
that although the dub intends to gain in- 
teresting knowledge and experience and to 
leam much of history and art, yet it is abroail 
primarily, for recreation and pleasure. Jt is not 
goii^ to bury itself in encyclopedias. It i> 
going to see things and do things; it is going to 


The first meeting will be devoted to getting 

ready for the trip and to the voyage itself. 

.T Tf I I. 1 An experienced traveler will describe enler- 

F1G.55.— JVew York Harbor ...,». .- r .u 

taimngly the necessary preparations for the 

intended voyage, give a graphic account of daily life on shipboard, and 

show souvenirs from a former voyage, such as photographs of scenes on 

the steamer, menus, a concert program, a copy of the daily bulletin 

printed on the ship. A nonmember will be invited to render such service, 

if no club member has crossed the ocean.* 

A committee previously appointed by the club will have gathered from 

various sotu-ces — from home and pubUc hbraries — a collection of novels 

and other entertaining as well as suitable books. Each member of the 

club may take home one or two of them, to read before the next meeting, 

in his imagined steamer diair, on an imagined deck. Books that tell 

about life on a steamship would be pertinent, such as: " On blue waters " 

by Amids; " An amateur emigrant " by Stevenson (which gives a glimpse 

■ Tew know, pslwpa, how geaentlr Iietpfal Itbnrie* tUi to be. Wbcn the plan tor • (nvelcn* dnb 
mtlined in Ihh Biticle wM •nrtained to the heid o( ■ (iw Ubrmry, ihe uid: "I ihsl! bo gUd to bo 10 ilw 
openina roeeting of tuch k club, to tell tha would-be tnvden whit I know about oceui travel, and it 
ipva tbsm ■ ' Bon myage I ' " 

Cornell Study Clubs 1185 

iiS6 The Coiuibll Reading-Courses 

of second-cabin and steerage life); "The lady d the Aroostook" br 
Howells; " European breezes" by Pitman; " Going abroad" by Luce; 
"A world pilgrimage" by Barrow; Irving's "The voy^e," in " The 
sketch book." 

Refreshments — for the club believes, does it not, in the added gernalfa 
that comes from the breaking of a cnist with one's friends — will be a 
repToduction of the steamship luncheon — bouillon and a variety of thin 
sandwiches or little cakes. Before the afternoon or the evening is ova, 
a contributed steamer-letter may be read aloud and a steamship game 
or two, such as " bean bags," may be played; possibly shu£Beboard couU 

Fig. 57. — Going to market \ 

be managed. Since gifts of " goodies " have become a feature of the ocean 
voyage, a little box filled with homemade candy may be given to eac!i 
member of the club at the close of the meeting, as a steamer present- j 
Possibly, if napkins are used, some member of the club may so fold them 
that they will represent a boat or a sail. 

At the end of its initial meetii^. the club will go home to dream of l!« 
" Yo! heave ho!" of sailors lifting anchors, of handkerchief s fluttering f""" 
the pier, of steamer letters and toothsome viands discovered in its staw- 
Tooms, and of the wonder and the mystery of drawii^ away from lb* 
known out into the new and untried. 


The club has its plans well laid and knows thatits steamer, the " Alaska 
of the Red Star Line, is headed for Antwerp. The first contribution at 

CoRNBLL Study Clubs iiSjr 

1 meeting comes from the " natural-bom traveler," who, the club 
naiumously votes, is the very one, and the only one, of its members to 
3t them and their belongings ashore in good shape. She describes Jiist 
rbat must be done and soon has her group on the train for Bruges. 

The club has a number of stror^ desires. It wishes (i) to take a short 
rip; (2) to make a journey that will be a preparation for other journeys; 

3) to see the art of medieval times before that of more modem days; 

4) to go directly to a thoroughly foreign and old town. For such reasons 
t has chosen to travel first in Belgium, afterward in Holland, to become 
icquajnted' with Antwerp later on, and to stay chiefly in Bruges, Ghent, 
Brussels, Antwerp, while in Belgium ; in Delft, The Hague, Leyden, Haarlem, 

Fic 58. — On Ike dunes 

Amsterdam, while in Holland. It will make excursions into the country 
as time and opportunity offer. It seeks Bruges first because that Venice 
of the North, retaining more medieval splendor than any other part of 
northern Europe, charms the visitor with quiet waterways and ancient 
houses, and because it " stands at the very base of the art of the Low 

The club will give two or three evenings to Belgium and an equal amount 
of time to Holland. Each member will learn and will tell the story of a 
town. Allen's " The European tour " (Chapter VIII) and his " Historical 
guide to the cities of Belgiiun " will convoy the club satisfactorily over 
the first part of its way. As for Holland, plenty of information may be 
gleaned from such works as " Dutch life in town and country " by Hough; 

ii88 The Cornell RdADiNo-CouRSKs 

" Through the gates of the Netherlands " by Waller; " A wanderer 'a 
Holland " by Lucas; "Brave little Holland," " The American inHolland,' 
and " The Pilgrims in their three homes," by GriflSs. i 

Books taken home for swift reading may well be stories and novels; 
for example, " The black tulip " by Dumas; " Joost Avelingh," " Greater 

glory," and other 
novels by Maartens; 
" The cloister and the 
hearth" by Reade; 
"The bui^omaster's 
wife " by Ebers. The 
well-known "Hans 
Brincker " might be 
looked through once 
more, for, although 
not written for adults, 
it is readable and 
depicts Dutch life 

Longfellow's lively 
ballad, "A Dutch 
picture," must surely 
be read aloud during 
one evening, and a 
game of proverbs may 
be played with some 
of the following Dutch 

God giveth the fowls- 
meat, but they must 
fiy for it. 

No crown curelh 

Ride on, but look 
Fig. 59.— a DuUk street scene An idle person is the 

devil's pillow. 
Velvet and silk are strange herbs : they blow the fire out of the kitchen. 

The Dutch are at home on skates. At a favorable time, therefore, 
the club might have one of its meetings at a suitable outdoor rendezvous 
and imitate some Dutch skating feats. 

Cornell Study Clubs 1189 

As for refreshments at the later meetings, they will, of course, be eaten 
ram delft if the club owns such ware, and they must be exceedingly simple : 
"iscuits and edam dieese, thin sandwiches 
•f brown loaf containing raisins, hot milk 
Kriled with aniseed ; perhaps gingerbread 
ind tarts and tafEy. Taffy made by a 
dub rule mil do, but it should go by the 
aameof "haagische hopjes." 


Some one has said that " by far the 
best and truest teachers are the eyes." 
Be that as it may, the club is goii^ to visit 
the nearest art museums and the library 
that has the finest illustrated works. 
Moreover, it is going to make its own 

collection of photographs that reproduce 

the masterpieces before which it has 

stood in imagination. Copley prints and 

Perry pictures are too fa miliar to need Fic. 60. — Children of Holland 

description. There are many photo- 
graphic companies that furnish reproductions of the world's art 



Its journey has not been long, but if every member has told well the 
story of the town assigned to him, the club has acquired a variety of 

, It realizes that " long before England had risen above the condition ■ 
of an agricultural country, Belgium ranked as a mighty commercial 
locus; " that " while Liverpool was a tidal waste on the Mersey, Bruges 
Was the great port for the exportation of cloth and the importation of 
Wool, and furs, and spices; " that " while Manchester was a rural market 
town, Ghent was the center of the textile industries of Europe." It luider- 
stands, therefore, why Flemish art deals with commercial life, why the 
Belfry, the Cloth Hall, the Town Hall, the Exchange, are its great buildings, 
and why its pictiires are largely portraits of rich merchants. In Ghent 
it stood before the " Adoration of the Lamb " by Hubert and Jan van 
Eyek. the first great picture of the Flemish School, and in Bruges it had 
Its first vivid lesson in the history of the Netherlands in front of the tombs 

1 190 The Cornell Reading-Courses 

of Charles the Bold and his daughter, Mary of Burgundy. In Brussels 
it lived in the airy Upper Town, reveled in the Old Square, haunted the 
Cathedral of St. Gudule, traced the development of Flemish art frwn 
its beginning as seen in Bruges and Ghent. It has learned to appreciate 

the sayii^, " AU the I 
Dutch tovQs are I 
amphibious, but I 
some are more . 
watery than others," ! 
and mi^ht chuckle ' 
over anecdotes 
illustrative of Dutdi 
cleanliness and of the 
masterful ways of 
the earlier Dutch 

The dub has join- 
ed the gossips on the 
Lange Pooten at The 
Hague and has 
learned that the foot- 
board of the stcaiB 
tram in Holland is 
as satisfactory to the 
si^ht-seer as is the 
London "bus" or 
the New York Fifth 
Avenue motor- 
coach. It has 
traveled from Ley- 
den to 
April — thetulij , 

, „ , , season — "througtl 

Fig. 6..-^ portraU by Rembrandt ^^^ ^^ ^^^ „ ^J 

color of the rich blossoms, and has driven out from the latter city over the 
dunes that stretch to the North Sea. It has visited Naarden and Muiden, 
medieval and still surrounded by moats and fortifications, and it has been on 
the wide sands at Scheveningen, where Dutch costumes are seen at their best. 
Above all, the club has been invited by both Belgium and Holland to 
an acquaintance with great artists, such masters as Memlii^, Jan van 
Eyck, the founder of the Flemish School, Jan Steen, and Rembrandt. 

Cornell Study Clubs 


Travel by stay-at-homes has some advantages. Such travelers are 

:ver seasick nor homesick. They never 

liss boat or train. They lose no lug- 

^e. They sleep well o'nights, in 

nnfortable beds. They may change 

le season at will, skate on a frozen 

mal to-day and sail between tulip 

elds bordering the same waterway to- 

lorrow. They have many of the 

elights of travel with none of its 

itigue. The club is not tired. Whither 

way now? Let it be to Paris, where 

he old lie de la Cit^ is Uving history 

ind the Louvre will change the club's 

ntroduction to the old masters into j 

vith them; 
loliday. / 

Fig. 62. — A Dutch vindmiU 
more intimate acquaintance 
where, too, the meny modem world invites one to make 

Pic 63, — Paris, a glimpse qf iht Seine 

X192 The Corkell Reading-Courses 


Ada E. Georgia 
A season's bird study 

Winter is a good time to begin the study of birds. Their numbers are 
not then so great as to be confusing to the learner; they are not, as a nilc, 
so shy and difficult to approach as at other seasons, when family cares 
make them secretive and doubtful of man's friendship. They endure 
the unkind season,. too, with such sturdiness that our admiration goes cut 
to the " scraps of valor that just for play front the north wind." 

A study dub desiring to make the acquaintance of the winter birds 
should let them know the fact, advertising it by many and repeated 
invitations to breakfast, dine, and sup at the club's expense. Scraps 0: 
suet, pork or bacon rinds, tied or wired to the limbs of trees; hayseed, 
grain, or the crumbs from the table, scattered in some sheltered spot for 
the seed-eaters — such food will draw the birds to partake of its bounty 
and will give the club a chance to learn their names and appearance and 
to study their ways. 

But there are other winter birds of great economic importance, with 
which only chance is likely to bring about an acquaintance, such as the 
hawks and the owls, or such rare visitants from the North as the longspurs 
and the crossbills. A good plan for study is to prepare a list of such birds 
as may be abroad in the season of snow and cold weather, and then by 
diligent observation seek to know them personally. 

The following is a list of the winter birds most likely to be. met in fidd 
and wood and by the roadside: 

Downy and hairy and red-headed woodpeckers, chickadees, and nut- 
hatches, who will come to the suet feast, where perhaps the blue jay and 
the crow will join them; flocks of juncos, sometimes called the slate-colored 
snowbirds, who drop down in fence comers and along roadsides to cleac 
seeds from neglected weeds; the rarer snow buntings and tree sparrows, 
driven southward by the severity of the weather; song sparrows singing 
as bravely as in June; goldfinches, dressed in sparrow-like brown instead 
of in black-and-gold, but always to be identified by their dipping, undu- 
lating flight; cedar birds, particularly if there are berry-bearing shrubs 
about; dainty redpolls, hardly as big as one's thumb yet preferring arctic 
weather and driven southward only by snow so deep as to bury the seed- 
bearing weeds and plants on which they depend for food; pine grosbeaks, 

Note.— In tome inftances men and women in the community have a club for study of both farm ukI 
household subjects, or the women vary their programs with subjects pertaining to the ont-of-<)oo.'& 
With this fact in mind we are giving material that will aid in the making of a program, and are ofloiah 
direcUon for home reading on birds and trees, the soil and gardening.— -Editor. 

CoRNBLi. Study Clubs 

the males dressed in rusty red, as are also those other strange viators 
from the North, the crossbills. The latter are always seen in evergreen 


I*IG, 64. — Everpeens and crow caws 

trees, where their queer 
bent and crossed beaks 
prove to be the best 
tools in the world for 
the opening of cones and 
the securing of the seeds 
they hold. 

Perhaps, when the club 
is afield sometime, there 
may be seen at the foot 
of a hollow tree or stump 
some curious egg- 
shaped gray masses, 
looking like wads of felt. 
These are owl-casts and 
are made up largely of 
the bones and fur of 
field-mice, whose toll of 
the farmers' grain is 
thereby much diminish- 
ed, for owls have big 
appetites. There are a 
number of the family 
who are regular winter 
residents and all are 
worthy of friendly con- 
sideration, even the hoot 
owl and the great homed 
s eiisily come by. Poultry 

owl preferring rabbits to fowls when they are 
houses at night should be proof against such visitors. As for the bam 
owl, the screech owl, and the little saw-whet, or Acadian owl, the fanner 
who destroys such aUies against his enemies makes a grave mistake. 

iic)4 The Corkell Reading-Coursbs 

It win be notioed that, though they grat^ully accept the txnuity d 
seed or of suet, none of the winter birds ever neglect their tegular budites 
c£ gatheringthe wild seeds or (^ searching the crannies of thetre« tninki; 
for the eggs and the larvse of insect pests, which if allowed to incrcasl 

would become iw 
destroyers of tk 

A small Hbrarv d 
bird books for the nx 
of a study dab is a 
much-needed help. 
and when expense is a 
conaderatioii it should 
be remembered tlu: 
Uncle Sam has care- 
fully studied the bird 
question from tht 
standpoint of econom- 
ics and is willing » 
give the result of Ms 
investigations free ot 
to sell them for the' 
mere cost of the paper 
cm which they are 
printed. A letter to 
the Representative d 
the Congressional Di> 
trict or to the Divi- 
sion of Publications. 
Department of Agri- 
culture, Washingtfflu 
D. C, will obtaia 
bulletins of great 
?iG.6s.— Kest of WihonArush valued Circulars i 

and 3 of this diviacc 
are lists of publications for free distribution aiul of publications for saie- 
Many of the latter are wcnth many times their cost to the nature student, 
particularly the circulars oi the Bureau of Biological Survey and of the 
Bureau of Entomology. 

One of the most instructive bird books published is " Useful birds and 
their protection " by Edward H. Forbush, issued by the Massachusetis 
State Board of Agriculture. Nonresidents of that favored State must 

CoRNBLL Study Clubs 1195 

y SL dollar for the book, plus postage of thirty-six cents; but it is worth 
ich more than that, for it is a thick, well-bound octavo voliune, 
autifully illustrated. 

Other bird tx)oks are so many and so excellent that it is difficult to make 
dioioe among them. Perhaps the best for a beginner is " Bird neigh- 
Ts " by Nelt je Bkmchan, published by Doubleday, Page & Co. ;its descrip- 
ms are clear and its colored plates are very helpful in identification. Chap- 
an's " Bird life " is more advanced, accurate, scientific, and alsoilltis- 
ated in colors; it is published by D. Appleton & Co., New York. Hoff- 
an's " Giiide to the birds of New England " is equally suited to the 
titude of New York State and has the advantage of being small enough 
> be carried afield for reference. A small " Bird guide " of the land 
irds east of the Rocky Mountains is published by Charles K. Reed of 
?'orcester, Mass. 
The appended subjects are such as might be of interest to study in 
onnectioii with the observations made at first hand during the season 
ind to discuss at meetings of the dub. 

Small birds known to be resident in ike vicinity during the winter 

\ Their food and where it is obtained. 

2 Adaptations of structure, that help in securing food : shapes of beaks, 

tail feathers, position of toes, extensile tongues. 

3 Color marldngs; distinguishing of sexes. 

4 Does it pay to attract the resident birds by placing food for them in 

safe places? 

5 Birds have keen appetites and swift digestion; it is safe to say that 

every woodpecker, nuthatch, or brown creeper needs at least a half- 
ounce of food daily in order to sustain life. Putting the low estimate 
of but a half-dozen of these birds to the square mile, compute the 
amount of noxious insect larvae and eggs destroyed during the months 
of December, January, February, and March in the 47,000 sqxiare 
miles of New York State. Answer in pounds or in tons. Make the 
same computation as to the weed seeds that the ground-feeding 
birds destroy. 

List of birds likely to be found resident: 

{Hairy Brown creepers Crows 

Downy Nuthatches Blue jays 

Red-headed Chickadees Goldfinches 

English sparrows Cedar birds Golden-crowned 

Song sparrows Prairie homed larks kinglets 

White-throated sparrows Jtincos 

1 196 

The Cornell Reading-Courses 

Birds of prey resident in the vicinity 

1 What can be learned about the food of birds of prey? 

2 What are the structural adaptations indicating that their food consbts 

of creatures captured alive? (In this connection the speed ad 
silence of their flight should be remarked; there is no whirr of wings 
from the swooping owl or hawk). 

3 Aside from the occasional robbery of the poultry jrard, do these birds 

destroy many creatures of economic value to the agriculturist? Are 
different species of these birds of varying economic value to the farmer? 

4 Habits of seclusion when not seeking food. 

5 Field mice devour an immense quantity of grain and grass seed and 

roots of plants; rats add to these depredations a heavy toll from bins 
and stacks; weasels are the pests of chicken coops and yards; rabbit 
are most destructive of green crops, nursery stock, and yoimg orchards— 
and all these animals are excessively prolific. If only one of these 
creatures is killed each day of the year for each square mile of New 
York State, how many millions will be the total? What might 
conditions be were they allowed to live and increase? 

List of birds likely to be found resident: 
Sharp-shinned hawk 

Hawks " 

Cooper's hawk 
American goshawk 
Red-shouldered hawk 
Red-tailed hawk 
Great duck hawk, or 
peregrine falcon 
In some localities the bald eagle 


Bam owl 

Screech owl 

Long-eared owl 

Hoot owl 

Acadian, great gray, and 

snowy owls from ihe 


Visitants from the North 

1 Conditions that force the birds to change of place. 

2 Are these birds usually gregarious or solitary? 

3 Observations on feeding habits. 

4 Color markings; distinction of sexes. 

5 In what wajrs may it redound to the prosperity of our own countn' to 

protect and preserve these birds while they are our guests? 
List of northern birds often seen in New York State: 

Snow bimtings Lapland longspurs Red-breasted nuthatches 

Evening grosbeaks Golden-crowned king- Tufted titmice 

Northern shrikes 

Pine grosbeaks 
Pine siskins 

Greater redpolls 

Cornell Study Clubs 1197 

Birds usually migratory but occasionally resident in New York 

1 Local conditions that may have induced the braving of winter. 

2 Does it pay to encourage the birds to brave the season, by furnishing 

shelter and abundant food? 
I Observations as to whether it is the whole family that remains, or only 
iinmated males. 

4 What changes in feeding habits are the birds obliged to make in order 

to survive the season? 

5 To what dangers beside cold are the birds exposed? 

List of migratory birds of which some are resident in winter: 

Robins Purple finches Shore larks 

Bluebirds (more Meadow larks Chipping sparrows 

rarely) Flickers Seaside sparrows 

Song sparrows Myrtle warblers Ruby-crowned kinglets 

Swamp sparrows Rtisty blackbirds 

Bird migrations 

1 What can be learned concerning the reason or the necessity for migration ? 

Of the extent of the migrating flight? 

2 Which birds are the earliest migrants? the latest? What is the season 

of most abundant passage? 

3 Cor^ideration of the perils to which birds are exposed during rnigration. 

4 When migrating, do the birds fly by night or by day? At what hour 

of the twenty-four can the flight of birds of passage best be observed? 

5 What evidence has been collected that birds return to ** the old home- 

stead," and do not merely go south or north? 

Laws of the various States for the protection of useful birds 

1 Annoyance and injustice wrought by lack of uniformity. 

2 Work done by Audubon societies. 

3 Bird enemies that should be suppressed by law but are not. Ought a 

bird-killing cat to have more liberty than a sheep-killing dog? 

4 The training of children to realize the value of birds and to respect 

the protective laws. 

5 Has 1>be cotmtry suffered an economic loss in the complete or partial 

extinction of such birds as the passenger pigeon and the fast dis- 
appearing wild turkey? If so, what can be done to restore their 


1198 Thb Cornell Reading-Courses 

Mating ami home buUding 
I Birds are ardent wooers; does the female seem to have entire freedcr. 

Fig. 66.— E|(j of Uiubird in Die ntst of an the young and their parents; tin* 

tad appU-iTtt reqiiired to put on adult plumage. 

S If but one pair of each species studied nested in each square mile of 

New York State, and reared the usual brood of four or five nestlings, 

Cornell Study Clubs 1199 

what would be the number o£ the multitude of his feathered bene- 
factors suTTOundii^ man? And what must be the vicissitudes of 
bird life to cause the present constant dbnjnishment of their numbers! 

Birds 0/ the dusk, other than ovds 
Whippoorwills and nighthawks; appearance, habits. 
Their food and how obtained. 
What is known of their nesting habits; number of young. 

FlO. 67. — Family of young chipping sparrows 

4 Are these birds economically valuable to man? Are they in any way 


5 Enemies: are the birds increasing or diminishing in numbers? 

Birds as planters 
1 Seeds most disseminated by birds and how scattered. 
1 Are birds sometimes responsible for the spread of new weeds or of 
noxious plants such as poison ivy? 

3 Are birds pests in grainfields and in meadows ? 

4 What is the explanation of the thickets of wild cherry, thorn apple, 

sassafras, bittersweet, and woodbine, which spring up along old 

I200 Thb Cornell Reading-Courses 

5 Squirrels captured by owls and hawks leave hoards of nuts uneatci; 
jays tuck away chestnuts and acorns in secret places, and are kilb: 
for their lovely plumage: suppose a dozen cases of this kind occur 
in a year on each square mile of the territory of New York, wbat 
would be the amount of such forestry? 

Birds (IS food for man 

1 What birds of the vicinity are on the game list? 

2 Food habits of game birds; their fecundity. 

3 Query: In which capacity is" Bob White "of most value rasa destroyer 

of potato bugs and grasshoppers, or as a titbit for the table? 

4 Responsibility of the agriculturists in any locality in seeing that the 

close season is respected. 

5 Would it be a profitable proceeding on the part of agriculturists to pro- 

vide food supplies and shelters of berry-bearing shrubs for these 
birds, in order to mitigate their winter hardships? 

Autumn migration 

1 Species of birds among earliest migrants; reasons. 

2 Are there assemblies and concerted action at the beginning of the 

trip, or does each family start off alone? 

3 Are there regular lines of travel, or is there only a general southern 

trend? How extensive are the journeys? 

4 Are the flocks greatly augmented after their arrival. in spring, or does 

the natural increase merely serve to hold the balance even against 
the perils of bird life? 

5 So far as known, do any of oiu" migrant birds nest and rear young during 

their southern sojourning? 


Bulletin 12 of the Bureau of Biological Stu^ey, Department of Agri- 
culture, Washington, D. C, is on ** Legislation for the protection of birds 
other than game birds"; 92 pages; price, 10 cents. Bulletin 28 of the 
same bureau is on game commissioners and wardens, their apf)ointments, 
powers, and duties; 285 pages; price 35 cents. Farmers* Bulletin 376 
contains game laws for 1909; a summary of the provisions relating to 
seasons, shipments, sale, limits, and licenses; 56 pages; distribution free. 
Information as to work done by Audubon societies may be obtained by 
addressing the National Association Headquarters, 141 Broadway, New 

Cornell Study Clubs 1201 

^^arbooh reprints: 

37 Part 2. The meadow lark and Baltimore oriole 

66 The blue jay and its food 

133 Danger of introducing noxious animals and birds 
194 The food of nestling birds 
197 How birds affect the orchard 

247 Two vanishing game birds — the woodcock and the wood duck 
443 Does it* pay the farmer to protect birds? 
486 The relations between birds and insects 
504 Plants tiseftd to attract birds and protect fruit 
545 The migratory movement of birds in relation to the weather 


" And out of ike ground made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant 
to the sight, and good Jor food; the tree oj life also in the midst of the garden, 
and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.*' 

Winter is a good time to begin to get acquainted with the trees. Their 
characteristic outlines and manner of growth can best be observed when not 
obscured by their covering of leaves. It is the best time, too, to note the 
differing color of trunk, branches, and twigs; the shape, color, and arrange- 
ment of the leaf and flower buds, which, though they will not tmfold imtil 
next spjring, were all formed during the last summer. Even though unskilled 
with the pencil, the attempt to reproduce what one sees helps to fix it 
in the memory, and it is well to try to make drawings showing the relation 
of trunk and branches, whether springing upward in a tapering shaft 
OT^ forking into an open and wide-spreading head. Draw also the buds, 
showing, if possible, how the protecting scales are arranged. The leaf 
scars, too, are characteristic; they are to be seen most plainly in early 
winter when the leaves have lately fallen, and to try to draw them helps 
one to remember their form. 

Winter is a good time, too, to study the history of trees from an economic 
point of view: to find out, if possible, all the industries in which wood of 
certain species is used; or the bark or leaves, as in tanning: or the pliant 
twigs, as in the basket-willow industry ; or whether the fruit only is valuab*'* 
It is a good time to make special studies, as of sugar-making in connec- 
tion with the maple tree; of the nut bearers and their economic value; 
of the special fitness of some woods for particular purposes, such as the 
very hard, strong, yet light-weight wood of the black walnut, which has 
caused it to be tiuned into rifle stocks for the armies of the world. Pro- 
cure, if possible, a piece of the wood of each tree studied, in lengthwise 

I202 l^B Cornell kBADiNG-CouRSBS 

and in crosswise sections, showing its grain and color in the natural 
state as well as when oiled and polished in a manufactured form. 

It is best to begin with the study of a tree with which we belie^-c 
ourselves already familiar. One cannot " look a bit " and then go away 
and forget, if one would really know a tree. The study calls for an inti- 
mate love and an almost daily questioning. At any hour some secret 
of its ways may be revealed: when the buds begin to swell; whether a 
bud develops into blossom or leaf; whether the leaves or blossoms firs: 
appear; whether the flowers axe perfect, or the staminate or poUen-bearing 
flowers grow on one part of the tree and the pistillate or seed-bearing 
flowers on another part or even on another tree; whether the pollen is 
scattered by the wind or carried by insects, and, if the latter, the dis- 
covery of the insects to which it is most indebted. 

The tmfolding of the leaves is a wonderful thing, and the attempt to 
draw them in different stages of development is a fascinating study. 
So, too, is their arrangement with reference to the light when fully unfolded; 
in order to appreciate this fact, a tree should be studied from above and 
from below; one can then understand why the beech yields so slowly to 
the penetration of the rain and is better shelter from sun and shower 
than is the thickest evergreen. 

The study of the formation and growth of the fruit is equally interesting. 
If possible, successive drawings shoidd be made, showing development 
and position of the fruit, whether growing on new wood or on twigs of 
the previous season, how it is wrapped to protect it from cold weather 
or from other harm. Note the period of ripening and the manner of seed 

Observe and chronicle the habits of different species of trees in the 
doffing of their apparel in the auttunn as well as in its donning in the 
spring: the characteristic coloring of the leaves in their ripening process 
and whether their fall is early or late, gradual or swift. 

One cannot study a tree without observing the bird life that it shelters; 
the harmftd insect life from which it needs to be protected by its human 
friends as well as by its bird neighbors; the beneficial insects that prey 
on its enemies and that need to become better known and protected. 

One should learn something also of the physical composition and the 
powers of tl:e tree : of its ability to temper the torrid heat of simimer by the 
transpiration and evaporation of the tons of water drawn from the depths 
of the soil by its feeding roots and lifted to its green-leaf laboratories ; of the 
work going on in those laboratories — for it is here, in the green substance 
of its leaves, that the food taken from the soil is combined with that drawn 
from the air and, with the help of the heat and light given by the sun, 
is changed to the starchy form in which alone it can be assimilated and 

Cornell Study Clubs 1203 

used in the making of new growth. By this yearly miracle, taking place 
in the green leaves of trees and of all other growing plants, the world is 
sheltered, fed, and clothed. Many are the gifts it brings, and finally 
it yields its very substanee to man for the many uses that experience has 
taught him. If continual benefits are an indication, a tree is a true 

Appearance of trees in winter 

1 General outlines : whether the bole extends to the top of the tree or forks 

into an open and spreading head; if the latter, is the head of a rotmded 
outline, or a long oval, or largest at upper or lower part? 

2 The bark: whether smooth or rough, light or dark, or blotched with 

different colors. If rough, are the ridges and furrows far apart or 
close together, vertical or apparently diagonal? Or is the bark 
broken into small ragged plates or scales, or long t